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BSSPAR1: Chapter 3

Idle Mode Operation

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Module Objectives
List the functions of the MS during the idle mode
Explain the parameters used for PLMN selection, cell selection and cell
reselection

State the purpose of location updates and the associated parameters

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IIdle Mode Operation


When?
When the MS is switched ON
When there is no dedicated connection

MS switched ON

Why?
To camp on the best suitable cell

Search RF channels
to find BCCH carrier

Why to camp on a specific cell?


For MS to receive system info from the NW on DL
For MS to be able to initiate a call whenever needed
For the NW to be able to locate the MS when there is a MT
call/SMS

Idle Mode Tasks


PLMN selection
Cell selection & re-selection
Location updates

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Check that the PLMN


& cell is allowed

MS camps on
the best
suitable cell

See slide 10 for detail

Camping on a cell: Motivation

manual mode

indication
to user

NAS control

radio
measurements

CM requests

PLMN
selected

registration
cell selection
and reselection area changes

PLMN selection
and reselection
PLMN
available
automatic mode

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location
registration
location
registration
response

IDs and ID Codes


Value

Parameter
LAI (locationAreaId)
MCC (Mobile Country Code)
MNC (Mobile Network Code)
LAC (Location Area Code)

0 999
0 99,
0 999 (optional 3-digit MNC)
1 65533

BSIC (bsIdentityCode)
NCC (Network Colour Code)
BCC (BTS Colour Code)

07
07

CI (cell-ID

0 65535

TSC (trainingSequenceCode)

07

CGI (Cell Global Identity)

MCC + MNC + LAC + CI

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PLMN Selection
in automatic PLMN selection operation mode

Switch on
Last registered
PLMN or equivalent
PLMN

Home PLMN

User controlled
PLMN list

Timer T
often called HPLMN Search Timer
6 .. 480 minutes
Default: 60 minutes

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Operator controlled
PLMN list

Other PLMNs with


RATs the MS is
capable of

States and State Transition for Cell Selection


go here whenever a
new PLMN is selected
2

no BA list stored
for PLMN

no suitable cell found

Normal
cell selection
no suitable
cell found

suitable cell found

Choose cell
return
to idle
mode
Connected
mode
no
suitable
cell
found
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BA list stored
for PLMN

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suitable cell found

leave
idle
mode

Stored list
cell selection

suitable cell found

trigger
Normal
cell re-selection

Camped
normally
Suitable cell
re-selected

no suitable
cell found

IMSI unknown
Illegal MS
PLMN not allowed
2

(adopted from TS 43.022 V5.1.0 chap. 6)

States and State Transition for Cell Selection

go here when no SIM in MS

no suitable
cell found

Choose cell
return
to idle
mode
Connected mode
(emergency call
only)

Any cell
selection

suitable cell found

leave
idle
mode

Camped
on
any cell

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no suitable
cell found

cell found

trigger
cell
re-selected

Any
cell reselection

cell found
on selected
PLMN

(adopted from TS 43.022 V5.1.0 cha

2
9

SIM inserted in MS

Normal Cell Selection


Search all the RF channels, take samples during
3-5 s and calculate averages. And put them in
ascending order with respect to signal level.
Then tune to the strongest RF channel.

Search for the frequency correction burst in that


carrier in order to verify if it is a BCCH carrier

No

Is it a BCCH
carrier?
Yes

Try to synchronize to the carrier and read


the BCCH data

No

Is it a correct
PLMN ?
Yes

Yes

Is the cell barred?


No
Is C1>0
Yes
Camp on the cell
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No

Tune to the next highest


RF channel which is not
tried before

Pathloss Criterion C1 for Cell


Selection and Reselection (m)

TXP1 (800/900) 5.39dBm


TXP2 (1800 0.36dBm
TXP2 (1900) 0.32dBm & 33 dBm
Step 2 dBm
Default(900): 33dBm

C1 = A max(B,0)
= RLA_C RXLEV_ACCESS_MIN max(MS_TXPWR_MAX_CCH P , 0)
RLA_C = avg received RxLev on BCCH
P = MS max output power

I am
outside

I am inside, but
have not enough
power

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(RXP) -110..-47
dBm Step 1 dBm
Default:-105dBm

Cell Selection with C1 (m)


In case the neighbouring cells belong to different Location Area, a hysteresis is
applied with C1 criteria
minimizing ping-pong cell reselections
cellReselectHysteresis (HYS)(SEG) (014 dB) Step 2 dB, Default:4dB

Cell1

Cell2

LAC1

LAC2

C1 ( Cell1)

C1 (Cell2)

A= 4 dB
B= 6 dB
C= 8 dB

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Pathloss Criterion C2 (m)


(REO) (SEG)
0 .. 126 dB
step size: 2 dB
C2 =

(TEO) (SEG)
0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50,
60, dB

(PET) (SEG)
20 .. 640 s
step size: 20 s

C1 + CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET TEMPORARY OFFSET * H(PENALTY_TIME - T)


for PENALTY_TIME 640 s
C1 - CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
for PENALTY_TIME = 640 s
C2

no TEMPORARY OFFSET
C1

serving cell:
C2:
List of 6
strongest
carriers:
C2:
C2:
C2:
C2:
C2:
C2:

new candidate
= former serving
cell

CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET
T
C2
C1
CELL_RESELECT_OFFSET

new candidate
= formerly nonserving cell

TEMPORARY OFFSET
PENALTY_TIME

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Cell Reselection Based on Pathloss


Criterion C2
C2
cell 1

cell reselection &


location update

cell
reselection

cell 3

cell 2

CELL_RESELECT_
HYSTERESIS (HYS)

5 seconds
LAC = A
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time

5 seconds
LAC = B

Cell Reselection Based on Pathloss


Criterion C2

Road

Macro 900 "C"

C1

Micro 900 "D"

Macro 1800 "B"

C2

Macro 900 "A"

Parameters

=30

Cell "A" (Serving Cell)

=25

Cell "B"

=5

Cell "C"

=50

Cell "D"

C2 = C1 + cellReselectOffset temporaryOffset*H(penaltyTime-T)
=30 + 0 (H(x)=0, serving cell)

Cell "A"

=25 + 20 - 30*H(20 - T)

Cell "B"

=5 + 0 - 0*H(20 - T)

Cell "C"

=50 + 0 - 30*H(40 - T)

Cell "D"

Cell "A"

Cell "B"

Cell "C"

Cell "D"

cellReselectOffset

0 dB

20 dB

0 dB

0 dB

temporaryOffset

0 dB

30 dB

0 dB

30 dB

penaltyTime

20 s

20 s

20 s

40 s

Time T: (0 - 19 s)

Time T: (20 - 39 s)

Time T: (> 40 s)

C2 =30

Cell "A"

C2 =30

Cell "A"

C2 =30

Cell "A"

C2 =15

Cell "B"

C2 =45

Cell "B"

C2 =45

Cell "B"

C2 =5

Cell "C"

C2 =5

Cell "C"

C2 =5

Cell "C"

C2 =20

Cell "D"

C2 =20

Cell "D"

C2 =50

Cell "D"

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Cell Reselection Events (m)


Pathloss Criterion C1
C1 0 for a period of 5 s

Pathloss Criterion C2
neighbours C2 value >
current cells C2 value (same LA)
neighbours C2 value >
current cells C2 value + HYS
(new LA)
for a period of 5 s.

Authentication Failure
notification by upper layers

Cell has been barred


CELL_BAR_ACCESS (BAR)(SEG) &
CELL_BAR_QUALIFY (QUA) (SEG)

RACH Failure
MAX RETRANS + 1 times

Downlink Signalling Failure


DSC 0

When shall I
select a new cell?

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DL Signalling Failure
90
BS_PA_MFRMS

DSCinit := round

MS

DSC := DSCinit

BTS
2..9 multiframe periods

yes

paging
message successfully
decoded?

no

DSC := DSC - 4

DSC := min (DSC+1, DSCinit)

no

DSC 0
yes

DSC = Downlink Signalling failure Counter

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Downlink radio link


failure detected!

Cell
Update

Location Update Procedure


MS

BSS

MSC

VLR

HLR

LOCATION UPDATE REQUEST

REQUEST SUBSCRIBER ID

SEND SUBSCRIBER ID
REQUEST SUBSCRIBER INFO

SEND SUBSCRIBER INFO


AUTHENTICATION

AUTHENTICATION RESPONSE
ALL OK - HLR UPDATE

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Trade-off between Location Update and


Paging Traffic
signalling
traffic

function of user density,


cell size, call arrival rate ...

function of
user mobility

Paging

LocUp
optimum number
of cells in Loc. area

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# of cells in Loc. area

Location Updates (m)


MS location & status flag => MSC / VLR
Mobile Station switched ON mode

IMSI Attach / Detach


Same Location Area => No Location Update
Different Location Area => Location Update

Change of the Location Area

Location Area under the same MSC / VLR


Location Area under another MSC / VLR => HLR will be updated

Service is rejected (MS unknown in VLR)


Time-Periodic LU (MS -> MSC/VLR)

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MO
Class

Abbreviated
Name

BTS
SEG

allowIMSIAtt
achDetach

Yes/No

Defines whether IMSI attach/detach is used in the cell.

Yes

ATT

BTS SEG

timerPeriodic
UpdateMs

0...25.5 h,
step 0.1 h

Defines the interval between periodic MS location


updates.
The value 0 means that the periodic location update is
not used.

0.5 h

PER

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Range And
Step

Description

Default
value

BSC MML
Name

LU and VLR Cleaning

MS Makes the last


contact with network
(MOC, MTC, SMS). If
MS makes a IMSI
DETACH, the loitering
time starts

MS does not
make a
periodic LU.
MS still kept
Attached in
VLR.

MS does not
make a
periodic LU.
MS still kept
Attached in
VLR.

MS Has not made a


periodic LU till now.
DETACH flag set.
No more paging for
the MS; Loitering
time starts

MS Data cleaned up from


VLR after Loitering time
ends. In case the VLR
cleaning time occurs
before this time, the MS
data is cleaned earlier

Time

12 12.5

BSS (BTS) parameter (ZEQO)


TIMER PERIODIC UPDATE MS

6 HRS

VLR Parameters (ZMXO)


IMPLICIT IMSI DETACH
IMPLICIT DEREGISTRATION
LOITERING
VLR CLEANING START TIME

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USED
012 HRS. 30 MIN
00 DAYS 13 HRS
04:12

25.5