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.c World Scientic Publishing Company

NONLINEAR VIBRATION FEATURES

by UNIVERSITY OF IOWA on 03/13/15. For personal use only.

School of Civil and Resource Engineering

The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway

Crawley, WA 6009, Australia

*zhu@civil.uwa.edu.au

y

hao@civil.uwa.edu.au

Received 8 January 2008

Accepted 10 November 2008

Studied herein are the signatures of nonlinear vibration characteristics of damaged reinforced

concrete structures using the wavelet transform (WT). A two-span RC slab built in 2003 was

tested to failure in the laboratory. Vibration measurements were carried out at various stages of

structural damage. The vibration frequencies, mode shapes, and damping ratios at each loading

stage were extracted and analyzed. It is found that the vibration frequencies are not sensitive to

small damages, but are good indicators when damage is severe. The dynamic responses are also

analyzed in the timefrequency domain by WT and the skeleton curve is constructed to describe

the nonlinear characteristics in the reinforced concrete structures. The results show that the

skeleton curves are good indicators of damage in the reinforced concrete structures because they

are more sensitive to small damages than vibration frequencies.

Keywords: Damage detection; vibration test; two-span RC slab; nonlinear.

1. Introduction

Structural damage detection and health monitoring has become a very popular

research topic in recent years. Many research studies have been conducted on using

the change in the structural vibration properties for damage detection. Comprehensive literature reviews on this topic are presented by Doebling et al.,1 Sohn et al.,2

Carden and Fanning,3 and Brownjohn.4 Civil engineering structures may be subjected to aging deterioration and they may be damaged due to overloading, impact,

man-made or natural disasters, such as blasting, tornados, and earthquakes. Detection of damage immediately after an extreme event can help engineers assess the

condition of the structure and make a decision regarding the need for retrotting or

replacing the damaged structure.

The occurrence of damage modies the vibration characteristics of structures, such

as natural frequencies, modal damping ratios, and mode shapes. However, the natural

687

by UNIVERSITY OF IOWA on 03/13/15. For personal use only.

688

frequencies and mode shapes are not necessarily good indicators of damage because

vibration frequencies are often not sensitive to small damages, and it needs a large

number of measurements to characterize the mode shapes accurately. Moreover, most

methods require the preventive knowledge of the dynamic characteristics of the

undamaged structure. It is also necessary to remove the eects of environmental

factors such as temperature and humidity from the damage detection method.5

In contrast to the vast quantity of work reported on linear damage detection

techniques, little has been done to investigate the nonlinear time-dependent vibration

properties of civil engineering structures. Since reinforced concrete structures are

nonlinear in behavior, important information is lost when a linear assumption is

made in the dynamic analysis. Kato and Shimada6 presented the vibration

measurement on an existing prestressed concrete bridge deck during its progressive

failure test. The decrement of natural frequency was small even if cracks occurred

while the prestressed steel wires were in the elastic state. The cracks of concrete were

closed together by the eective prestressing after the load was removed. Eccles et al.7

presented the phase-plane plot generated by exciting the beam at a natural frequency

with constant excitation energy. The degree to which the plot deviates from a circle is

a measure of the nonlinearity of the system, and the absolute change in the natural

frequencies was used as a damage indicator. Van Den Abeele and De Visscher8

performed both linear and nonlinear acoustical experiments on a reinforced concrete

beam. It was found that the vibration did not behave linearly even when the structure was undamaged. Once the beam was damaged using a four-point loading, the

nonlinearities became far more pronounced. Neild et al.9 presented four nonlinear

mechanisms of the damage for reinforced concrete beam under low-amplitude cyclic

vibration loads. They are the bilinear crack closure mechanism; mechanisms due to

the nonlinear behavior of concrete in compression; relative slip between the reinforcing bar and concrete on either side of the crack; and matrixaggregate interaction

over the crack surface. The nonlinear characteristics of the damaged concrete beams

under impact excitation were also studied using the short-time Fourier Transform.10

Law and Zhu11 studied the nonlinear characteristics of damaged reinforced concrete

bridge structures under moving vehicular loads. Chen et al.12 presented a new indicator based on the transient characteristics of nonlinear vibration for damage

detection in reinforced concrete beams. It was suggested by Surace and Ruotolo13

that the response of a cracked beam to an impulsive load can be considered as

nonstationary owing to the fact that the frequency component of the response signal

changes in time with the crack opening and closure. The nonstationary nature of

measured signals produced by structural damage suggests that the time-variant

procedure should be used to detect such damage. Zhu and Law14 studied the signatures of nonlinear characteristics in the vibration response of a reinforced concrete

beam with cracks using HilbertHuang transform. However, the empirical mode

decomposition (EMD) may run into diculties and each intrinsic mode function

(IMF) contains more than one natural frequency components.15

by UNIVERSITY OF IOWA on 03/13/15. For personal use only.

689

timefrequency multi-resolution analysis for nonstationary signals, the WT has

recently been demonstrated as a promising tool for system identication and damage

assessment of machinery and structures.16,17 The WT has the ability to decouple the

measured multi-component signal to mono-component signals in the form of complex-valued signature via the popular Morlet wavelet, and then the identication

scheme for single-degree-of-freedom (sdof) system can be implemented to extract the

modal parameters.1820 For a nonlinear system, the instantaneous damping coecient and the natural frequency of the system become functions of time. These

instantaneous characteristics can be obtained from the ridges and skeletons of the

WT.21,22 The natural frequency and damping coecient are often represented as

functions of the free vibration envelope. The graphical representation of vibration

behavior in the form of a function of natural frequency vs free vibration envelope is

called a backbone curve.23 The backbone curve and the signal envelope are extracted

based on the ridges and skeletons of the WT, which enables parameter estimation of

the nonlinear system.

This study focuses on the signatures of nonlinear characteristics in the vibration of

damaged reinforced concrete structures using wavelet analysis, and on investigating

the possibility of using changes in these characteristics for damage detection. A twospan RC slab built in 2003 was tested to failure. Vibration measurements were

carried out at various stages of structural damage. The dynamic responses were

analyzed in the timefrequency domain by WT and the skeleton curve was constructed to describe the nonlinear characteristics in the reinforced concrete structures. The results show that the skeleton curves were good indicators of damage in

the reinforced concrete structures. For comparison, the vibration frequencies, mode

shapes, and damping ratios were also extracted from the measured data. It is found

that they are not sensitive to small damages although they are good indicators when

damage is severe. It demonstrates that the skeleton curves are superior damage

indicators as compared to vibration frequencies because they are a lot more sensitive

to damage, especially when the damage is small.

2. Modal Parameter Identication

2.1. Theoretical background of wavelet transform

The WT of a signal x(t) is a time-scale decomposition obtained by dilating and

translating along the time axis using a chosen analyzing function. The continuous

WT of a square-integrable signal x(t), where t is time or space, is dened as24

Z 1

1

tb

W a; b xt a;b t p

xt

dt;

1

a

a 1

where denotes the convolution of two functions, a;b t is the son wavelet generated

by dilatation and translation from the mother wavelet t; a > 0; b 2 R; a is the

dilatation or scale parameter dening the support width of the son wavelet and b the

690

translation parameter localizing the son wavelet function in the time domain, t

the complex conjugate of t which is a mother wavelet satisfying the following

admissibility condition:

Z 1

j!j 2

d! < 1;

2

j!j

1

where ! is the Fourier transform of

requires that

by UNIVERSITY OF IOWA on 03/13/15. For personal use only.

0 0;

Z

i:e:

1

tdt 0:

There are dierent types of real- and complex-valued wavelet functions for various

purposes. One of the most widely used wavelet functions is the complex Morlet wavelet

due to its capacities in timefrequency localization for analytical signal. For a given

value of dilatation parameter, the spectrum of the Morlet wavelet has a xed bandwidth. If an analyzed frequency is high, the dilatation parameter is small, and the

spectrum of the Morlet wavelet function is wide, which then results in a bad spectral

resolution. One method to overcome this is to use the shifted Morlet wavelet. In this

study, the modied complex Morlet wavelet function is used and formulated as follows:

2

1

t p e j2fc t e t =fb ;

4

fb

where fb is the bandwidth parameter which controls the shape of the mother wavelet,

fc is the central wavelet frequency, and j is the imaginary unit. The wavelet lter

central frequency is f fc =a, which gives a relation between the scale parameter and

the central frequency of the modied Morlet wavelet.

The frequency localization is clearly seen when the WT is expressed in terms of the

Fourier transform

p Z 1

a

W a; b

X! a!e jwb d!;

5

2 1

where X! is the Fourier transform of the signal x(t) and a a!e j!b is the Fourier

transform of the son wavelet tb

a . The localization depends on the scale parameter

a. The WT is equivalent to a particular lter band analysis in which the relative

frequency bandwidth !=! are constant and related to the parameters a, b and the

frequency properties of the wavelet. The local resolution of the WT in time and

frequency is determined by the duration and bandwidth of analyzing functions given

by t at and f f =a, where t and f are the duration and bandwidth

of the basic wavelet function.

2.2. Modal parameter identication using wavelet

Considering a linearly damped multi-degree-of-freedom (mdof) system with n real

modes, its free decay response is given by

n

X

xt

Ai e 2 i fi t cos2fdi t i ;

6

i1

691

ratio, and phase angle of the

p

ith mode. Ai is the amplitude of the ith mode. fdi 1 2i fi is the damped natural

frequency. The analytic signal corresponding to this real signal x(t) is dened as

zt xt jHxt;

where Hxt is the Hilbert transform of x(t):

Z

1 1

1

Hxt

d:

x

1

t

by UNIVERSITY OF IOWA on 03/13/15. For personal use only.

By substituting Eq. (6) into Eq. (7), the complex signal is given by

zt

n

X

i1

Ai Bi te ji t

n

X

i1

of the signal varies much faster than the amplitude.

By the Morlet WT, the wavelet coecients of the free decay signal are given by

Refs. 19 and 20.

p X

2

2

a n

W a; b

Ai Bi be fb afi fc e ji b :

10

2 i1

The WT is a signal decomposition procedure working as a lter in the time

frequency domain. Thus, a mdof system can be decoupled into a series of sdof sys2

2

tems. For a xed value of the scale parameter a ai , the term e fb afi fc obtains

its maximum value at ai fc =fi . In such cases, only the mode i related to the scale ai

gives a signicant contribution to Eq. (10), while the other n 1 modes appear to

be negligible. For the ith mode, it becomes

p

ai

W ai ; b

Ai Bi be ji b :

11

2

From Eq. (11), we have the modulus and phase of the wavelet representation. By

applying the logarithm, we obtain

8

p

p

ai

ai

>

< ln jW ai ; bj ln jBi bj ln

Ai 2 i fi b ln

Ai ;

2

2

12

>

:

ArgW ai ; b i b 2fdi b i :

From Eq. (12), the natural frequency and damping ratio are given by

8

s

>

d ln jW ai ; b 2

dArgW ai ; b 2

>

>

>

2;

< fi

db

db

>

>

d ln jW ai ; bj

>

>

2fi :

: i

db

13

692

In Eq. (13), the natural frequency and damping ratio are computed at the corresponding time instant. It is used to estimate the instantaneous frequency and

damping in this study. The windowing process by the mother wavelet when the

transform is computed at the corresponding time instant causes errors of envelope

extraction at the beginning and the end of the signal owing to the edge eect. This

error can be reduced by selecting a narrow bandwidth parameter of the mother

wavelet.

by UNIVERSITY OF IOWA on 03/13/15. For personal use only.

3. Experimental Setup

3.1. Two-span reinforced concrete slab

The constructed slab measures 6400 mm 800 mm 100 mm with 3000 mm spans

and 200 mm overhang on each end, as shown in Fig. 1. The slab rested on wooden

planks placed over three steel UB sections. Grade 32 concrete was chosen, with

20 mm aggregate and 80 mm slump. N6 reinforcing bar was chosen for both positive

and negative reinforcements, with 20 mm cover to meet the required environmental

exposure classication. The slab was designed according to the moment redistribution method with 11 N6 bars at 75 mm centers for both positive and negative

reinforcement. Metal plates of 6 mm thick were built into the slab over the supports

to prevent localized damage. The slab was covered in plastic the following day after

pouring the concrete and then the formwork was stripped after 14 days in compliance

with the code requirement stated in AS36610 clause 19.6.2.5. Cylinders for the slab

were tested after 28 days and had an average compressive strength of 40.2 MPa. The

Young's modulus of the slab is 3:3 10 10 Pa and the density is 2450 kg=m 3 .

3.2. Experimental setup

Using the four-point loading, the slab was incrementally loaded at the middle of each

span to dierent load levels to create crack damage. In order to reduce the eect of

the loading system to the supports, the loading system is connected to the supports of

the slab as shown in Figs. 1(a) and 1(b). Thirteen loading stages, shown in Table 1,

were performed with increasing maximum load level. Loading stage 1 is the initial

case. Two load cells were used to record the static loads on the left and right spans.

The crack locations and lengths were monitored in addition to the displacement

measurements. Four displacement transducers were located at two sides of the

middle of each span to measure the deection under the static load (see Fig. 1(a)).

For the dynamic test, a 5.4 kg impact hammer was used. Each test included three sets

of measurements. In each set, nine accelerometers were evenly distributed along the

slab to measure the dynamic responses. The sensor and impact locations are shown in

Fig.1(c). A data acquisition system was used to collect the data from all the channels

including the impulse load with a sampling rate of 500 Hz. The data length for each

channel was 4096.

693

1000mm

1000mm

1000mm

1000mm

1000mm

100mm

P1

1000mm

P2

at the middle of two sides

at the middle of two sides

Support

Support

120mm

3502mm

50mm

Support

1050mm

50mm

by UNIVERSITY OF IOWA on 03/13/15. For personal use only.

200mm

7508mm

Impact point

200mm

Sensor location

Fig. 1. Experimental setup and sensor locations.

694

Table 1. Loading stages and damage scenario.

Loading stage

Loads

P1 (kN)

P2 (kN)

Damage scenario

L1

L2

0

0

3

0

UD

L3

L4

L5

6

12

18

0

0

0

One damage zones

L6

L7

18

18

3

6

Two damage zones

L8

L9

L10

L11

L12

18

12

18 25

32

35

18 25

25

35

Three damage zones

L13

38

38

4. Experimental Results

by UNIVERSITY OF IOWA on 03/13/15. For personal use only.

Some preliminary tests comparing responses at the midspan and at the supports were

performed to check the support conditions for the slab. Figure 2 shows the accelerations at the left support and the middle of the left span and their spectrums. It can

be seen that initially the responses are of similar amplitude. However, the movement

at the support decayed much faster than the vibration at the center of the slab, since

most of the responses at the support are at the high-frequency end of the spectrum.

The behavior of the other supports is very similar to that of the left-hand

support. From the results, the supports may be considered as rigid after approximately 0.1 s because the movement at the support becomes far smaller than the

center of the slab.

4.2. Static test results

Figure 3 shows the loaddisplacement curves of the left and right spans for the

loading stage No. 13. In this loading stage, the left span of the slab was loaded up to

33 kN rst. The displacement of the right span increased in the negative direction

when the left span was loaded. Then the right span was loaded up to 38 kN. The load

on the left span of 33 kN was kept during the loading procedure in the right span.

With the loading increase on the right span, there is no obvious change on the

displacement of the left span. However, some crack closures might occur because the

load on the right span generated a negative moment in the left span. Finally, the left

span was loaded up to 38 kN. The loads on the left and right spans were kept on the

slab about half an hour so that the damage was created fully. During the unloading,

the load on the right span was removed rst and then the left span was unloaded.

After unloading, the slab was also kept for about half an hour before testing. The

results show that the loaddisplacement curves on the two sides of the slab are

approximately the same, indicating there is no torsional force. The damage in the

slab is created by the bending moment only.

The loading procedures for the other stages are similar to that of No. 13. Dierent

damage scenarios are created by these loading stages and the details are shown in

Table 1. In Table 1, the damage scenarios are separated into three dierent damage

levels. For the loading stages 3, 4, and 5, the load was applied to the left span only

from 6 kN to 18 kN. Some cracks, which are dened as one damage zone, were created

around the middle of the left span. This is classied as the damage level 1 with

695

Amplitude

4

at support

In the middle

2

0

-2

-4

0.5

1.5

2

2.5

Time (second)

3.5

200

Amplitude

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(a) Accelerations

At support

In the middle

150

100

50

0

50

100

150

Frequency (Hz)

200

250

Fig. 2. Accelerations and their spectrum at support and the midspan.

dierent damage extents. In loading stages 6 and 7, the load was also applied to the

middle of the right span. Some cracks were seen clearly at the middle of the slab. This

is the second damage zone and was classied as damage level 2. When the load at the

middle of the right span increased, the cracks appeared in the middle of the right

span. It is the third damage zone and the damage level 3. In the damage level 3, there

are six loading stages and three damage zones. Figure 4 shows the crack patterns for

these three levels.

4.3. Experimental modal analysis

Vibration tests were carried out before damage and at each load increment before and

after removing the applied load on the slab. Six tests were performed for each conguration and an average taken. The frequency response function (FRF) of the

measured data is calculated in a frequency range of 0250 Hz. The natural frequencies and mode shapes are extracted from FRFs by Rational Fraction Polynomial

method. The damping ratios are estimated using the half-power point method.

Figure 5 shows the rst 4 and the 6th mode shapes of the undamaged case, and

loading stage 13 with or without the static load on the slab. The 5th mode is

extracted because the impact point is close to the nodal point of the 5th mode.

Figures 6 and 7 show the rst two natural frequencies and damping ratios for all

Load (kN)

696

45

Disp1-loading

40

Disp2-loading

35

30

Disp1-unloading

Disp2-unloading

25

20

15

10

0

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Displacement (mm)

(a) Middle of left span

45

40

35

30

Load (kN)

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25

20

Disp3-loading

15

Disp4-loading

10

Disp3-unloading

Disp4-unloading

0

-10

-5 0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Displacement (mm)

(b) Middle of right span

Fig. 3. Loaddisplacement curves during loadingunloading procedure (38 KN).

loading stages with or without static loads on the slab. From these results, the

following observations can be made

(1) From Fig. 5, there are no obvious changes in the mode shapes for undamaged and

damaged cases. By examining the Coordinate Modal Assurance Criteria

(COMAC) between the undamaged case and the loading stage 13 with or

without the static load on the slab, all COMAC values are larger than 0.9. The

result conrms the above observation. The natural frequencies of the slab

without static loads on the slab are much larger than those with static loads

except for the rst two modes. The rst two natural frequencies of the slab with

697

Damage Zone 1

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Fig. 4. Crack patterns for dierent damage levels.

static loads are larger than that without loads because the loading system adds

the constraints at the load application points of the two spans. As for modes 3

and 6, as shown the load application locations coincide with the stationary points

of the modes. Therefore, the applied load is equivalent to added mass to the

structure, which reduces the vibration frequencies of these modes substantially.

For the torsional mode 4, the combined eect of the equivalent additional mass

from the applied load and the frictional constraints due to load application

resulted in changes of the vibration frequencies, but at a lesser extent.

(2) From Fig. 6(a), the rst natural frequency decreases with the loading stage.

Compared with the undamaged case, it is about 5.04% reduction for the loading

stage 5 in Level 1, about 7.34% reduction for the loading stage 7 in Level 2, and

33.29% reduction for the loading stage 13 in Level 3. In loading stages 15, the

rst natural frequency of the slab without the static loads is only slightly smaller

than that with the static loads. From loading stage 6, it is substantially smaller

than that with the static loads. This indicates the increased constraints from the

steel beam for load application when the deformation of the slab is larger. Slight

frequency increases are also observed for the case measured with the static loads.

This might be attributed to some measurement noises because removing and

replacing the load application beams on the slab at every loading stage might

change the constraint condition to the slab.

(3) From Fig. 6(b), the second natural frequency also decreases with the loading

stage. Compared with the undamaged case, it is about 5.41% reduction for the

loading stage 5 in Level 1, about 7.16% reduction for the loading stage 7 in Level

2, and 48.47% reduction for the loading stage 13 in Level 3. Similar observations

made on the fundamental frequency can also be drawn here.

698

Undamaged slab

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2

-0.4

0

-0.5

0.5

2

0

2

0

-0.5

-0.5

0.5

6

4

-0.5

0.5

6

0.5

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2

0.5

2

0

4

2

2

0

0.5

4

6

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

0.5

2

0

6

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

6

4

6

0.6

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2

-0.4

0.5

0

0.5

2

0

0.5

0.5

2

0

0.5

0.5

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

0.5

6

0.5

-0.5

2

0

0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

0.5

6

0.4

0.2

0

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

0.5

0.5

-0.2

-0.4

-0.6

0.5

0.5

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0

-0.5

0.5

2

0

699

20

16

14

12

Freq1-without load

Freq1-with load

10

0(0)

3(0)

6(0)

12(0) 18(0) 18(3) 18(6) 18(12) 18(18) 25(25) 32(26) 35(35) 38(38)

(a) First mode

26

24

22

Frequency (Hz)

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Frequency (Hz)

18

20

18

16

14

Freq2-without load

Freq2-with load

12

10

0(0)

3(0)

6(0)

12(0)

18(0)

18(3)

Fig. 6. Frequency changes with static load application.

(4) From Fig. 7, the damping ratios increase with the loading stage. The damping is

mainly from the friction in the cracks and between the steel bar and concrete.

Damping due to friction in the cracks reduces by increasing the residual crack

width while damping due to friction with the loss of bonding between the steel

bar and concrete increases. The damping ratio without the static load is larger

than that with the static load. This is because the static loads open the cracks

and the damping by the friction at the crack is reduced.

700

4

3

2

Damp1-without load

Damp1-with load

1

0

0(0)

3(0)

6(0)

12(0) 18(0) 18(3) 18(6) 18(12) 18(18) 25(25) 32(26) 35(35) 38(38)

(a) First mode

5

4.5

4

Damping ratio (%)

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3.5

3

2.5

2

1.5

Damp2-without load

Damp2-with load

1

0.5

0

0(0)

3(0)

6(0)

12(0) 18(0) 18(3) 18(6) 18(12) 18(18) 25(25) 32(26) 35(35) 38(38)

(b) Second mode

Fig. 7. Damping ratios changes with the static load applicaton.

In the following study, only the data without static loads on the slab is used. Considering the modal separation of the 1st and 2nd modes in the frequency domain and

the end-eect segments in the time domain, the parameters a and b are selected as 34

and 2.5.20 The accelerations at the middle of the left span are used for analysis.

Figure 8 shows the corresponding modal separation results for the undamaged case.

In the gure, the 1st and 2nd modes can be separated fully when the parameters are

2.5

front

middle

back

1.5

1

0.5

0.04

0.02

4

Amplitude

Wavelet Coefficient

701

-3

-5

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x 10

Amplitude

Wavelet Coefficient

0

-0.02

-0.04

50

100

front

middle

back

3

2

1

1

2

3

Time (second)

50

Frequency (Hz)

100

Fig. 8. The 1st and 2nd models and their FFT spectrum.

selected as 34 and 2.5. The separation results from the measurements at front,

middle, and back points are similar. This is because the 1st and 2nd modes are

bending modes.

Figure 9 shows the logarithm of amplitudes of the wavelet coecient corresponding to the 1st and 2nd modes, and the phases. In Fig. 9(a), the logarithm of the

wavelet coecient amplitude and the phase for the 1st mode are approximately linear

with respect to time. The slopes of these two curves are 2 1 f1 and 2fd1 ,

respectively. The results for the 2nd mode are shown in Fig. 9(b). There is obvious

oscillation at the end of logarithm of the wavelet coecient amplitude. This is due to

the low signal-to-noise ratio after 1 s as the signal attenuates with time. To exclude

the noisy data, only the rst 500 points (1 s) is analyzed.

Table 2 shows the natural frequencies and damping ratios by WT and a comparison with those by normal modal analysis. The accelerations at the center of the

left span for all loading stages are used in the analysis. In order to reduce the end

eects, the rst 50 points that correspond to the rst 0.1 s are not used and the

following 500 data points are used for least-squares curve-tting. From Table 2,

the natural frequencies by the wavelet-based method are close to those values from

the modal analysis. It shows that the wavelet-based method is eective and reliable

for determining the modal frequencies from the impact response. Prominent

reduction of the natural frequencies with the increased loads is observed only after a

few loading stages, indicating the natural frequencies are reliable indicators for

-4

500

-6

400

Arg[W(a1,b)]

ln|W(a1,b)|

702

-8

-10

-12

2

Time (second)

front

middle

back

300

200

100

0

2

Time (second)

-2

800

-4

Arg[W(a2,b)]

ln|W(a2,b)|

by UNIVERSITY OF IOWA on 03/13/15. For personal use only.

-6

-8

-10

-12

2

Time (second)

front

middle

back

600

400

200

0

2

Time (second)

Fig. 9. Logarithm of amplitudes of wavelet coecients and phases.

Table 2. Comparison of frequencies and damping ratios by normal modal analysis and wavelet transform.

Loading stages

Mode 1

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Wavelet transform

Mode 2

Mode 1

Mode 2

Freq

(Hz)

Damp

(%)

Freq

(Hz)

Damp

(%)

Freq

(Hz)

Damp

(%)

Freq

(Hz)

Damp

(%)

17.82

17.83

17.83

17.44

16.92

16.72

16.51

16.42

15.79

14.89

14.29

13.34

1.26

1.85

2.11

1.99

3.32

3.45

3.15

2.99

4.64

5.35

5.14

5.17

25.48

25.44

25.40

24.82

24.10

23.90

23.66

23.54

22.27

21.51

20.54

16.79

2.21

2.40

2.45

2.49

2.71

2.76

2.61

2.74

3.50

4.04

3.76

4.54

17.84

17.77

17.78

17.38

16.80

16.62

16.35

16.28

15.70

14.87

14.33

13.37

0.73

1.37

1.73

1.56

1.91

2.03

1.90

1.89

2.85

3.94

3.48

4.26

25.48

25.47

25.45

24.85

24.15

23.90

23.65

23.50

22.25

21.47

20.52

16.92

1.90

2.09

2.24

2.15

2.15

2.37

2.32

2.46

2.47

2.27

2.65

2.42

damage detection of concrete structures only when the damage is relatively severe.

They are not sensitive to small damages. The modal damping ratios by the waveletbased method are, however, smaller than that by the modal analysis method. The

damping of the slab comes from two sources, one is from the frictional eect in

703

by UNIVERSITY OF IOWA on 03/13/15. For personal use only.

the cracks and the other is due to the loss of bonding between the steel bar and the

concrete. The rst eect plays an increasing role with increasing crack depth and the

number of cracks up to the loading stage 6. More cracks opened up at the loading

stage 7 together with widening of the existing cracks. This crack widening eect

causes a reduction in damping. Its eect is more signicant than the damage eect

with more numbers of new cracks that increase damping. A combination of these two

eects leads to a reduction in the overall damping ratio. Additional loads cause the

overall damping ratio increase because the loss of bonding between the steel bar and

concrete occurred at these late loading stages and it resulted more energy loss in the

slab during vibrations.

5.1. Time-frequency relationship

From the foregoing results, large oscillations will be induced in the results if we obtain

the frequency and damping ratio by direct dierentiation. In this study, curve-tting

is used and then the frequency and damping ratio are calculated by the dierentiation of the tted function using Eq. (13). Figure 10 shows the curve-tting results

of the rst mode from dierent measurement locations when there is no damage in

the slab. In Fig. 10(a), the three tted curves are approximately parallel to each

other and the slopes of the three curves, corresponding to the measurements at L/8,

L/4, and 3L/8 along the slab from the left end, are 17.816, 17.899, and 17.930,

respectively, where L is the total length of the RC slab. The slope is related to the rst

modal frequency by Eq. (12). The initial values are dierent for those obtained at

dierent measurement locations because they are related to the mode shape information. In Fig. 10(b), all curves are very close to each other and this shows that they

correspond to the same frequency in Eq. (12). Figure 11 shows the curve-tting

results of the second mode from dierent measurement locations along the width of

the slab at L/8. The tted curves have also approximately a linear relationship and

are parallel to each other with slopes 25.223, 25.193, and 24.952, respectively. In

Fig. 11(b), all curves are very close to each other and this again shows that they

correspond to the same frequency by Eq. (12). These observations indicate that the

slope of the logarithm of amplitudes and the logarithm of phases of the wavelet

coecients of the measured vibration data are independent of the measurement

locations. In other words, at the same structure state, the measurement at a single

point will give the amplitude slope and the phases of the wavelet coecients.

Figure 12 shows the curve-tting results for undamaged case and loading stages 5

and 9 using polynomial functions from the measurement at L/8. In Fig. 12(a), the

slopes are 17.816, 16.798, and 14.149, respectively. In Fig. 12(b), the slopes of the

curves also reduce with the loading stage. In view of Eq. (12), the damping ratio

increases with the loading stage. The results show that the curve-tting is eective

for obtaining the time-varying properties of the logarithm of the wavelet coecient

704

-4.8

120

1/8L

1/8L fitting

1/4L

1/4L fitting

3/8L

3/8L fitting

-5

-5.2

-5.4

1/8L

1/8L fitting

1/4L

1/4L fitting

3/8L

3/8L fitting

100

80

Fai(t)

lnB(t)

-5.6

-5.8

60

40

-6.2

-6.4

20

-6.6

-6.8

0

0.5

Time (second)

0.5

Time (second)

(b) Phase

Fig. 10. Logarithm of amplitudes and phases of wavelet coecients corresponding to 1st mode.

-3

-3.5

-4

-4.5

180

1/8L

1/8L fitting

1/4L

1/4L fitting

3/8L

3/8L fitting

1/8L

1/8L fitting

1/4L

1/4L fitting

3/8L

3/8L fitting

160

140

120

Fai(t)

-5

lnB(t)

by UNIVERSITY OF IOWA on 03/13/15. For personal use only.

-6

-5.5

100

80

-6

60

-6.5

40

-7

20

-7.5

-8

0.5

Time (second)

0.5

Time (second)

(b) Phase

Fig. 11. Logarithm of amplitudes and phases of wavelet coecients corresponding to 2nd mode.

-5

120

L1

L1 fitting

L5

L5 fitting

L9

L9 fitting

-5.5

100

-6

80

Fai(t)

-6.5

lnB(t)

705

-7

60

by UNIVERSITY OF IOWA on 03/13/15. For personal use only.

-7.5

40

-8

20

-8.5

-9

0.2

0.4

0.6

Time (second)

0.5

Time (second)

Fig. 12. Logarithm of amplitudes and phases of wavelet coecients for dierent loading stages.

amplitude and phase. These results also demonstrate the change of the slopes with

the loading stages or damage levels, indicating that they can be used as indicators for

damage identication.

Figure 13 shows the time-varying properties of the wavelet coecient amplitudes

and phases for dierent loading stages. In Fig. 13(a), loading stages 1, 5, 7, and 10

correspond to the undamaged case, Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 damage case,

respectively. In each damage level, the slope of the curve increases with the loading

stage corresponding to the reduction of the natural frequency. The change between

the levels may be induced by the damping eect that is also shown in Fig. 13(b)

where the slope reduces with the loading stage number.

5.2. Possible candidates of signature for damage assessment

Figure 14 shows the timefrequency relationship for dierent loading stages using

the curve-tting. In these results, the starting value of the timefrequency

relationship reduces with the loading stage. For loading stages 1, 2, and 3, the

starting values are very similar but the slope of the curve increases with the loading

stage, as clearly shown at a late time. These results clearly demonstrate that the

timefrequency relationship can be used to detect the small changes in the rst three

loading stages, which are not detectable by using a constant modal frequency. As

discussed above, the mode shape and damping ratio do not show prominent changes

in these loading stages either. These observations indicate that the timefrequency

706

-5

-5.5

-6

-7

-7.5

-8

-8.5

Loading

Loading

Loading

Loading

-9

-9.5

-10

0.2

stage 1

stage 5

stage 7

stage 10

0.4

0.6

Time (second)

0.8

120

Loading stage 1

Loading stage 5

Loading stage 7

Loading stage 10

100

80

Arg[W(A1,b)]

by UNIVERSITY OF IOWA on 03/13/15. For personal use only.

ln|W(a1,b)|

-6.5

60

40

20

0.2

0.4

0.6

Time (second)

0.8

Fig. 13. Logarithm of amplitudes and phases of wavelet coecients for dierent loadings stages.

relationship is more sensitive than frequency, mode shape, and damping ratio to

changes in structures. Similar observations can be drawn for loading stages 5 and 6.

The slope change could be caused by the nonlinear properties due to crack open and

close in the damaged concrete structure. These observations indicate that the

707

18.5

L3

18

L2

Frequency (Hz)

L1

L4

17.5

L6

L5

17

by UNIVERSITY OF IOWA on 03/13/15. For personal use only.

L7

L8

16.5

16

0.2

0.4

0.6

Time (second)

0.8

timefrequency relationship can be used as a better indicator of the nonlinear signature of the damaged concrete structures than modal properties.

6. Conclusions

The signatures of nonlinear vibration characteristics of damaged reinforced concrete

structures using WT have been presented. A two-span RC slab built in 2003 was

tested to failure in the laboratory. Vibration measurements were carried out at

various stages of structural damage. The results show that the skeleton curves and

the timefrequency relationship could be good indicators of damage in the reinforced

concrete structures. The slope of the timefrequency relationship from a single

measurement is signicantly more sensitive to damage than that of the frequency

change and it is a better indicator of damage in concrete structures than modal

properties. More measurements should be used to determine the damage location and

severity in future studies.

Acknowledgment

The rst author is supported by a University Postdoctoral Research Fellowship

Scheme from the University of Western Australia.

References

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moving vehicular loads, J. Struct. Eng. ASCE 131(8) (2005) 12771285.

12. G. D. Chen, X. B. Yang, X. F. Ying and A. Nanni, Damage detection of concrete beams

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from Hilbert-Huang transform, J. Struct. Eng., ASCE 133(8) (2007) 11861191.

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