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Akoshile, C. O.* and J. O. Olaoye** *Physics Department **Agricultural & Biosystems Engineering Department, University of Ilorin, Ilorin ABSTRACT A case study on adaptation of a dedicated hydrodam for electrical power generation was presented with reference to Univeristy of Ilorin Dam. The features of the dam and dam site were overviewed in respect of its suitability to sustain hydrodams. Hydropower potential on the African continent was reviewed and the continent lowest power utilization was revealed. The University of Ilorin has up to seven fossil fuel-based generators (not all are functional) at different locations on the University Campus. Each of these when in use consumes drums of diesel fuel per day. Additional overhead cost goes to the requirement of technical and security personnel for keeping the generators running and safe with several personnel distributed to each station. Both technical know how and security requirement add to the overhead and total running cost. It is therefore going to be useful to have a hydropower station located in one place to support and supplement power supply scheme on the Campus. The objective of this work was to indicate how dual roles of a domestic dam could be harnessed as Hydropower Station and water supply while particularly being useful in the rainy season when the runoff is very high and the Dam is overflowing. It is also substantially producing power in part of the dry season when the head drops. Some basic parameters on the Catchments area and climatological data were established and the features indicated that the dam has potential to pilot and sustain hydrodam for electrical power generation. INTRODUCTION History of Hydropower Generation in Nigeria Generation of electricity from water dam has been the starting point to the energy development utilization in Nigeria. It has remained the most significant electrical power supply source for the
Akoshile, C. O. and Olaoye, J. O. (2009). A paper presented at a 2 – Day Seminar on Hydropower Resources: Development, Management and the Environment Organized by the National Centre for Hydropower Research and Development (An Agency of Energy Commission of Nigeria), University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria on 19th – 20th August, 2009.
country and the number of hydropower dams constructed in the country has continued to increase. The dynamics of flowing water being used to drive turbine has led to the conversion of hydromechanical energy to electrical energy. The topology about the Dam site is usually modified to provide significant water head required to drive the turbine. What is being proposed in this design is to utilize the base of an already constructed water dam by placing a turbine attached to a generator under the inherent water head to generate electricity. The electrical energy that will be produced in this way will be an extra dividend from the dam when successfully done while concurrently fulfilling its design objective of providing water to the University community. Potentials of Hydropower on the African Continent Klunne (2007) observed that there is enormous exploitable hydropower potential on the African continent but that despite this, Africa has one of the lowest hydro-utilization rates. Currently less than 7% of the potential has been harnessed. Small hydropower can adequately contribute to meet the electricity needs of the African countries. Availability of seasonal and permanent rivers and streams provide excellent opportunities for hydropower development in the continent. According to Karekezi and Kithyoma (2005), the harnessed small hydropower in Nigeria is only about 33.0 MW. This attempt would therefore be considered an effort made in the right direction. Aims, Objective and Advantage The Hydropower Station will be particularly useful in the rainy season when the runoff is very high and the Dam is overflowing but also substantially in part of the dry season when the head drops. The water can be channelled properly to enhance the generated electrical power. Whatever is generated (expected to be up to hundreds of kilowatt), would in no small way contribute significantly in providing electrical energy supply to the University and offer some relieve to the Power Holding Company of Nigeria. Justification The University of Ilorin has up to seven fossil fuel-based generators (not all is functional) at different locations on the University Campus. Each of these when in use consumes drums of diesel fuel per day. They break down often and require regular servicing and maintenance. This makes the cost of maintenance correspondingly high. Additional overhead cost goes to the requirement of technical and security personnel for keeping the generators running and safe with several personnel distributed to each station, both in technical know how and security which add to the overhead and total cost. Occasions crop up when only one or none of the generators is functional requiring that running time be scheduled
on them as they cannot run 24 hours, 7 days continuously for 52 weeks of the year. It is therefore going to be useful to have a hydropower station located in one place to support and supplement power supply scheme on the Campus. The plant when completed will operate at no extra fuel consumption and with longer life time. It is an ecologically friendly machine and system. The initial cost may be the most significant aspect of the plant cost. Maintenance will be limited by having adequately trained staff, lubricant, component replacement and minor miscellaneous items. It will be a pioneer project in the vicinity which other universities and educational institutions can emulate. It is a way of utilizing what could be considered “waste” or excess water to generate wealth in electrical energy supply. It will be part of the efforts in achieving one of the seven- point objectives of the agenda of the Yar’adua Administration. Data Requirement In the design and construction of this small hydropower station, significant prior data is required. These include: survey of site and available structure, understanding of base structure component, hydrology of the dam, estimating available and attainable water head, do component pricing for construction of the turbine house, drain channel, coupling system, turbine, generator control system, transformer and distribution panel, prepare architectural design and do environmental impact assessment. These are necessary at first phase construction that can be considered as the feasibility study component. The above will be followed by acquisition of the items required for the implementation to bring the design to construction and testing level. Scope of Work on the Project The project requires preliminary survey of feasibility components and actualization components. Tour to already operating hydropower stations and components supply firms will be useful to ensure proper take-off. The second phase will be the detailed design, procurement, construction and testing. It is expected that while the first-phase could take up to one year, the realization of the second phase could take an additional two years. Hydrological Features and Canal Some basic parameters on the Catchments area and climatological data such as average rainfall, average annual water flow and flood flow should be established. Detail information on reservoir such as high water level, total volume, type of spill way required and overflow elevation data will be useful. Analysis of these shall guide in selection of preferred design.
Details of design flow, penstock length and diameter, type of canal and design flow shall be thoroughly considered. Others are : statistics of water level for the year (direct and indirect data acquisition), Site survey with regard to water spread and already existing structures with regard to land utilization viz a viz the master plan of the (University) site are required. Information acquisition on base structure relating to hydrology of water flow and water availability should be obtained. Power Station Control and Switch Yard system components (I) Component Needs The power station control and switch yard system are identified as the flowing basic components (a) generation of flow duration curve (b) coupling of turbine house water inlet to dam outlet pipe (c) turbine house design and construction (d) turbine selection (e) alternator or Generator selection or design (f) control panel (regulator) and system (g) array of data-logger for performance measurements and of energy production available (h) transformer/Auxiliary system (i) wiring and connection to local Electricity system (where required).
(II) Water Conveyance
Water conveyance comprises of elements that delivers the water for use. Before the water enters the turbine, it is first tunneled through a series of components that control its flow and filters out debris that could clog the turbine. One of the advantages of small hydropower is its less impact on wildlife habitat, fish migration, water flow rate and quality. Turbine The moving water strikes the turbine blades in order to spin a shaft. Combines are more compact in relation to water wheels. They consist of fewer gears and require less material for construction. The flowing water is directed on to the blades of a turbine runner, creating a force on the blades. The spinning runner experiences a force that acts through a distance producing work done. Thus, energy is transferred from the water flow to the turbine. Water turbines are divided into two groups; Reaction turbines and Impulse turbines. The water turbine is driven by the supply pressure of water.
Reaction turbines Reaction turbines acted on by water changes pressure as it moves through the turbine and gives up energy. They are encased to contain the water pressure (or suction), or are fully submerged in the water flow. Reaction turbines are used in low and medium head applications. Impulse turbines Impulse turbines change the velocity of the incoming water jet. The jet impinges on the turbine's curved blades producing reverse flow. The resulting change in momentum (impulse) causes a force on the turbine blades. Since the turbine is spinning, the force acts through a distance (work) and the diverted water flow is left with diminished energy. The Potential energy is converted to kinetic energy by a nozzle and focused on the turbine. No pressure change occurs at the turbine blades, and the turbine doesn't require housing for this operation. Impulse turbines are most often used in very high head applications. Sample Turbine Some available sample turbines include Kaplan, Pelton, Francis, Tyson, and Water wheel. The typical range of heads of turbines are: Kaplan 2 < H < 40 (H = head in meters), Francis 10 < H < 350, Pelton 50 < H < 1300 and Turgo 50 < H < 250 . Dimension Design Equation From European Community's 'Layman's Guidebook (on how to develop a small hydro site) , the dimensioned parameter, n , rpm and Ω = angular velocity (radians/second) are estimated from equations 1 and 2 given below.
Ns = n P / H 5 / 4
Ω P/ ρ gH 5 / 4
n = dimensioned parameter p = power (J/s or Watts) H = Head of water fall (m) Ns = runway speed (m/s) The runaway speed of a water turbine is its speed at full flow, and no shaft load. The turbine is to be designed to survive the mechanical forces of this speed. The manufacturer supplies the runaway speed rating. Available Power The available power in a stream of water can be estimated as
P = .ρ g .h.i η .
where: P = power (J/s or Watts) η = turbine efficiency ρ = density of water (kg/m3) g = acceleration of gravity (9.81 m/s2) h = head (m) i= flow rate in m3/s. For still water, this is the difference in height between the inlet and outlet surfaces. In the case of moving water, an additional component is added to account for the kinetic energy of the flow. The total head becomes the pressure head plus velocity head. Alternator or Generator. In the generator system, the alternator transforms the rotational energy to electrical energy. Regulator: The regulator is brought in to control the generator. The wiring produces the channel of delivering the electricity for use. The pictorial view of University of Ilorin, Ilorin Dam is shown in figure 1. The general arrangement of the constituents of the small hydropower generating system and the expected head to develop between the water intake and the powerhouse is shown in the schematic of Figure 2. A sample of a turbine is presented in figure 3.
Figure 1. Pictorial View of Unilorin Dam
Figure 2. Sketch Of Small Hydropower Generator.
Figure 3. Sketch of a Sample Turbine Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a4/Water_turbine.jp Execution Designs and Financing The execution requires a full Architectural design and financing articulation. (a) Architectural component of design (b) Structural component of design (c) Component pricing and costing (d) Financing options (e) Industrial and operating hydropower stations tour for on-site experience, education and instrument maintenance Implementation The implementation would be in two phases. The available head is about 8 m (Figure 2). Reconaizance survey is to precede the actual construction. Adequate design that would extract the hydropower energy from the dam is required Subsequent Design and Construction of Turbine house
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h)
Design and Construction of Power generating system Construction of turbine house Spill way Turbine Procurement and Installation Procurement and Installation of transformer, Control, Distribution Panel and Auxiliary facilities Construction and Maintenance Workshop Coupling to Dredging Project Administrative Building
Beneficiary The beneficiary is two fold. Local or immediate distant: These are at local (University of Ilorin) and at national level. The energy generated can be utilized locally within the University and it can also be sold to Power Holding Company of Nigeria (PHCN) as an input to the national grid supply. Previous Work and Experience of Study Team Experienced project coordinator and members of the team who have been engaged in various previous laboratory research studies to generate electricity from hydro-, solar and bio-fuel sources are involved in this project and will be required for such work in the future. Some are experts in energy transformation, water engineering, structural engineering design, dynamics of moving fluid and electrical energy control and and Quantity Surveying. Members hold Ph.D. degree, some are Professors while the lowest ranking members hold M.Sc. in Science or M. Eng. in Engineering. The adaptation of the dam to hydrodam is therefore to meet local electricity demand, reduce incessant power cut-off and, address part of the energy component of the seven point agenda of the present government (administration) and provides a source of training to students and nonstudents alike. The site can also become a tourist attraction capable of generating interest and fund. Future similar dam project could be designed to generate electricity and provide water to meet other identified needs.
Prima Cost Estimate
Items to cost include: • Water level variation study • Design of hydrological features • site scenery water distribution of surface water, ground water, etc. • Topographical and Geodetic conditions; , • engineering geological conditions • base structure study, etc. • Design and Instrumentation of hydraulic equipment • electric generator, governor, turbine • valve, auxiciliary equipment systems • electric equipments • Architectural Design and Quantity Survey • Dredging of water discharge • Data logger, flow measurement equipment, Computer facilities (Laptop, desktop) and materials for hydropower library • Miscellaneous Power Conditioning Power conditioning refers to conditioning the power to improve its quality. An uninterruptible power supply can be used to switch off the mains power if and when there is a temporary Transients condition on the line. Select of good quality governor to impose a higher-frequency and lower-amplitude saw-tooth wave on the sine wave. Employ surge protector or varistor or a simple capacitor to protect against most overvoltage condition. A lightning arrestor will protect against severe spikes. Electronic filters can be used to remove harmonics. Reverse Flow Pump Action • • Pumped storage Some water turbines are designed for pumped storage hydroelectricity. They can do reverse flow and operate as a pump to fill a high reservoir during off-peak electrical hours. During peak electrical demand, they can revert again to a turbine for power generation. The Francis and Deriaz turbines can do this.
The suitability of conversion of a domestic dam into a dedicated hydrodam was presented. Data requirements in the design and construction of this small Hydropower Station were identified. The scope of the work on the project was divided in to two phases. The first phase includes preliminary survey of feasibility components and actualization components. Tour to already operating hydropower stations and components supply firms which is considered useful to ensure proper take-off. The second phase will be the detailed design, procurement, construction and testing. Some of the available samples of turbine for the project were highlighted. Details of dimension design equations were presented with reference to the European Community's 'Layman's Guidebook. The study has clearly revealed that the dam can successfully be as potential energy source to generate electricity. Some References Cline, R. 1994. Mechanical Overhaul Procedures for Hydroelectric Units (Facilities Instructions, Standards, and Techniques Volume 2-7): United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colorado, July 1994 (800KB pdf). Doble, W. A. 1988. The Tangential Water Wheel, Transactions of the American Institute of Mining Engineers, Vol. XXIX. http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/a4/Water_turbine.jp. Durrand, W. F. 1939. The Pelton Water Wheel, Stanford University, Mechanical Engineering. US. 1989. United States Department of the Interior Bureau of Reclamation; Duncan, William (Revised April 1989): Turbine Repair (Facilities Instructions, Standards & Techniques, Volume 2-5) (1.5MB pdf).