You are on page 1of 13

Gathering information is a basic human activity – we use

information to learn, to help us solve problems, to aid our decision
making processes and to understand each other more clearly.
Questioning is the key to gaining more information and without it
interpersonal communications can fail. Questioning is
fundamental to successful communication - we all ask and are
asked questions when engaged in conversation.
We find questions and answers fascinating and entertaining – politicians,
reporters, celebrities and entrepreneurs are often successful based on their
questioning skills – asking the right questions at the right time and also
answering (or not) appropriately.
Although questions are usually verbal in nature, they can also be non-verbal. Raising of the
eyebrows could, for example, be asking, “Are you sure?” facial expressions can ask all sorts of subtle
questions at different times and in different contexts.
This means you often have to ask hard questions and risk upsetting people who do not want to co-operate.
It may be painful but in the end you will gain their respect. So always be polite, however rude people may
be. The rule is simple: be polite but persistent.

1. News Sense:
News sense is the basic quality of newsmen. Every reporter has to have news sense or nose for
news to distinguish news from non-news.
He should be able to compare various news values and decide where to begin his story and should
not miss important details.
News sense is essential for a sub-editor also. He is the first reader of a reporter’s copy and if the
reporter has made a mistake he has to correct it. A bad copy may have the most important element
of the story buried in the fourth paragraph. It will be left to the sub-editor’s nose for news to bring that
to the first paragraph.

Only clarity of mind is not enough unless it is accompanied by clarity of expression. Many major news breaks in the past were possible because of alertness of reporters. He should think fast. Without clarity of expression clarity of mind has no meaning. They should not take sides but try to cover all the different viewpoints to achieve balance in the story. When there is a doubt he should leave it out—this is the golden rule of journalism. It is particularly important when background is involved. 3. 5. A sub-editor has to be alert while working on news-desk. A person who cannot work fast cannot be a good reporter. He has every right to make life miserable for a reporter who is not clear and does not write in simple language. Clarity: A reporter should have clarity of mind and expression. Lack of alertness of a sub-editor can be seen by readers in the morning for he will be leaving or introducing mistakes for everybody to see. Alertness: A reporter should always be alert while dealing with his subjects. 6. It is better not to say a thing than to say it wrong. The role of a sub-editor is to check for accuracy. 4. While maintaining all other desirable qualities a reporter should strive to work faster. A person who is confused himself cannot tell a story to others. He should check and re-check his facts till he is satisfied that he has them accurate. . decide fast and write or type fast for he has to meet deadlines or may have to go to another assignment. Speed: In today’s world speed matters everywhere. In the case of dates and names the reporter may rely on his memory but the sub-editor must check them from reference material available in the newspaper office. Accuracy: A reporter should strive for accuracy. In this respect he should not take any chance as accuracy is directly proportional to the credibility of a reporter and his newspaper. Scoops don’t walk into newspaper offices— alert reporters catch them in air and pursue.2. Sub-editor is the judge of clarity of the copy a good subeditor will never allow a copy escape him unless the meaning is crystal clear. They should not allow their personal bias or ideas to creep into a story. Objectivity: Reporter and sub-editor should aim at objectivity while dealing with a story.

Being in the field. For reporters it is useful in developing lust for facts that may lead to better stories. and through them their paper. Scepticism: It is another necessary quality which a reporter and a subeditor should cultivate.A sub-editor also has to work with speed. Sub-editors should also be careful for some clever politicians. They have to remain calm and composed in most exciting and tragic circumstances. Calmness: Reporters and sub-editors often work in trying circumstances. A slow sub-editor is a curse at the news desk and is treated with contempt. Many people try to plant on reporters a wrong story for their own ends. Sub-editors should develop a temperament to work under pressure of deadlines. 9. Reporters and sub-editors are human beings. He has to do swiftly whatever is required of him for a lot more copy is waiting for him. In many situations they have to be calm— devoid of hysterical actions or utterances and apply appropriate mental and physical effort to write or edit the story. reporters face many such occasions when they have to control their emotions. Reporters and sub-editors should read as much as possible to constantly improve their awareness level. public relations men and product advertisers keep on trying to take them for a ride. Reporters should be more vigilant for many forces constantly try to use them. He cannot sit with a copy for long. They should have enough scepticism to avoid such plots. This characteristic will keep on improving a sub-editor for with every passing day a curious subeditor will have a better background to do his job the next day. Many a time reporters’ fall into such traps in good faith. They should have an unwavering posture of doubt until faced with undeniable proof. 8. Some people are misfits in the profession. . Curiosity: Reporters and sub-editors should have an unsatiable curiosity. They have emotions but they have to stifle them in the face of disturbing influences—they have to develop resistance to excitability. 7. They should not take anything for granted. They should not lose their cool if they are behind the clock for calm mind can work faster.

10. the voluntary self. copy for such foul play. For a sub-editor this creative faculty is very useful as he can add sparkle to somebody else’s copy and make it lively. For reporters it is a must for if they are not punctual they may miss something for which they may have to depend on secondary sources.They should not allow anything to go in news columns that should actually go as advertisement. proof readers or typesetters. 13. It is always better to be punctual and then wait than reach late and ask others—a rival may misinform you or hide some important information. Many a time he has to tolerate other people’s shortcomings and has to remain unperturbed by someone else’s slowness or other quirks. provocation. The quality helps them in identifying processes and people who will be important in future. At the desk too punctuality pays. Besides. Farsightedness: An intelligent envisioning of the future helps newsmen in general. They should not fail to check even reporters. They have to put up with many annoying situations everyday vis-a-vis reporters. Patience also helps sub-editors as they work long hours in trying conditions. 11. Punctuality: It is a good habit. If he is late he will irritate them and spoil the working atmosphere. . Patience: It is a quality which helps a reporter in a big way for many a time almost daily he has to test his patience. Reporters can watch such processes and cultivate people who may become important news sources in the future. 12. If a sub-editor is punctual he will be treated with respect by his coworkers. Most of the time a reporter waits for someone or something and patience gives him the willingness for wait without becoming disgruntled or anxious.control or restraint that helps one to endure waiting. Besides he may have to face the problem of backlog of copy which he will have to clear under the pressure of deadline. Imagination: This basic mental faculty helps reporters in writing better stories that retain the reader’s interest. injustice. imaginative headlines attract the reader and improve the quality of a newspaper. suffering or any of the unpleasant vicissitudes of time and life.

question. He should be considerate of others and should be careful not to embarrass. 14.- . upset or offend them. 18. The reporter will have to probe. These qualities will help him get acquainted with news sources and get stories from them. He should have the ability to handle sensitive people and situations gracefully without causing hurt or angry feelings. Tactfulness: A reporter should be tactful. 15. With a little forethought sub-editors can plan their work so as to avoid tension and it results in better functioning of the desk. This will help him in developing contacts that are so essential for news gathering. Fearlessness and Frankness: These qualities help reporters in asking unpleasant questions and taking risks to find out truth. Integrity: It is a virtue in itself and implies undeviating honesty and strict adherence to a stern code of ethics. Reporters need a fair amount of assertiveness and aggressiveness to be successful in their career. It is more important for reporters for they are more exposed to temptation as compared to sub-editors. It helps in journalism as in any other field. Self-discipline: One can achieve a degree of proficiency in sub-editing or reporting by systematic effort and selfcontrol. Nobody gives a story on a platter. A reporter with foresight can think ahead and prepare for eventualities.It helps reporters and sub-editors in determining the importance of an event. This human quality is important for journalists. 16. 17.discipline suggests dedication and firm commitment. He should have an understanding of human behaviour and emotions. A reporter should have flexible and sociable personality and should have a nature that relishes variety of experiences. In this sense self. A meek. Initiative: A reporter who works in the field should have an outgoing nature with initiative and drive. He may be good at his desk. authenticate and exercise his power of deduction to get a good story. retiring or shy person is not fit for reporting.

He should go to his news sources as often as possible for such constant contacts help him get news. These qualities are basically qualities of good and efficient human beings. in politics. The first quality is honesty. The . the period we are living is the age of informations. Sub-editors should have better command over language as they improve what reporters write. if someone makes use of the jounalists to cause conflict between this party to another. A mobile reporter is seldom caught napping when a major story breaks. Why is honesty? Because the journalists or correspondents are people who reflect the truth of things happen around us on the papers or medias. They have to make extremely fine distinctions while writing or editing copy a sub-editor should insist on perfection and should lose his job for he can make or impair the newspaper. 20. As you know. there are millions of people read the news on newspapers so It will be really dangerous if the jounalist write the wrong news to cause misunderstanding. He should enjoy moving around and should not hesitate travelling distances to get stories when required. All other things being equal reporters need additional qualities to deal effectively with all sorts of people they meet in the field. Diligence: Reporters and sub-editors should be diligent. For example. alertness and dedication to the task and wary watchfulness. There will be hundreds or even millions of people die.19. Everydays. Mobility: A reporter should be mobile. Their jobs require painstaking exertion of intense care and effort. \nThe second quality is hardworking. Good and efficient human being makes good and efficient sub-editors and reporters.

Why we know that news to support them? thanks to kind jounalists. protect for the weak. Uncle said that each jounalist is each soldier and their weapon is the pen. we need to be clear and intelligent to reliaze which the truth is. we should choose the famous newspaper to read. . But they choose another way. to strugge against social inequality. poor classes. and reading in a selective way.level of the public are constantly being enhanced. there are a lot of news of homeless people need help.\nWe have enough reasons to believe the jounalists. they would have a lot of money if they sold hot scandal news about hot superstar. patients of cancer need blood or tissue. In some cases. many other poor people need support from rich. That is absolutely right. \nThe final quality is kindness. kind people. They use their pens to expose the evil of the society. to widen their knowledge at every fields in order to creat deep cultural articles. Working in silent to help the others. However. The Jounalists are necessary to learn. In the age of variety of information sources. On the daily newspaper. We not only read but also hear and see.

many poor and disadvantaged children have free heart operation . the writers go to the center of the war.To have documents about the wars in Iraq.For example .To have such accurate news .\nSecondly . the journalist need to be well trained themselves to get a good promotion. In conclusion. and to use their pens effectively. in terms of the politics . the East Sea problem China has placed the illegal oil rig into Vietnam is being paid attention to .Morever .Even many journalists spend many sleepless nights so that they can have the most update information to reflect the life of the people or hot and serious problems that the society is paying attention to . so it is very dangerous. thanks to many journalists . many children have an opportunity to go to school and many bridges are built in the rural or mountainous areas . many journalists are bravery to reach near the China’s oil rig . They are willing to go to the remote or dangerous areas . on behalf of .

According to uncle Ho’s speech “ Journalism staff are also the revolutionary fighters .policies and laws of the states .the beautiful .\nHowever . they always primarily think and act for the people and the country’s sake .especially a foreign language that they are not short of is English which helps them to have the fastest information .apply the science technology in their work . party .if their political stance isn’t strong .They always update the information . condemn the wrong actions . increasingly sophisticated tricks “\nThirdly . The pen . the wrong in the context of ongoing enemy “peaceful evolution “ with many ways .Vietnamese journalist is also a politician .\nFourly .it will be hard for them to complete propagation . They must have the profound knowledge about journalism .the government .policy protection . paper is their sharpest weapon . The journalists are fully aware of the moral standards of journalism .By extension . a soldier on the field of ideology .get rid of the evils .culture of the party .the party guidelines .the public .They dare speak up the truth .Therefore .what makes the people distrust them is that the journalists are greedy for money .the journalists must have a strong political stance .In general . their .the struggle against hostile attitudes . encourage and protect the good .

one cannot beacclaimed as a qualified journalist. Without showing respect to freedom of express and conveying messages accurately and promptly to the public. Paul Radin. journalism has failed to maintain objectivity and live up to ideals of journalistic responsibility.”40 .See more at: http://journalistsresource. a leading anthropologist of the early twentieth century. people have reasons to suspect the creditability of a journalist.QMT5QFUQ.org/skills/research/knowledge-based-reporting#sthash. races and social groups.which makes people distrust in the journalist’s information \n In short . Either as a medium that deliberately affects the public interest or as a form of entertainment that does not attach much importance to seriousness. they should be sensitive to and interested in current affairs at all levels. To submit their articles on time . In addition. As shown above.As the result .there are many qualities which create a good journalist .dpuf . despite being under different forms of pressure.morality and behaviors are deteriorated . a successful journalist should be first able to use careful judgement when organising and reporting information. countries. they launch the unreliable news but very sensational to attract the readers’ attraction . They are put into the prison . characterized the journalist as “a man of action” rather than “a thinker.Morever. They did the wrong actions by working with immoral and deteriorated people or they blackmail the entrepreneurs .write the untrue articles to run down them . journalists should also have a good command of language skills and a real knowledge of different cultures.in my opinion . In acting as successful communicators and information senders. we should believe them because the distrustful journalists will be sacked sooner or later by the society n general. Determination and persistence are required when journalists ought to defend the freedom of the press and ordinary citizens' right to know the truth.

See more at: http://journalistsresource. says journalist Robert Niles.For more than a century. News audiences are out of sight and therefore harder to comprehend. They fail. Observation and interviewing are highly useful tools. as was the case in frontpage New York Times stories that stemmed from White House officials’ hoodwinking of reporter Judith Miller during the lead up to the 2003 Iraq invasion.dpuf “Truth” is the holy grail of journalism. 76 . Nevertheless.”55 Even when they yield reliable information.57 the interview is likely the handiest reporting tool ever devised.58 Yet. Studies indicate that most journalists are largely unaware of how their reporting tools and story constructions affect story content and audience response. what is asked.QMT5QFUQ.53 Reporters are trained to look first to the scene of action and then to the statements of interested parties.3 The resulting “Statement of Shared Principles” identified “truth” as journalism’s standard: .See more at: http://journalistsresource. and even the time and place of the interview can affect the answers. observation and interviewing have limits. 75 It would be as if teachers had only a vague idea of the instructional techniques that help students learn. journalists have relied on two basic tools — observation and interviewing. held a series of public forums to address what its members saw as declining news standards. They are also tools that require judgment and experience if they are to be used properly. Interviewing relieves the journalist of having to undertake more demanding forms of investigation. like all such tools. and the interviewee’s words can be treated as “fact” insofar as the words were actually said. unless journalists develop a better understanding of their audience — an area in which mass communication research provides guidance — they will miss opportunities to inform it. which is why they been in use for so long. observation and interviewing enable journalists to capture only those aspects of developments that are observable and that available parties are able and willing to talk about.dpuf The second knowledge skill — an understanding of the communication process — has been nearly overlooked by journalism practitioners. the interview is not foolproof. the committee met with three thousand reporters and citizens to exchange ideas about the purpose of journalism.QMT5QFUQ.56 Invented by American journalists in the nineteenth century.org/skills/research/knowledge-based-reporting#sthash. journalists don’t have the face-to-face interactions with their readers and listeners that teachers have with their students. .org/skills/research/knowledge-basedreporting#sthash. as studies of attribution and framing bias have shown. Responses are subject to mistakes of memory or even a source’s determination to mislead a reporter. Over a period of two years. Admittedly. Who is interviewed.54 Nevertheless. calling themselves the Committee of Concerned Journalists. In the late 1990s. to provide “us instruction on how to test the accuracy of information we receive. two dozen of the nation’s top reporters.

subject to further investigation.”5 Committee members Bill Kovach and Tom Rosenstiel said that journalists get at “the truth in a complex world by first stripping information of any misinformation.” 10 If news is truth. as one study concluded. The search for truth becomes a conversation. accuracy is the foundation upon which everything else is built — context. Journalistic truth is a “sorting out” process that occurs over time through interaction “among the public. are “repeatedly. Studies have found that social conditions are often misreported. Even in a world of expanding voices.11 A Washington State University study found that local TV and newspaper reporters portray U. that voters could reasonably conclude they are witnessing different contests. over time. for example. there appear to be at least two versions of it.S.” 7 And it’s easy to find examples of accurate reporting.”6 There is no reason to question reporters’ determination to deliver what journalist Carl Bernstein calls “the best obtainable version of truth. that economic coverage typically lags behind major shifts in the macro-economic cycle. “The priorities of newspapers and local television news seldom overlapped.8 Nor is economic reporting the exception. and journalists. wildly wrong. one for print journalists and one for television journalists. newsmakers. Journalists should be as transparent as possible about sources and methods so audiences can make their own assessment of the information. Senate campaigns differently — so differently.“[J]ournalistic truth” is a process that begins with the professional discipline of assembling and verifying facts. reporters fall far short of delivering “truth. disinformation. criticism. emerges from this forum. much less in the way philosophers understand it.4 The committee members were careful to say that “journalistic truth” is not truth in the ordinary sense of the word. Then journalists try to convey a fair and reliable account of their meaning. comment. The truth.” Studies show.9 As for forecasting — predicting how events will unfold — journalists’ judgments. 12 . interpretation. valid for now. or selfpromoting bias and then letting the community react…. Existing story lines can linger in the news months after the economic conditions that gave rise to them have changed. analysis and debate.” is how the research team described its findings. Yet. in fact.

We often misjudge character.See more at: http://journalistsresource.”18 .org/skills/research/knowledge-basedreporting#sthash. Entertainment — and its cousin ‘infotainment’ — focus on what is most diverting. or art. But fact checkers don’t address the fundamental question: Is the story itself “true”? A story can be accurate in its particulars — what was said. fiction. Kovach and Rosenstiel say that journalists’ “discipline of verification” is what allows them to hone in on the truth. A 2005 study of fourteen local newspapers funded by the Knight Foundation found that three-fifths of their stories contained an error.” 16 If not truth.org/skills/research/knowledge-based-reporting#sthash. they often have a narrow conception in mind.14 Early coverage of the Afghan war. Even if the facts check out.QMT5QFUQ. we go astray by our misunderstanding and misjudgment of the context in which they belong.dpuf In their influential book.” 17 .15 Even “the facts” can be elusive. the story would not be true for that reason alone.See more at: http://journalistsresource. “The discipline of verification.When journalists speak of truth in news. propaganda. Journalism alone is focused on getting what happened down right. Some errors were minor. “is what separates journalism from entertainment. one that boils down to the accuracy of specific facts. as in the case of a misleading headline or faulty claim. mistake plot lines.” the study concluded. The Elements of Journalism. Propaganda selects facts and invents them to serve the real purpose: persuasion and manipulation.” they write. and so on — and yet falter as a whole. “[was] closely associated with accuracy.dpuf . Fiction invents scenarios to get at a more personal impression of what it calls truth. None of the newspapers had a low error rate.QMT5QFUQ. “Neither stature of the paper nor market size. was often accurate in its particulars but off the mark in its assessments of Afghan society and the likely course of the war. when and where it happened. And even when the facts seem most evident to our senses. Others were more significant. for example. as in the misspelling of a name. who witnessed it. what is the essential characteristic of news? The Washington Post’s David Broder came close to describing it when he said: “My experience suggests that we often have a hard time finding our way through the maze of facts — visible and concealed — in any story.13 Did Senator Smith actually say the words attributed to her? Did last year’s trade deficit actually top $400 billion? Some news organizations retain fact checkers to verify such claims. however.