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Introduction

Mid-Level Vision

Gestalt Theory & Grouping

K-means & EM

Mean Shift

Normalized Cuts

Slide Credits:

A. Efros, S. Palmer, B. Leibe, S. Lazebnik, K. Grauman, S. Seitz, C.Bishop, .

Kokkinos

Mid-level vision

Half-way between the image and the objects

Superpixels,

Ren & Malik

2

constitute the primitive elements of the object recognition system

Analogy: using letters to form words (compare with Ideograms)

Scalability: Recognition-by-components

2) We can split this objects into parts that

everybody will agree

3) We can see how it resembles something

familiar: a hot dog cart

Mid-level vision

How can we abstract from the image observations?

Too many pixels, edgels, blobs, junctions

Replace with representative, higher-level structures

Fewer and amenable to subsequent processing

Core problem: Grouping

Region grouping (Segmentation)

The whole is greater than the sum of its parts

Illusory/subjective

contours

Occlusion

Familiar configuration

Similarity

Common Fate

10

Proximity

11

Symmetry

12

Parallelism

13

Continuity

Gestalt heritage: mostly conceptual

Turning Gestalt cues into numerical quantities:

Common fate:

Parallelism:

Symmetry:

Similarity:

Closure, continuity:

motion estimation

texture analysis

ridge detection

region-based segmentation

boundary-based segmentation

of these cues?

15

Different cues lead to different segmentations

Symmetry

Continuity

Color Similarity

16

No `optimal segmentation exists

Depth Ordering

Motion Estimation

This Lecture

Introduction

Mid-Level Vision

Gestalt Theory & Grouping

K-means & EM

Mean Shift

Normalized Cuts

18

Segmentation Problem

Task: Partition image into homogeneous regions

motion, depth, shading .

Intensity:

19

Feature Space

At each pixel, form a vector of measurements describing

image properties: image features

Map observations into feature space

Group pixels based

on color similarity

R=255

G=200

B=250

B

R=245

G=220

B=248

R=15

G=189

B=2

R=3

G=12

B=2

20

10

Feature Space

At each pixel, form a vector of measurements describing

image properties: image features

Perform segmentation by clustering the feature space

Grouping pixels based

on texture similarity

F1

F2

Filter bank

of 24 filters

F24

21

What if these

points lie on lines?

Line 1

Line 2

11

Line weights

line 1

line 2

Iteration

Application to segmentation

Invented `models: image segments

Modeling the features separately within each segment:

substantially easier than modeling the image.

Brown

Blue

Yellow

24

12

white

pixels

black pixels

gray

pixels

input image

intensity

These intensities define the three groups.

which of these primary intensities it is.

Pixel count

25

Input image

Intensity

Pixel count

Input image

Intensity

26

13

190

Intensity

255

Label every pixel according to closest center

But how can we find the centers?

27

Clustering

chicken and egg problem:

center.

mean.

28

14

K-Means algorithm

Input: features

d: feature vector dimensionality

N: number of pixels

Output: centers & assignments

K-Means Clustering

Randomly initialize k cluster centers.

Iterate:

1.

For each point i, find the closest center. Put i into cluster j

2.

Set center to be the mean of points in cluster j

3.

If ci have changed, go to 1

30

15

K-means clustering based on intensity or color

Image

Intensity-based clusters

Color-based clusters

31

Limitations of k-means

Euclidean distance-based criterion

Desired

K-means

observations within each group

Consider ellipsoidal

32

16

Determined by mean and covariance matrix

P(x) = .1

P(x) = .2

P(x) = .5

33

Mixture of Gaussians

The likelihood of observing x is a weighted mixture of Gaussians

1D

34

17

E-step (Bayes Rule)

M-step

K-means vs. EM

k-means

Closest centers index

Isotropic Distance

(Euclidean)

EM

Soft assignment, R

Anisotropic Likelihood

(Covariance-based,`Mahalanobis)

Accurate & more flexible

More robust to initalization Prone to local minima

Typical usage: initialize EM with k-means results

36

18

Problems of K-Means/EM

Number of clusters

Initialization/local minima

Mismatch with data distribution

This Lecture

Introduction

Mid-Level Vision

Gestalt Theory & Grouping

K-means & EM

Mean Shift

Normalized Cuts

38

19

Easy to see, hard to compute

39

Consider nonparametric density estimate

e. g.

neighborhood

20

Mean-Shift

Region of

interest

Center of

mass

Mean Shift

vector

Mean-Shift

Region of

interest

Center of

mass

Mean Shift

vector

21

Mean-Shift

Region of

interest

Center of

mass

Mean Shift

vector

Mean-Shift

Region of

interest

Center of

mass

Mean Shift

vector

22

Mean-Shift

Region of

interest

Center of

mass

Mean Shift

vector

Mean-Shift

Region of

interest

Center of

mass

Mean Shift

vector

23

Mean-Shift

Region of

interest

Center of

mass

with windows

24

The blue data points were traversed by the windows towards the mode.

Slide by Y. Ukrainitz & B. Sarel

Mean-Shift Clustering

Cluster: all data points in the attraction basin of a mode

Attraction basin: the region for which all trajectories

lead to the same mode

50

25

52

26

More Results

53

Summary Mean-Shift

Pros

Model-free, does not assume any prior shape (spherical,

elliptical, etc.) on data clusters

Just a single parameter (window size h)

h has a physical meaning (unlike k-means)

Robust to outliers

Cons

Window size (bandwidth) selection is not trivial

Computationally (relatively) expensive

Does not scale well with dimension of feature space

54

27

This Lecture

Introduction

Mid-Level Vision

Gestalt Theory & Grouping

K-means & EM

Mean Shift

Normalized Cuts

55

Images as Graphs

q

wpq

p

Fully-connected graph

Link between every pair of pixels, (p,q)

Affinity weight wpq for each link (edge)

wpq measures similarity

Similarity is inversely proportional to difference

(in color and position)

56

28

q

wpq

Easiest to break links that have low similarity (low weight)

Similar pixels should be in the same segments

Dissimilar pixels should be in different segments

57

Measuring Affinity

Distance

Intensity

Color

(some suitable color space distance)

Texture

(vectors of filter outputs)

58

29

Graph Cut

Cost of a cut

59

Graph cut

30

Graph cut

Graph Cut

defined by the block-diagonal

structure of the affinity matrix.

How can this be generalized?

62

31

Affinity matrix

Block detection

Minimum Cut

We can do segmentation by finding the minimum cut in

a graph (next lecture)

Drawback:

Minimum cut tends to cut off very small, isolated components

Cuts with

lesser weight

than the

ideal cut

Ideal Cut

64

32

A minimum cut penalizes large segments

This can be fixed by normalizing for size of segments

The normalized cut cost is:

65

Optimization

Original problem: partition similarity graph

Mathematically equivalent to

Partitioning

-1

Generalized Eigenvector problem

Embedding

33

Vibration modes correspond to segments

NCuts Example

Smallest eigenvectors

NCuts segments

68

34

Discretization

Problem: eigenvectors take on continuous values

Image

Eigenvector

NCut scores

Possible procedures

a)

b)

c)

Pick the median value as splitting point.

Look for the splitting point that has the minimum NCut value:

1. Choose n possible splitting points.

2. Compute NCut value.

3. Pick minimum.

69

1. Construct a weighted graph G=(V,E) from an image:

Connect each pair of pixels, and compute

4. Solve

subdivide if NCut value is below a pre-specified value.

Or: cluster eigenvector values using k-means

Or: Spectral Rounding

70

35

71

72

36

Berkeley Segmentation Engine

Pros:

Does not require any model of the data distribution

Cons:

Dense, highly connected graphs many affinity computations

Solving eigenvalue problem

If a region is uniform, NCuts will find the

modes of vibration of the image dimensions

74

37

Lecture Summary

Introduction

Mid-Level Vision

Gestalt Theory & Grouping

K-means & EM

Mean Shift

Normalized Cuts

75

Lecture Summary

Introduction

Mid-Level Vision

Gestalt Theory & Grouping

K-means & EM

Mean Shift

Normalized Cuts

76

38

Lecture Summary

Introduction

Mid-Level Vision

Gestalt Theory & Grouping

K-means & EM

Mean Shift

Normalized Cuts

77

Lecture Summary

Introduction

Mid-Level Vision

Gestalt Theory & Grouping

K-means & EM

Mean Shift

Normalized Cuts

78

39

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