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Learning with Games + Gamification

Melanie Alter and milie Ren-Vronneau / ETEC 660

Definitions

WHAT IS A GAME?
A game is a closed, formal system that engages
players in structured conflict, and resolves in an
unequal outcome.

Games
are voluntary
have goals
have conflict
have clear rules
can be won or lost
are interactive

are challenging
espouse their own
internal value
engage players
are closed, formal
systems

Four Basic Elements of Games


More visible
Aesthetics

Story

Mechanics

Technology

Less visible

Foundational Elements of Games


Feedback
Timing
Tone
Delivery (visual, sound, touch, movement)
Constructs
Game mechanics
Allegory
Laws and rules
Challenge
Story and exaggerated story

Game mechanics Replayability


Failure is an option
Encourages exploration, curiosity,
and discovery-based learning
Mechanisms to overcome repeat failure
Victory becomes more pleasurable

Foundational Elements of Games


Feedback
Timing, tone, delivery
Tone
Delivery (visual, sound, touch, movement)
Constructs
Game mechanics
Allegory
Laws and rules
Challenge
Story and exaggerated story

Story Elements
Characters
Plot
Tension
Resolution
...and envision multiple potential outcomes!

Satisfaction at Work
45% are satisfied with their jobs
32% seriously considering leaving their jobs
70% are not engaged or actively disengaged

Intrinsic + Extrinsic Motivation


Not opposites, can co-exist
Combine both types when possible
Emphasis depends on the value
of the activity for the learner

Self-Determination Theory
Three intrinsic needs
Competence
Autonomy
Relatedness

The Need for Competence


Success needs to occur in the context
of a real challenge
Clear goal
Challenge must not be overwhelming
Receiving meaningful feedback on our actions

The Need for Competence


Multiple layers of feedback
Granular feedback
Sustained competence feedback
Cumulative competence feedback

The Need for Autonomy


Identity
Avatars

Activity
Strategy

The Need for Relatedness


Acknowledgment
Support
Impact
Cooperation vs. competition
Games as a third place

Immersion
Physical presence
Emotional presence
Narrative presence
Authenticity

Dark Side Addiction


Immediacy
Consistency
Density

Massively Multiplayer
Online Game (MMOs)
Autonomy satisfaction
Open World Structure (increases what if thinking)
Design your own character
Choose among many professions
Explore a large and varied landscape

Competence satisfaction
Variety of challenges to choose from (very easy to very difficult)
Possibilities to exercise your skills at varying intensity
Accomplishments are cumulative

Relatedness satisfaction
Filled with people
Opportunities for fun and cooperation

Zeigarnik effect (unfinished business)


Peer pressure

Dark Side Violence


Blood and gore in video games contribute
to immediate feedback (need for competence)
War games are a good fit to satisfying the needs for
competence, autonomy and relatedness
Exposure to violent video games can increase aggressive
thinking, emotions, and behavior immediately after play.
Others point to trait aggression, family violence
even simply being male as predictors of violent crimes.
Others point to some common personality traits
in those most impacted by violent content.

Benefits of Playing Games


Children use play to gain emotional mastery in real lives
through narratives involving power, aggression, nurturance,
anxiety, pain, loss, growth and joy.
Promote a wide range of cognitive skills
Shooter games: faster, more accurate attention allocation
and filtering, higher spatial resolution in visual processing,
enhanced mental rotational abilities.
Strategy games were also correlated to improved
problem-solving skills.
Possibly enhance creativity

Benefits of Playing Games


Emotional benefits and influences on well-being
Possibly improving attitude towards failure
Improve players moods, promote relaxation, ward anxiety
Can induce flow experiences
Offer a safe and rewarding space for emotion-regulation
strategies (e.g. reappraisal)

Social benefits
Social skills and prosocial behavior
Can bring families closer

Board Games Examples


Red November
Coordination within a team
More time on task is more likely to succeed
Cooperative (with chance of mutiny!)

Zombie Fluxx
Ever-changing rules
Ungoal

Werewolves of Millers Hollow


Observation
Influence

Discussion

GAMES YOUVE
LEARNED FROM
Tell us about a game you have played and learned from.

Definitions

WHAT IS GAMIFICATION?
Gamification is the use of game thinking and game
mechanics in non-game contexts to engage users in
solving problems and increase users self contributions.

Gamification Facts and Statistics


Gamification first emerged in 2008
Ranked #5 on SIOPs Top-10 Workplace Trends for 2014
By 2015, more than 50% of organizations that manage
innovation processes will gamify those processes.
More than 70% of the worlds largest 2,000 companies
are expected to have deployed at least one gamified
application by year-end 2014.
The overall market for gamification tools, services,
and applications is projected to be $5.5 billion by 2018.
Consumer-driven gamification commanded
more than 90% market share in 2011.
80% of current gamified enterprise applications
will fail to meet their objectives, due largely to poor design.

Activity

TRUE OR FALSE?

Gamification and games are different.


Gamification alienates older learners.
There is science behind gamification.
Gamification is only about points,
badges and leaderboards.

Wrong Reasons to Gamify


They are cool/awesome/fun/neat
Everyone is doing it
The learning will be effortless (stealth learning)
Everyone loves games, gamification,
and simulations
Its easy to design them

Right Reasons to Gamify


Creating interactivity in learning delivery
Overcoming disengagement
Providing opportunities for deep thought
and reflection
Positively change behavior
Authentic practice

When to Gamify
Encourage learners
Motivate action
Influence behavior
Drive innovation
Skill building
Knowledge acquisition

Applying Self-Determination
Theory to Gamification
Meaningful choices
Simple steps, simple to complex
Celebrate mastery through rewards
Opportunities to share positive outcomes

Types of Gamification
STRUCTURAL
Applies game elements
to content
Content doesnt change

CONTENT
Applies game elements
Alters content to
become more game-like

Structural Gamification
Affordances
Clear goals
Incremental goals and rewards
Progression
Real-time feedback
Transparency
Status
High stakes/challenge
Time

Structural Gamification
Game Elements
Rules
Reward structures
Leaderboards
Points
Currency
Badges
Leveling up
Social sharing

Content Gamification
Story
Challenge
Curiosity
Character
Interactivity
Feedback
Freedom to fail

Blooms Cognitive Taxonomy


Evaluation
Synthesis
Analysis
Application
Comprehension
Knowledge

Types of Game Activities


Matching
Collecting/capturing
Allocating resources
Strategizing
Building

Puzzle solving
Exploring
Helping
Role Playing

Activity

MATCH IT!
Find examples for types of game activities and match
them to Blooms Taxonomy

Best Practices
Go beyond traditional learning
Make it fun!
Collaborate with others
Add in positive feedback
Learn by example

Gamifying the Classroom


Start with the end goal in mind
Determine the cognitive process related
to the learning outcome
Decide what type of game to use
Use an existing game or develop a new one
Gamification still requires a thoughtful
and creative approach

Gamification of Business
Gamification in training
Gamification in recruitment
Gamification in other workplace contexts
Considerations in gamifying business:
Do not confuse activity with success
Think of the audience as players, not puppets
Clearly identify the business objectives
Design for player-centricity

Gamification Criticism
The word gamification
Lack of awareness of long-term negative impact
Short-term failure in 80% of businesses

Gamifying Scientific Research

Gamifying Innovation

Gamifying Ruby on Rails

Gamifying Q&As

Gamifying Email

Gamifying ePortfolios

Gamifying massive collaboration

Gamification of Fitness
Get Up & Move! (Lve-toi et bouge!)
Fitocracy
Zombies, Run!

Get Up & Move!

Fitocracy

Zombies, Run!

Activity

TRUE OR FALSE

Gamification and games are different.


Gamification alienates older learners.
There is science behind gamification.
Gamification is only about points, badges
and leaderboards.

Activity

WHAT ELSE?
Tell us about other examples of gamification
you have experience or have heard of.

Discussion

INSTITUTE OF PLAY
Would you register your child in a similar school?

Authors
Karl Kapp
Jane McGonigal
Adam Penenberg
Scott Rigby
Richard M. Ryan
Jesse Schell
Gabe Zichermann

Recommended Readings
Play at Work
The Gamification of Learning
and Instruction Fieldbook
The Art of Game Design
Glued to Games
Gamification of Learning

References
20 killed in kites flying festival in Pakistan. (2005, February 7). The China Daily.
Retrieved November 30, 2014, from http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/english/doc/200502/07/content_415871.htm
Andersen, P. (2012, April 24). Classroom Game Design. Retrieved November 30, 2014,
from http://tedxtalks.ted.com/video/TEDxBozeman-Paul-Andersen-Class
Burke, B. (2013). The gamification of business. Forbes. Retrieved from
http://www.forbes.com/sites/gartnergroup/2013/01/21/the-gamification-of-business/
Denny, J. (2014, November 1). Gamification: Intrinsic Motivation for Lasting
Engagement. eLearning Industry. Retrieved November 30, 2014, from
http://elearningindustry.com/gamification-intrinsic-motivation-lasting-engagement
Gamification. (2014, November 29). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 30, 2014, from
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamification
Granic, I., Lobel, A., & Engels, R. (2014). The benefits of playing video games.
American Psychologist, 66-78.

References
Harvey, F. (2013, August 13). Facebook game Fraxinus targeted at beating
ash dieback. The Guardian. Retrieved December 1, 2014, from
http://www.theguardian.com/environment/2013/aug/13/ash-dieback-facebookfraxinus-game
Hixson, Kate. (2013, October 17). How To Gamify Your Classroom. Edudemic. Retrieved
December 1, 2014, from http://www.edudemic.com/how-to-gamify-your-classroom/
Institute of Play (2014). About. Retrieved from http://www.instituteofplay.org/about/
Kapp, K. (2014, March 19). Gamification: Separating Fact From Fiction.
Retrieved November 30, 2014, from http://www.clomedia.com/articles/gamificationseparating-fact-from-fiction
Kapp, K. (2014, October 9). Gamification of Learning. Lecture conducted from
Lynda.com.
Kapp, K. (2014). The gamification of learning and instruction fieldbook ideas into
practice. San Francisco, CA: Wiley.

References
Kuo, I. (2014, November 10). If You Run, You Dont Get Eaten: A Study on Workout
Gamification. Retrieved November 30, 2014, from
http://www.gamification.co/2014/11/11/run-dont-get-eaten-study-workoutgamification/
LA Noire: Official Story Trailer. (2011, January 24). Retrieved November 30, 2014,
from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=skAkfQr3e-4
Lardinois, F. (2014, February 18). Duolingo Raises $20M Series C Led by Kleiner
Perkins To Dominate Online Language Learning. TechCrunch. Retrieved November 30,
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M. Duvernet, A., & Popp, E. (2014). Gamification of Workplace Practices. The
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Marshall, K. (2013, June 5). 5 Best Practices for Incorporating Games into
Training Courses. eLearning Industry. Retrieved November 30, 2014, from
http://elearningindustry.com/5-best-practices-for-incorporating-games-into-trainingcourses
Nicholson, S. (2012, June). A User-Centered Theoretical Framework for Meaningful
Gamification. Paper presented at Games+Learning+Society 8.0, Madison, WI.

References
Penenberg, A. (2013). Play at work: How games inspire breakthrough thinking.
New York: Portfolio.
Rauch, M. (2012, October 6). Gamification is here: build a winning plan! Retrieved
from http://slideshare.net/MartaRauch/gamification-is-here-build-a-winning-plan
Rigby, S., & Ryan, R. (2011). Glued to games: how video games draw us
in and hold us spellbound. Santa Barbara, California: ABC-CLIO.
Schell, J. (2008). The art of game design: A book of lenses. Amsterdam:
Elsevier/Morgan Kaufmann.
Shukla, R. (2014, January 11). Jaipur youth to help save birds during kite festival.
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Steinkuehler, C. (2013, October 28). Games as Third Places.
Video games and Learning. Lecture conducted from Coursera.org.
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References
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