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AbbottAnimalHospitalDictionaryListingOfCommonVeterinaryTerminology

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Dr.MohsenM.GomaaDr.AshrafM.Gomaa

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DictionaryListingOfCommonVeterinaryTerminology

A
AAFCO
AssociationofAmericanFeedControlOfficialsanorganizationwhichsetsstandards
forpetfoodingredientsandminimumdailyrequirements.
Abdomen
Aregionofthebodybetweenthechestandthepelvisbelly.
Abdominocentesis
Theinsertionofaneedleintotheabdominalcavitytoremovefluids.
Abscess
Alocalizedaccumulationofpususuallyassociatedwithinfection.
ACEinhibitor
Angiotensinconvertingenzyme(ACE)inhibitor:Drugwhichdecreasesthefunctionof
thisparticularenzyme.Theangiotensinconvertingenzymechangesacompoundcalled
angiotensinItoangiotensinII.AngiotensinIIisapotentbloodvesselconstrictor.ACE
inhibitors,then,havetheeffectofdilatingbloodvessels,sincelessAngiotensinIIis
produced.
Acid
Afluidcontainingahighproportionofhydrogenions,givingtheliquidasourtaste.
MeasuredbypHunits,with1themostacid,and14theleastacid.Chemicalreactions
inthebodyhavetotakeplaceatornearneutrality,pH7.
ACTH
Adrenocorticotropichormone.Ahormone,secretedbythepituitarygland,which
stimulatestheadrenalglandtowork.
Activatedcharcoal
Charcoalwhichhasbeentreatedtoincreaseitsadsorptivepower(abilitytohave
chemicalsadheretoit)usedtotreatvariousformsofpoisoning.
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Activeimmunity
Immunityproducedwhenananimalsownimmunesystemreactstoastimuluse.g.,a
virusorbacteria,andproducesantibodiesandcellswhichwillprotectitfromthe
diseasecausedbythebacteriaorvirus.Comparewith'passiveimmunity.'
Acute
Havingasuddenandgenerallysevereonset.SeealsoChronic.
Addisonsdisease
Addison'sdiseaseisalsoknownashypoadrenocorticism.Itisadiseasethatresults
fromadecreaseincorticosteroidsecretionfromtheadrenalgland.Seearticle:
Addison'sDisease(Hypoadrenocorticism)inDogs.
Adjuvant
Asubstanceaddedtokilledvaccinestostimulateabetterimmuneresponsebythe
body.Commonadjuvantscontainaluminumcompounds.

Adrenalglands
Twosmallglandsnearthekidneysthatproducemanyhormonesrequiredforlife.
Adrenaline
Ahormoneproducedbytheadrenalglandsthatelevatesheartandrespirationrates
alsocalled'epinephrine.'
Adrenergic
Communicationbetweenthenervesandmusclesthatusesepinephrineasthe
'messenger.'Adrenergicstimulationiswhatisinvolvedinthe'flightorfight'response,
whichmeansthebodyisalertedtoadangerofsomesortandpreparestobasicallyrun
orfight.Adrenergicstimulationresultsinanincreasedheartrate,sweating,and
increasedbloodpressure.
Adsorbent
Asolidsubstancewhichattractsothermoleculestoitssurface.
Adulticide
Medicationformulatedtokilladultformsofaparasite.
Aerobic
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Needingoxygentolive.SeealsoAnaerobicbacteria.
Aerobicbacteria
Bacteriathatrequireoxygentosurviveandgrow.
Agglutination
Clumpingtogether.
Albino
Ananimalthatiscompletelywhitebecauseitlackstheabilitytomakepigment.Its
eyesarepaleblueorpink.
Albumin
Aproteininthebloodresponsibleforthemaintenanceofosmotic(water)pressurein
thebloodalsobinds(attaches)tolargemoleculesinthebloodandservestotransport
themproducedbytheliveralsocalled'serumalbumin.'
Aldosterone
Ahormonesecretedbytheadrenalglandthatstimulatessodium(andthereforewater)
retentionandpotassiumexcretionimportantinbloodpressuremaintenance.
Alimentary
Pertainingtofoodorthedigestivetract.
Alkaline
Asubstancewithveryfewhydrogenions,andapHover7.Lyeisstronglyalkaline.
Allergen
Asubstancethatcausesanallergicreaction,e.g.,pollen.
Alopecia
Alossofhairorbaldness.
Alveoli
Thetinymicroscopicareasofthelungwheretheactualexchangeofoxygenand
carbondioxideintoandoutofthebloodoccurs.Alsocalledalveolusandalveolarsacs.
Aminoglycoside
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Aclassofantibioticswhichactbyinterferingwithbacterialproteinsynthesiswithin
thebacteriawhichresultsinthedeathofthebacteria.Antibioticsinthisclassinclude
gentamicin(Gentocin),kanamycin,neomycin,streptomycin,tobramycin,and
amikacin.Manyoftheseantibioticsarenotwellabsorbedfromtheanimal'sdigestive
system,soareoftenadministeredasinjections,orusedtopically.
Amylase
Digestiveenzyme,producedbythepancreaswhichbreaksdowncarbohydratesand
starches.
Anabolicsteroid
Atypeofsteroid(notacorticosteroidlikeprednisone,cortisone,ordexamethasone)
whichpromotesthebuildingoftissues,likemuscle.
Anaerobicbacteria
Bacteriawhichonlyliveinanenvironmentinwhichthereisnoorlittleoxygen,e.g.,
Clostridiumtetaniwhichcausestetanus.
Analgesia
Painrelief.
Anamnesticresponse
Thefasterandgreaterimmuneresponseproducedbyananimalwhohaspreviously
encounteredthatspecificantigen.Memorycellsareresponsibleforthismoreefficient
response.Alsocalled'secondaryresponse.'
Anaphylaxis
Anaphylaxisisarare,lifethreatening,immediateallergicreactiontosomething
ingestedorinjected.Ifuntreated,itresultsinshock,respiratoryandcardiacfailure,and
death.Seearticle:AnaphylaxisinDogsandCats.Mayalsobereferredtoas
anaphylacticshockoranaphylactoidreaction.
Androgen
Ahormonewhichproducesmalesexualcharacteristics,e.g.,testosterone.
Anemia
Aconditioninwhichthenumberofredbloodcellspresentinthebloodislowerthan
normal.
Anesthesia
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Lossofsensationorfeelinginducedartificiallywithdrugstopermitpainful
proceduressuchassurgery.
Angiography
Thexrayofvesselsafterinjectingacontrastingfluid.
Angiotensinconvertingenzymeinhibitor
(ACEinhibitor)Drugwhichdecreasesthefunctionofthisparticularenzyme.The
angiotensinconvertingenzymechangesacompoundcalledangiotensinIto
angiotensinII.AngiotensinIIisapotentbloodvesselconstrictor.ACEinhibitors,then,
havetheeffectofdilatingbloodvessels,sincelessAngiotensinIIisproduced.
Anisocoria
Aconditioninwhichthepupilsoftheeyesarenotofequalsize.

Anorexia
Lossofappetite.
Anterior
Positionedinfrontofanotherbodypart,ortowardstheheadoftheanimal.Oppositeof
posterior.
Anthelmintic
Medicationwhichkillscertaintypesofintestinalwormsdewormer.
Antibiotics
Usuallyreferstodrugsadministeredtokillorinhibitthegrowthofbacterianot
effectiveagainstviralinfections.
Antibody
Smalldiseasefightingproteinsproducedbycertaintypesofcellscalled'Bcells.'The
proteinsaremadeinresponseto'foreign'particlessuchasbacteriaorviruses.These
antibodiesbindwithcertainproteins(antigens)onforeignparticleslikebacteria,to
helpinactivatethem.SeealsoAntigen.
Antibodytiter
Ameasurementoftheamountofantibodiesintheblood.Thetesttomeasure
antibodiesisusuallyperformedbymakinganumberofdilutionsofthebloodandthen
measuringatwhatdilutionthereissufficientantibodytoreactinthetest.Forexample,
atiterof1:8(onetoeight)meansthebloodcanbedilutedtoonepartbloodandseven
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partssalineandstillproduceapositivereactioninthetest.Thehigherthetiter(1:16is
higherthan1:8),themoreantibodyispresent.
Anticholinergic
Stoppingthecommunicationsbetweencertainnervesandmusclesofthebody
includingthoseofthegastrointestinaltractandheart.Thesenervesarecalled
'parasympathetic'nervesanddosuchthingsasconstrictthepupilsoftheeye,stimulate
contractionsofthemusclesintheintestine,andslowtheheartrate.Anticholinergic
drugswouldhavetheeffect,then,ofdilatingthepupil,slowingcontractionsofthe
intestines,andincreasingtheheartrate.
Anticholinesterase
Adrugthatblockstheenzymeacetylcholinesterasethisresultsinstimulationofthe
parasympatheticnervoussystem.
Anticoagulation
Stoppingthebloodclottingprocess.
Anticonvulsant
Adrugusedtopreventordecreasetheseverityofconvulsions.
Antidiuretichormone
Ahormoneproducedbythepituitaryglandthatreducestheproductionofurineinthe
kidneysandthereforepreventswaterlossalsocalled'vasopressin.'
Antiemetic
Anagentthatdecreasesorstopsvomiting.
Antifungal
Drugsadministeredtokillorinhibitthegrowthoffungi(pluraloffungus).

Antigen
Amolecularstructureonsurfacesofsuchparticlesasbacteriaandviruses.This
structureisrecognizedbythebodyas'foreign'andstimulatesthebodytoproduce
specialproteinscalledantibodiestoinactivatethisforeigninvader.SeealsoAntibody.
Antiprotozoal
Anagentthatkillsprotozoa,whichareonecelledorganismssuchasGiardia.

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Antipruritic
Relievesitching.
Antipyretic
Asubstanceusedtorelievefever.
Antiseptic
Asubstancewhichinhibitsthegrowthofbacteria,butdoesnotkillthem.
Antispasmodic
Anagentthatrelievesordecreasesspasmsinmuscle.Themusclecouldinclude
'smoothmuscle'whichisthetypeofmuscleinintestinesthatcausesthemtocontract
andmovefoodthroughthedigestivesystem.
Antitussive
Coughsuppressant.
Anuria
Theconditionofcompletefailureinthefunctionofthekidneyssuchthatnourineis
produced.
Anus
Amuscularopeningattheendofthedigestivetractwherefecalwasteisexpelled.
Aplasticanemia
Aseriousconditioninwhichredbloodcells,whitebloodcells,andplateletsarenot
producedinsufficientquantity.
Aqueoushumor
Thefluidfoundwithintheeyeballwhichprovidesnourishmenttotheinterioreye
structuresandkeepstheeyeballinflated.
Arrhythmia
Avariationfromnormalheartrhythm.
Arteries
Thickwalledvesselsthatcarrybloodawayfromthehearttothelungsandbody
tissuesthepulmonaryarteriescarrydeoxygenatedbloodtothelungs,butallother
arteriescarryoxygenatedblood.
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Arthritis
Inflammationandswellinginthejointshasmultiplecausesincludinglameness.
Articular
Pertainingtoajoint.
Ascarid
Roundworm.Seearticle:RoundwormsinDogsandCats.

Ascites
Fluidaccumulationintheabdomen.
Aspirate
Withdrawfluidorcellsthroughtheuseofsuctionusuallythesuctionproducedby
pullingbackontheplungerofasyringeattachedtoaneedlewhichisinsertedintothe
areatobesampled.Alsothebreathinginofafluidorforeignsubstances.
Asymptomatic
Atermusedtodecideaconditioninwhichnosymptomsarepresent.
Ataxia
Alackofmusclecoordination,usuallycausinganabnormalorstaggeredgait.
Atopy
Anallergytosomethingthatisinhaledsuchaspollenorhousedust.Alsocalled
'inhalantallergy.'SeearticlesintheAllergiessection.
ATP
Adenosinetriphosphateacompoundusedforenergybycells.
Atrialfibrillation
Aheartconditioninwhichtheatria(chambersoftheheartthatreceivetheblood)
contractrapidly,irregularly,andindependentlyoftheventricles(thechambersofthe
heartthatpumptheblood).Thisgreatlydecreasestheefficiencyoftheheartandits
abilitytomoveblood.
Atrialflutter
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Aheartconditioninwhichtheatria(chambersoftheheartthatreceivetheblood)
contractrapidly,irregularly,andindependentlyoftheventricles(thechambersofthe
heartthatpumptheblood).Thisgreatlydecreasestheefficiencyoftheheartandits
abilitytomoveblood.
Atrium
(Pluralatria)Thetwochambersoftheheartthatreceiveblood.Therightatrium
receivesbloodfromthebody.Theleftatriumreceivesoxygenatedbloodfromthe
lungs.
Atrophy
Anabnormaldecreaseinsizeofanorganortissue.
Attenuated
Weakened.Anattenuatedvirusisonewhichhasbeenchangedsuchthatitwillno
longercausedisease.Anattenuatedviruswouldbeusedinamodifiedlivevaccine.
Auscultate
Tolistenforsoundsproducedwithinthebody,usuallywiththeaidofastethoscope.
Autoimmune
Aconditioninwhichtheimmunesystemattacksthebody'sowntissues.Toproperly
function,theimmunesystemmustidentifyforeignsubstancessuchasbacteria,viruses,
parasites,slivers,etc.,anditmustbeabletodistinguishnormalbodytissuefromthese
foreignsubstances.Ifitfailstodistinguishthedifference,itattemptstodestroythe
tissueitwronglyidentifiesasforeign.Forexample,inautoimmunehemolyticanemia,
thebodydestroysitsownredbloodcells.Inrheumatoidarthritisitattacksthecellsin
thejoints.
Axilla
Armpit.
Azotemia
Thepresenceofincreasednitrogenous(containingnitrogen)wasteproductsinthe
bloodasaresultofkidneymalfunction.
B
Bcell
Alsocalled'Blymphocyte.'Thetypeoflymphocytewhichproducesantibody.
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Comparewith'Tcells.'
Bacteriocidal
Adescriptionofanagentthatkillsbacteria.
Bacteriostatic
Adescriptionofanagentthatstopsthegrowth(reproduction)ofbacteria,butdoes
NOTkillthem.
Bacterium
Microscopicorganismsthatlacknucleiandotherorganellespathogenicspeciescause
disease,whilenonpathogenicspeciesareharmless.
BariumStudy
Aprocedureinwhichapetisgivenbariumtoswalloworasanenema,followedbyx
rayexamstolocatedisordersoftheesophagus,stomachorintestine.
Benign
Amildillnessornonmalignantformofatumor.Benigntumorsusuallyhavewell
definededgesandtendtogrowslowly.
Betablockers
Heartmedicationswhichblockcertainreceptorsintheheartcalledbetareceptors.The
betareceptorsreceivesignalswhichgenerallyincreasetheheartrate.Iftheheartrateis
abnormallyfastanduneven,betablockerswillhelpstabilizetherateandrhythmof
contractions.
Betacarotene
AplantpigmentwhichcanbeconvertedtoVitaminAbymanyanimals,butnotby
cats.
Betalactamases
Enzymesproducedbysomebacteriawhichinactivatecertaintypesofpenicillin,thus
makingthebacteriaresistanttothem.
Bilateral
Onbothsides.
Bile
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Aliquidproducedbytheliver,storedinthegallbladder,anddispensedintothesmall
intestineasneededaidsinthedigestionandabsorptionoffats.
Bileacids
Certaincompoundsproducedbytheliver,boundtoaminoacids,andexcretedinthe
biletoaidinthedigestionoffats.
Bilirubin
Anorangeyellowpigmentinbilethatisaproductofredbloodcellbreakdownitis
normallyexcretedwiththeurineorfeces,andabuildupinthebodycancausejaundice.
Biopsy
Thesurgicalremovalofasmallamountofabnormaltissue,usuallyoftumors,for
diagnosis.
Bitch
Afemaledog.
Bladder
Asacthatreceivesandholdsaliquiduntilitisexcreted,e.g.,urinarybladder,gall
bladderinfish,theswimbladderholdsair.
Blepharospasm
Spasmoftheeyelidsoftenresultingincompleteclosureofthelidsduetoeyepain,
suchasseenwithascratchonthecornea.
Bloat
Fillingofthestomachwithair.
Bloodgases
Gases,suchasoxygenorcarbondioxide,thatareintheblood.
Bloodglucose
Agraphofbloodglucoselevelsovertime.Atthetimeofinsulininjection,andat
regularintervalsthroughouttheday,thelevelofglucoseinthebloodisdetermined
throughlaboratorytesting.
Bonemarrow
Asofttissuecomposedofbloodvesselsandconnectivetissuesfoundatthecenterof
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bonestheprimaryfunctionisbloodcellproduction.
Bonemarrowsuppression
Aconditioninwhichthecellsofthebonemarrowwhichproduceredbloodcells,
whitebloodcells,andplateletsareinhibited.Thismayresultfromtheuseofcertain
drugs,suchasanticanceragents.
Borborygmus
Thesoundofgasmovingthroughtheintestinebowelsounds.
Bradycardia
Anabnormalslowingoftheheartrate.
Bronchi
Thepluralofbronchus,thelargeairpassagesofthelungs.
Bronchiole
Thesmallairwaysinthelungthatcomeoffofthelargerbronchusbronchiolesare1
mmorlessindiameter.
Bronchodilator
Medicationwhichopensupthemainairpassagestothelungs.
Bronchoscope
Atooldesignedtofacilitateinspectionofthetracheaandbronchiusedinboth
diagnosticandtherapeuticprocedures.
Bronchoscopy
Theinternalinspectionofthetracheaandbronchiusingabronchoscope.

Bronchospasm
Aconditioninwhichthemusclessurroundingtheairpassagestothelungscontract,
narrowingthepassages.
BUN
Shortfor'bloodureanitrogen,'abloodtestthatestimateskidneyfunction.
C
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Cachexia
Extremeweightloss.
Calcified
Thehardeningoftissuethroughtheinfluxofcalcium,usuallyasaresultofchronic
inflammation.
Calculus
(Pluralcalculi)Abnormalstonelikestructure(s)usuallycomposedofmineralsalts,
e.g.,abladdercalculusisthesamethingasabladderstone.
Calorie
Theunitofmeasurementofenergyderivedfromdigestedfood.Fatcontainsabout
twiceasmanycaloriespergramasproteinorcarbohydrate.
Cancer
Amalignanttumor.
Candida
Acertaingenusofyeastwhichcancausediseaseinhumansandanimalsaninfection
withCandidaiscalledcandidiasis.
Canine
Pertainingtodogs.
Carbohydrate
Compoundsmadeupofchainsofsugarunits.Simplecarbohydratesincludetablesugar
(sucrose),milksugar(lactose),andfruitsugar(fructose).Complexcarbohydratesare
verylongchainsheldtogetherbybondsthatmaynotbedigestibleinthestomachand
intestineofacarnivore.Starchisadigestiblecomplexcarbohydrate.Seedhullssuchas
oatbranaredigestiblebyruminantsandhorses,butnotcarnivores.
Carcinogen
Asubstancewhichcausescancer.
Carcinoma
Amalignantcancerthatarisesfromtheepithelialtissuesofthebodysuchastheskin,
intestinaltract,andbladder.
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Cardiac
Relatedtotheheart.
Cardiomyopathy
Diseasesoftheheartmuscledoesnotincludediseasesofthevalvesoftheheartor
congenitaldefects.
Cardiopulmonary
Relatingtotheheartandlungs.
Cardiovascular
Relatedtotheheartandbloodvessels.
Carnivore
Ananimalwhosenaturaldietincludesmeat.
Carpus
Thewrist(frontleg)ofdogsandcats.
Carrier
Ananimalwhichharborsaninfectiousorganism,suchasavirus,bacteria,orparasite.
Theanimaldoesnotappearill,butcanstilltransmittheorganismtootheranimalsby
directcontactorreleasingtheorganisms(bacteria,protozoa,viruses)intothe
environmentinthestool,urine,respiratorysecretions,orvaginaldischarges.
Castration
Theremovalofthesexorgansmakingtheanimalincapableofreproductionthecorrect
useofthewordcanbeusedtodescribebothmaleandfemaleanimals,butitis
commonlyusedtodescribeonlymales.
Cataract
Acloudinessofthelensoftheeye,reducingvisionandgivingtheeyeapearly
appearance.
Caudal
Adirectionaltermusedtorefertoanareamoretowardthecauda,ortailregion
oppositeofcranial.

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Cavalsyndrome
Diseasecausedbylargenumbersofwormsintherightsideoftheheartandvenacava,
whichresultsinbloodcirculationproblemsintheliverleadingtothebreakdownofred
bloodcells,anemia,weakness,andcollapse.
Cecum
Ablindsacthatopensintothecolonfoundinmanyanimals.
Cellmediatedimmunity
Theimmunitythatistheresultofeitherspeciallymphocytesdirectlykillingtheforeign
invader,orlymphocytes(Tcells)releasingspecialchemicalswhichactivate
macrophagestokilltheinvader.Comparewith'humoralimmunity.'
Centrifuge
Amachinethatrapidlyspinsliquidsamplesandseparatesouttheparticlesbytheir
density.
Cerebellum
Aportionofthebrain,locatedonthebrainstem,thatcontrolscoordination.
Cerebral
Relatingtothepartofthebrainknownasthecerebrum.
Cerebrum
Thelargestportionofthebrainthatperformsallhighercognitivefunctionsandis
situatedinthefrontpartofthecranialcavity.

Chelation
Bindingofasubstancetoametal,thushelpingthebodytoremoveit.
Chemotherapy
Treatmentofadiseasewithchemicalagents(drugs)thetermismostcommonlyused
todescribethetreatmentofcancerwithmedication.
Cholangiohepatitis
Inflammationofthegallbladder,bileducts,andliver
Cholangitis
Inflammationofabileductseecholecystitis.
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Cholecystitis
Inflammationofthegallbladderseecholangitis.
Chondroitin
Decreasestheactivityofenzymeswhichbreakdowncartilageinajoint.
Chondroprotectiveagent
Anutritionalsupplementthatprotectscartilage.
Chronic
Ofalongduration:achronicillnesspersistsforweeks,months,orevenforthelifeof
animal.Seealsoacute.
Chronicsuperficialkeratitis
Achronicconditionoftheeyeinwhichbloodvesselsgrowacrossthecornea(theclear
surfaceoftheeye).Thecornealookshazyandsometimesreddeneditmayeventually
takeonadarkpigment.Thisconditionisalsocalledpannus.
Cirrhosis
Aliverdiseasecausedbythereplacementofdamagedcellswithconnectivetissue
severescarringcaneventuallycauseliverfailure.
ClassI,II,III,IVmedications
DrugsareclassifiedbytheDrugEnforcementAdministrationoftheDepartmentof
Justicedependinguponsuchcriteriaasthepotentialforhumanabuse.
Clinicalstudy
Aplannedexaminationoftheeffectivenessofanewdrugortreatmentforadiseaseas
comparedtoacontrolgroupnotreceivingthetreatmentalsocalledaclinicaltrial.
Clottingfactors
Proteincomponentsinthebloodwhichhelpittoclot.Clottingisacomplex
mechanism.Inadditiontoplatelets,clotformationistheresultofalongchainof
chemicalreactionscarriedoutbyindividualmoleculescalled'clottingfactors.'Each
factorisnumberedsuchthatfactorIleadstoareactionwithfactorIIforminganew
substance.ThisthenreactswithfactorIIIandsoontofactorXII.
CNS
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Centralnervoussystem.Includesthebrain,spinalcord,andthenervesleadingfrom
them.
Coagulation
Theprocessofclotting.
Coagulopathy
Aconditionaffectingtheblood'sabilitytoformaclot.
Coccidia
Aonecelledparasiteinthecategoryofprotozoa.Indogsandcats,coccidiaare
generallyparasitesoftheintestinaltract.Seearticle:CoccidiainDogsandCats.
Cognitivedysfunction
Acommonmedicalconditioninolderdogsthatresultsfromabnormalbrainfunction,
causingcertainbehaviorchangessuchasdisorientation,housebreakingproblems,and
changesinsleepingpatternsandinteractionswithothers.
Colitis
Aninfectionorinflammationofthecolon.
Colon
Apartofthedigestivetract,specificallythepartoflargeintestinethatextendsfromthe
cecumtotherectum.
Colostrum
Theantibodyrichfirstmilkproducedimmediatelybeforeandaftergivingbirth.
Coma
Beinginastateofunconsciousness.
Comedo
Ablackhead,usuallytheresultofapluggedglandwithintheskin.
Completebloodcount
Acountofthetotalnumberofcellsinagivenamountofblood,includingtheredand
whitebloodcellsoftenreferredtoasa'CBC,'itisoneofthemostcommontestsdone
tocheckforabnormalitiesoftheblood.
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Computerizedtomographyscan(CTscan)
Aradiologicalimagingprocedurethatusesxraypicturestoproduce"slices"througha
patient'sbodyalsocalledacomputerizedaxialtomography(CAT).

Conception
Theonsetofpregnancy,whenthefertilizedeggattachestotheuterus.
Congenital
Acharacteristicofananimalthatispresentatbirth.Itmaybeinheritedorinducedby
eventsthatoccurduringpregnancy.
Conjunctiva
Athinmembranewhichlinestheinsideoftheeyelidsandcoverspartoftheeyeball.
Conjunctivitis
Aninflammationoftheliningoftheeyelidsmaycausepain,redness,itching,anda
discharge.
Constipation
Aconditioninwhichthemovementoffoodthroughthedigestivesystemislongerthan
normaloftenresultsinhard,drystool.
Contrastagents
Asubstancegivenorallyorinjectedintoapatientthatmakestheaffectedtissueeasier
toidentifyonanxray.

Contusion
Aninjurytounderlyingtissueswithoutbreakingtheskinabruise.
Coprophagia
Eatingdungorfecalmatternormalbehaviorinsomeanimals,suchasrabbits.
Corevaccine
Vaccinewhichshouldbegiventoallanimalsofcertainspecies,example,parvovirus
vaccineindogsorpanleukopeniaincats(seenoncorevaccine).
Cornea
Theclearpartofthefrontoftheeyewhichallowslightin.
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Corticosteroid
Hormonesproducedbytheadrenalglandwhichareimportanttoalmosteveryfunction
ofcellsandorgans.Theyaredividedintotwogroups:glucocorticoidsand
mineralocorticoids.Glucocorticoidsregulateprotein,carbohydrate,andfatmetabolism.
Mineralocorticoidsregulateelectrolytebalances.
Cortisol
Themainglucocorticoidahormonenaturallyproducedbytheadrenalglanditis
synthesizedcommerciallyashydrocortisoneandisusedtoreduceinflammation.
Coumestan
Estrogenlikesubstanceproducedbycertainplantssuchasalfalfatypesof
phytoestrogen.
Coumestral
Estrogenlikesubstancesproducedbycertainplantssuchasalfalfatypesof
phytoestrogen.
Cranial
Adirectionaltermusedtorefertotheareanearthecranium,orheadregionopposite
ofcaudal.
Crust
Areaofdriedfluidorcellsontheskin.Thefluidmayhavebeenblood,serum,pus,or
medication.
Culture
Theprocessinwhichasampleoffluidortissueistakenfromananimalandplacedin
specialmediawhichallowsthebacteria,virus,etc.,togrow(reproduce)inthe
laboratory.
Cushingsdisease
Cushing'sdiseaseisalsoknownashyperadrenocorticism.Itisadiseasethatresults
fromanincreaseincorticosteroidsecretionfromtheadrenalgland.Seearticle:
Cushing'sDisease(Hyperadrenocorticism)inDogs.
Cutaneous
Relatingtotheskin.

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Cyanosis
Bluishorgrayishcolortotheskinandgumswhichoccurswhentheanimalhas
insufficientoxygen.
Cyst
Anabnormalsaclikestructurethatislinedwithcellswhichproducealiquidorthick
material.
Cystitis
Inflammationoftheurinarybladder.
Cystocentesis
Amethodtoobtainanuncontaminatedurinesampleinwhichaneedleispassed
throughtheabdomenintotheurinarybladder,andtheurineiscollectedinasyringe
attachedtotheneedle.
Cytokines
Compoundsproducedbycertaincells,whichactasmessengerstocontroltheactionof
lymphocytesandothercellsinanimmuneresponse.
Cytology
Thestudyofcellsoftenreferstothemicroscopicexaminationofasampletakenfrom
theskinorlesiontolookforthecauseofacondition.
Cytoplasm
Substanceswhichmakeuptheinsideofacellandsurroundthenucleusofthecell
whichcontainsthegeneticmaterial.
D
DEA
DrugEnforcementAdministration.Thefederalagencywhichregulatesthe
manufacture,dispensing,storage,andshipmentofcontrolledsubstancesincluding
medicationswithhumanabusepotential.
Decontaminate
Removeinjuriousmaterial.
Defecation
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Theeliminationoffecesfromtherectum.
Dehydration
Aconditioninwhichthebodylosesmorewaterthanittakesin.
Dermal
Relatingtotheskin.
Dermatitis
Aninflammationoftheskin.
Dermatophyte
FungusthatcausesringwormincludeTrichophyton,Microsporum,and
Epidermophyton.
Descenting
Theremovaloftheanalsacsofacarnivoretopreventtheanimalfromreleasingthe
verystrongsmellingsecretion.
Dextrose
Acommonlyusednameforglucose(sugar)solutionsgivenintravenouslytotreatfluid
ornutrientloss.
Diabetesmellitus
Ametabolicdiseasecausedbyfailureofthepancreastoproduceinsulin,ahormone
thatallowsbloodsugar(glucose)tobetakenupbycellsthatrequireitforfunction.
Diagnostictests
Proceduresruntofindthecauseofdiseaseordiscomforttestsusedtomakea
diagnosis.
Dialysis
Aprocesswhichinvolvesremovingwasteproductsfromthebody.
Diarrhea
Aconditioninwhichthemovementoffoodthroughthedigestivesystemisfasterthan
normaloftenresultsinthefrequentpassingofabnormallylooseorwaterystool.

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Diestrus
Thestageoftheestruscyclewhichoccursaftertheanimalgoesoutofheat(alsocalled
Diestrous).
Dietaryindiscretion
Eatingwhatoneshouldnot.Dogswithdietaryindiscretioneatgarbage,deadfishon
shore,etc.
Digestibility
Expressedasapercent,isameasureofthecontentoffoodthatisretainedinthebody
afterfoodiseaten.Thedifferencebetweentheweightoffoodeatenandtheweightof
stoolproduced,dividedbytheweightofthefood.
Digestivesystem
Theorgansystemincludingthemouth,teeth,tongue,esophagus,stomach,intestines,
andvariousglandsthatfunctionstoingest,digest,andabsorbnutrients.
Digitalisglycosides
Classofdrugsincludingdigitoxinanddigoxin,whicharedrugsderivedfromthe
Digitalispurpureaplant,andusedinthetreatmentofcongestiveheartfailure.
Dilatedcardiomyopathy
Aheartconditioninwhichtheheartenlarges,buttheheartmusclebecomesthinner.
Disinfection
Theactofusingchemicalsorheattokillgerms.
Distemper
Caninedistemperisaviraldiseasethatcausesasevereandoftenfatalsystemicillness
indogsandtheircloserelatives.Distemperisalsofatalinanimalssuchasraccoons,
andmustelidsincludingskunks,mink,andferrets.
Diuresis
Increaseinurineproduction.
Diuretic
Agentwhichincreasesthesecretionofurine,riddingthebodyofexcessfluid.
Diurnal
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Activeduringtheday,oppositeofnocturnal,whichmeansactiveduringthenight.
DNA
Deoxyribonucleicacid,thechemicalcompoundthatoccursincellsandisthebasic
structureforgenes.
Domesticanimal
Ananimalthathasbeenhousedandfedbymanforgenerationsandhaslittlefearof
manasaresult.Somedomesticanimalslearntodependonhumanprovisionso
completelythattheyhavelittleabilitytosurviveifreturnedtoanaturalhabitat.
DryEye
Keratoconjunctivitissicca(KCS)isthetechnicaltermforaconditionalsoknownas
'dryeye.'Itoccursbecauseofinadequatetearproduction.Symptomsincludeathick,
yellowishdischargefromtheeye.
Duodenum
Thefirstportionofthesmallintestineextendingfromthestomachtothejejunummost
chemicaldigestionandabsorptionofnutrientsoccurshere.
Durationofimmunity
Lengthoftimeananimalisprotectedfromadisease.Vaccinesforsomediseases
providelongdurationsofimmunity(years),whilevaccinesforsomeotherdiseases
onlyprovideimmunitythatlastsfor6months.
Dysphagia
Difficultyswallowing.
Dysplasia
Anabnormaltissuedevelopment,commoninthebonesofthecanine.
Dyspnea
Shortnessofbreath.
Dystocia
Difficultbirth.
Dystrophic
Disordercausedbyincorrectnutrition.
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Dysuria
Difficultorpainfulurination.
E
Earcanal
Thetubethatconnectstheexternalearwiththeeardrum.
Eardrum
Themembranethatdividestheouterearfromtheinnerear,wherethemechanismof
hearingtakesplace.Themembranepreventsinfectionfromreachingtheinnerear,as
wellasvibratingtoamplifysounds.
Earmites
Smallparasiticinsectsthatliveintheearcanalofananimal,andthatareableto
surviveoutsidetheearforonlyveryshortperiodsoftime.
ECG
Aprintoutofananalysisoftheelectricalactivityintheheart.

Echocardiogram
Theimageproducedbyperforminganultrasoundexaminationoftheheart.
Ectoparasite
Aparasitethatlivesontheoutsidesurfaceorskinofanotheranimal.Ectoparasites
includefleas,ticks,lice,andmangemites.
Ectopic
Nonmalignanttissuegrowinginanunusuallocation(e.g.,anectopicpregnancyis
conceptionofanormalembryooutsidethenormallocation,whichistheuterus).
Edema
Aconditioninwhichthetissuesofthebodycontaintoomuchbodyfluid.Thefluid
accumulationmaycauseswellingintheaffectedarea.
EKG
Aprintoutofananalysisoftheelectricalactivityintheheart.
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Electrocardiogram
Aprintoutofananalysisoftheelectricalactivityintheheart.
Electrocautery
Aninstrumentwithaveryhottip,heatedbyelectricity,isappliedtoatissue.
Electrocauterymaybeusedtomakeanincision,removeamass,ortostopbleeding.
Electrolyte
Chemically,anelementwhendissolvedinwater,willcausethesolutiontotransmit
electricity.Inmedicine,certainelementsinthebloodwhicharecriticallyimportantto
life,includingsodium,potassium,chloride,calcium,andphosphorous.
Electroretinography
Therecordingofelectricalchangesintheretinaoftheeyeinresponsetostimulation
bylight.
Elizabethancollar
Alarge,plastic,coneshapedcollarusedoncats,dogs,andbirdstopreventthemfrom
lickingorbitingatskin,wounddressings,orcasts.
Emaciation
Theseverelossofbodyweightbodyweightisgenerallylessthan50%ofthatina
normalanimal.
Emesis
Vomiting.
Encephalitis
Inflammationofthebrainoftencausedbyavirus.
Encephalopathy
Anydegenerativediseaseofthebrain.Causesincludeliverdiseaseresultinginthe
buildupoftoxicbyproductsofmetabolism,heavymetal(e.g.,lead)poisoning,and
lossofbloodsupply.
Endocrine
Pertainingtothesecretionofhormones.Theendocrinesystemconsistsofvarious
glandswhichproducehormones.
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Endoscope
Alongflexibleinstrumentwhichcanbepassedintothebodytoviewvariousstructures
throughtheuseoffiberoptics.
Endotrachealtube
Thistubeisplacedintotheanimal'strachea(windpipe)toallowtheoxygenandgases
tobebreathedintothelungs.
Enteralfeeding
Amethodtofeedananimalinwhichatubeisplacedthroughthebodywallintothe
intestine,andanutritiousliquidisforcedthroughthetubeintotheintestine.
Enteritis
Aninflammationoftheintestines.
Envenomation
Theactofinjectingapoisonousmaterial(venom).
Enzyme
Enzymesarespecialproteinsproducedbycellswhichcausechemicalchangesinother
substances,butwhicharenotthemselveschangedintheprocess.
Eosinophil
Atypeofwhitebloodcellthatcommonlyincreasesinnumbersasaresponseto
parasitesandallergies.
Eosinophilia
Aconditioninwhichtherearemorethantheusualnumberofeosinophilsinthe
circulatingblood.
EPA
EnvironmentalProtectionAgency.Theagencyofthefederalgovernmentwhich
licensespesticidesandherbicides.
Epidermis
Thetoplayeroftheskin.
Epiphora
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Anoverflowoftearsuponthecheeksduetoablockageornarrowingofthetearducts.
Epistaxis
Bleedingfromthenose.
Erosion
Ashallowdefectintheskin.Whenhealed,itwillnotcauseascar.
Erythema
Rednessoftheskincausedbybloodclogginginsmallbloodvessels.
Erythrocyte
Redbloodcellcontainshemoglobin,whichcarriesoxygentothetissues.
Esophagealreflux
Aconditioninwhichstomachcontentsmovebackwardintotheesophagus,i.e.,
heartburn.
Esophagus
Themusculartubeforthepassageoffoodfromthemouthtothestomach.

Estrogen
Afemalehormoneproducedbytheovaries,whichresultsintheonsetofestrus.
Estrus
Thetimewhenafemaleanimalisfertileandreceptivetothemale.Alsoknownasa
heatperiod.
Exophthalmos
Theabnormaloutwardprotrusion(bulging)oftheeye.
Exotic
Ananimalnotnativetothegeographicalareawhereitisliving.
Extensorrigidity
Aconditioninwhichmusclescontractandtendtostraightenthelimb,preventitfrom
relaxing.
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Extracranial
Originatingexternaltothecranial(brain)cavity.

Extrahepatic
Outsideoftheliver.
F
Falsenegativetestresult
Theresultofadiagnostictestisnegativebuttheanimalactuallydoeshavethe
conditiontestedfor.
Falsepositivetestresult
Theresultofadiagnostictestispositivebuttheanimalactuallydoesnothavethe
conditiontestedfor.
FDA
FoodandDrugAdministration.Thefederalagencywhichapprovesdrugsand
medicationsforuseinanimalsandpeople.
Feces
Bodywastesexcretedthroughtheanusfromthelargeintestinealsocalledstool.
Feline
Pertainingtocats.
Fetal
Pertainingtoanunbornanimal,orfetus.
Fetus
Thedevelopingyoungintheuterusbeforebirth.
Fineneedleaspirate
Suctionisappliedtoahollowneedlewhichhasbeeninsertedintotissueandacoreof
thetissueiswithdrawntocultureand/orexaminemicroscopically.
Firstgeneration
Firstgeneration:Adescriptionofmedicationsdevelopedfromanearlierformofthe
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medication.Firstgenerationmedicationsweredevelopedfromtheoriginalformofthe
drugsecondgenerationmedicationsareadaptationsoffirstgenerationdrugsthird
generationdrugsareadaptationsofsecondgeneration,etc.

Flatulence
Increasedstomachorintestinalgas.
Fleadip
Asolutionmadetokillfleas,appliedtoananimalandnotrinsedoff,toallowittohave
residualaction.
Fluoroscopy
Anxrayprocedureinwhichxraysaretransmittedthroughthebodyontoafluorescent
screenbeneficialinthatmovementofjointsororgansystemscanbeobserved(e.g.,
themovementofmaterialthroughtheesophagus,stomach,andintestines).
FLUTD
Felinelowerurinarytractdiseaseaconditionincatscharacterizedbybloodinthe
urine,urinationoutsideofthelitterbox,andstrainingtourinate.Thenameforthis
conditionwaspreviouslycalledfelineurologicalsyndrome(FUS).
Follicle
Thegroupofcellsintheskininwhichahairorfeatherdevelops.
Foreignbody
Anyabnormalsubstancewithinthebody.Examplesincludewoodslivers,ingested
clothorballs,glassinthefeet,etc.
Fracture
Abreakinthebonegenerallycausedbytrauma,twisting,orweakenedbonestructure
duetodisease.
Freeradical
Atomwhichcarriesanunpairedelectronfreeradicalscanpotentiallyinjurecellsand
mayberesponsiblefornumerousagerelateddiseases.
Fungicide
Adrugthatkillsfungi.

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FUS
Felineurologicalsyndromeaconditionincatscharacterizedbybloodintheurine,
urinationoutsideofthelitterbox,andstrainingtourinate.Thenameforthiscondition
isnowcalledfelinelowerurinarytractdisease(FLUTD).
G
Gait
Themannerorstyleofmovementoftenusedtoassesshorsesordogsforlameness.
Gastric
Relatingtothestomach.
Gastriclavage
Toflushoutthestomach.
Gastritis
Inflammationofthestomach.

Gastrointestinal
AlsoknownasGI.Pertainingtothestomachandintestines.Theterm'digestivesystem'
includesthemouth,gastrointestinaltract,anus,pancreas,andliver.
Germs
Anymicroscopicorganismthatcanpotentiallycausediseaseincludesviruses,
bacteria,andfungi.
Gestation
Pregnancy.
Gingival
Relatingtothegums.
Gingivitis
Inflammationofthegums.
Glaucoma
Increasedpressurewithintheeyecausedbyanaccumulationoffluidscanleadto
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blindnessifleftuntreated.
Glipizide
Anoralmedicationthatcanbeusedtocontrolbloodglucoselevelsinsomediabetic
catswhostillhavesomeinsulinproduction.
Glomerulus
Thisliterallymeansasmallclustercommonlyusedtorefertotherenalglomerulus,
theareaofbloodfilteringinthekidney.
Glucocorticoid
Hormonesproducedbytheadrenalglandwhichregulateprotein,carbohydrateandfat
metabolism,andareimportanttoalmosteveryfunctionofcellsandorgans.Theyalso
stabilizecellmembraneswhichisanimportantpartoftheirfunctionintreatingallergic
reactions.Alsocalledglucocorticosteroids.
Glucocorticosteroid
Hormonesproducedbytheadrenalglandwhichregulateprotein,carbohydrateandfat
metabolism,andareimportanttoalmosteveryfunctionofcellsandorgans.Theyalso
stabilizecellmembraneswhichisanimportantpartoftheirfunctionintreatingallergic
reactions.Alsocalledglucocorticoids.
Glucosamine
Oneofthebuildingblocksthebodyusestomakenewcartilage.
Glucosuria
Glucoseintheurine.(Alsocalledglycosuria.)
Glycogen
Astorageformofglucoseinthebody.
Glycosaminoglycans
Compoundswhichserveasthebuildingblocksofcartilage,whichcoverstheendsof
boneswithinajoint.Glucosamineandchondroitinarenecessaryforthebodytomake
glycosaminoglycans.
Gram
Ameasureofweight.28grams=1oz.454grams=1lb.

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Gramnegative
Aclassificationofbacteriabasedupontheirlackofretentionofacertainstaininthe
laboratory.Thestainingqualityisbasedonthestructureofthecellwallsurrounding
thebacteria.Thisstructureofthecellwallinfluenceswhichantibioticswillkillthe
bacteria.ThislaboratorystainingmethodwasdevelopedbyHansGramin1884.

Grampositive
Aclassificationofbacteriabasedupontheiruptakeofacertainstaininthelaboratory.
Thestainingqualityisbasedonthestructureofthecellwallsurroundingthebacteria.
Thisstructureofthecellwallinfluenceswhichantibioticswillkillthebacteria.This
laboratorystainingmethodwasdevelopedbyHansGramin1884.
Granuloma
Theformationofanoduleasaresultofinflammation.
H
H2antagonist
Acompoundwhichbinds(attaches)totheareaonacellatwhichhistaminealsobinds.
Bybindingatthesamesite,theantagonistblockshistaminefrombindingandprevents
histaminefromproducingitseffects,whichincludetheproductionofstomachacid.
Halflife
Thetimerequiredforthelevelofasubstanceinthebody(e.g.,adrugortoxin)tobe
reducedbyhalf.
Headpressing
Pressingtheheadagainstawallorotherhardobject.
Heartblock
Aconditioninwhichtheelectricalimpulsesoftheheartarenotproperlyconducted
fromtheatria(chamberswhichreceivetheblood)totheventricles(chamberswhich
pumptheblood).
Heartworm
Aspeciesofparasiticworm(Dirofilariaimmitis)thatlivesandreproducesinthe
chambersoftheheartofananimal.Microscopic,immatureworms(microfilariae)
circulateinthebloodandaretakeninbymosquitoesthatbitetheanimal.Microfilariae
matureinthemouthpartsofthemosquitoandinfectanothersusceptibleanimalbitten
bythesamemosquito.
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Heinzbody
Aconditioninwhichtheredbloodcellsaredestroyedandthisresultsinanemia.The
specifictypeofanemiaiscalled'Heinzbodyanemia'becausetheredcellsdevelopan
abnormalitycalleda'Heinzbody'whichcanbeseenunderthemicroscope.This
anemiacanoccurasareactiontocertainmedicationsandalsoincatswhoeatonions.

Hemangiosarcoma
Amalignanttumorofthebloodvessels,usuallyoccurringintheskin,liver,spleen,
rightatriumoftheheart,andmusclealsocalledangiosarcoma.
Hematocrit
PCV(PackedCellVolume),hematocrit:Alaboratorytesttomonitorrelativenumber
ofredbloodcellspresentintheblood.Abloodsampleisplacedinatinyglasstube
andspuninacentrifuge.Thecellsareheavierthantheplasmaandarecompactedat
oneendofthetube.Afterthetubeisspun,itisexaminedandthepackedcellvolumeis
determinedasthepercentageoftheredcellularportionrelativetothetotalamountof
bloodinthetube(i.e.remainderbeingtheplasma).Thenormalfordogsis4059and
catsis2950.

Hematology
Thestudyofblood,itsphysiologyandpathology.
Hematoma
Amassofbloodwithinthetissues.Generally,theresultoftraumatothebloodvessels
orabnormalbloodclotting.
Hematuria
Aconditionofbloodintheurine.
Hemodialysis
Aprocessusedtoremovewasteproductsfromtheblood.
Hemoglobin
Aproteininsideofredbloodcells,responsibleforthebindingandtransportofoxygen
tothebodytissues(Hb).
Hemolytic
Causingtheredbloodcellstobreakopen.
Hemoptysis
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Bloodinthesputum.
Hemorrhage
Tobleedexcessivelymaybetheresultofinjuryorbloodclottingabnormalities.
Hemostat
Asmallsurgicalinstrumentusedtoclampbloodvesselstopreventbleeding.
Hepatic
Pertainingtotheliver.
Hepaticfibrosis
Scarringoftheliver
Hepatitis
Aninflammationorinfectionoftheliver.
Hepatomegaly
Enlargementoftheliver.
Herbivore
Animalthateatsprimarilyplantsandvegetation.
Hernia
Theprotrusionofanorganthroughanabnormalopening.
Hightitervaccine
Amodifiedlivevaccinethatcontainsahighernumberofvirusparticlesthanthe
'average'vaccine.Hightitervaccinescangenerallyelicitanimmunesystemresponse
inyounganimalswhohaveamaternalantibodylevelthatwouldpreventthemfrom
respondingtoan'average'vaccine.

HistamineH2receptorantagonist
Acompoundwhichbinds(attaches)totheareaonacellatwhichhistaminealsobinds.
Bybindingatthesamesite,theantagonistblockshistaminefrombindingandprevents
histaminefromproducingitseffects,whichincludetheproductionofstomachacid.

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Hormone
Chemicalsubstanceproducedbyonepartofthebodywhichservesasamessengerto
orregulatoroftheprocessesofanotherpartofthebody.
Host
Theorganisminoronwhichaparasitelives.Forexample,dogsandcatsarehostsfor
fleasandroundworms.
Humoralimmunity
TheimmunitythatistheresultofantibodyproductionbyBcells.Comparewith'cell
mediatedimmunity.'
Hybrid
Ananimalthathasparentsoftwodifferentspecies,forinstance,amule'smotherisa
horseanditsfatherisadonkey.
Hydrocephalus
Aconditionoffluidaccumulationintheventricles(spaces)ofthebraintheswelling
generallycreatespressureonthebraintissuesandcancauseseveredamageifnot
treatedproperly.
Hyper
Aprefixmeaningabnormallyhighorexcessive.
Hypercalcemia
Anincreasedlevelofcalciumintheblood.
Hyperesthesia
Abnormalsensitivitytotouch,pain,orothersensorystimuli.
Hyperglycemia
Higherthannormalbloodglucoselevel.
Hyperkalemia
Increasedlevelofpotassiumintheblood.
Hyperphosphatemia
Elevatedbloodphosphatelevels.
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Hyperpigmentation
Anincreaseddarkcolorintheskincausedbythepigment'melanin.'

Hyperplasia
Anincreaseofthenumberofcellswithinanorgan.
Hyperplastic
Abnormalincreaseintheamountoftissue,e.g.,ahyperplasticearwouldhave
increasednumbersofcellsintheearcanal,sometimestothepointofclosingoffthe
earcanal.Inprostatichyperplasia,theprostateenlargesduetoanincreasednumberof
normal,notcancerous,cells.
Hyperreactive
Producinganexaggerated,orgreaterthannormalresponsetoastimulus.

Hypersensitive
Atypeofallergicconditioninwhichthebodyoverreactstoacertainagentsuchasa
beestingormedication.
Hypertension
Bloodpressureabovenormal.
Hyperthermia
Anincreaseinbodytemperatureabovenormal.
Hyperthyroidism
Acondition,morecommonlyseenincats,inwhichthethyroidglandproducestoo
muchthyroidhormone.Seearticle:HyperthyroidisminCats.
Hypertrophy
Anincreaseinthesizeofatissueororganduetotheenlargementofexistingcells.
Hyperventilate
Anincreaseintherateand/ordepthofrespirationsuchthatthebodylosestoomuch
carbondioxide.
Hypo
Aprefixmeaningabnormallylowordeficient.
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Hypoglycemia
Lowerthannormalbloodglucoselevel.
Hypokalemia
Lowerthannormallevelofpotassiumintheblood.
Hypoplasia
Inadequateordefectivedevelopmentoftissue.
Hypotension
Bloodpressurebelownormal.
Hypothermia
Adecreaseinbodytemperaturebelownormal.
Hypothyroidism
Acondition,morecommonindogs,inwhichthethyroidglanddoesnotproduce
enoughthyroidhormone.Seearticle:HypothyroidisminDogs.
HypovitaminosisA
AconditioninwhichthebodysuffersfromadeficiencyinVitaminA.
Hypoxia
Lowoxygenlevelinbloodandtissues.
I
Iatrogenic
Aconditionresultingfromtheactionofthedoctore.g.,anallergicreactionresulting
fromadministrationofaninjectionbyaveterinarian.
Icterus
Commonlyreferredtoasjaundice.Ayellowingofthetissues,usuallyasaresultof
abnormalliverfunction.
IDDM
Insulindependentdiabetesmellitus(IDDM):Aformofdiabetesinwhichsolittle
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insulinisproducedthatsupplementalinsulinmustbegivenfortheanimaltolive.Also
calledTypeIdiabetesmellitus.
Idiopathic
Ofunknowncause.
Ileus
Aconditioninwhichthereisanabsenceofmuscularcontractionsoftheintestine
whichnormallymovethefoodthroughthesystemcanresultinanintestinal
obstruction.
Immunesystem
Thebody'sdefensesystemwhichrecognizesinfectiousagentsandother'foreign'
compounds(suchaspollen),andworkstodestroythem.
Immunemediated
Immunemediatedreactionordisease:Aconditionordiseasecausedbyabnormal
activityoftheimmunesysteminwhichthebody'simmunesystemeitheroverreacts
(e.g.,immunemediatedcontactdermatitis)orstartsattackingthebodyitself(e.g.,
autoimmunehemolyticanemia).Seealsoautoimmune.
Immunity
Aconditioninwhichtheanimal'simmunesystemhasbeenprimedandisableto
protectthebodyfromadiseasecausingagentsuchasacertainvirusorbacteria.An
animalcouldhaveimmunitytooneagent,suchasparvovirus,butnothaveimmunity
toanotheragent,suchasrabies.
Immunization
Theprocessofrenderingananimalprotected(immune)againstacertaindisease.
Vaccinationisawaytoproduceimmunization.However,justbecauseananimalhas
beenvaccinated(receivedavaccine)doesnotnecessarilymeantheanimalisimmune.
Ifthebodydidnotcorrectlyreacttothevaccineorifthevaccinewasdefective,
immunitywouldnotoccur.Novaccineproducesimmunityin100%ofthepopulation
towhichitwasgiven.'Vaccination'isnotthesameas'immunization.'
Immunodeficiency
Reducedfunctionoftheimmunesystemofananimal,makingitmoresusceptibleto
infectiousdisease.Canbeaninheriteddefectorcausedbydrugs,radiation,orviruses.
Immunostimulant
Acompoundwhichstimulatestheimmunesystemtoworkmoreeffectivelytokill
bacteria,viruses,orcancercells.
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Immunosuppressive
Something,forinstanceadrug,hormone,orvirus,thatreducesthefunctionofthe
immunesystemofananimal.Ananimalwithreducedfunctionofitsimmunesystemis
called'immunosuppressed.'
Incontinence
Theinabilitytocontroltheexcretionofwastesgenerallyusedtodescribetheinability
tocontrolurination.
Incubationperiod
Thetimebetweentheexposuretoadisease,causingagent,andtheonsetofsignsofthe
disease.

Infection
Theinvasionandreplicationofmicroorganismsintissuesofthebodygenerallycauses
diseaseorlocalinflammation.
Infectiousagents
Theorganismsthatcauseinfectioncanbeviruses,bacteria,fungi,orparasites.
Infestation
Atermusedtodescribeaninvasionofparasites.
Inflammation
Aconditioninwhichtissuereactstoinjuryandundergoeschangesduringthehealing
process.Asanexample,atoewithasliverofwoodinitwouldbeinflamedandshow
thesignsofinflammationwhichincluderedness,increasedtemperature,pain,swelling,
andalossofordisorderedfunction.Thetoeisswollen,red,hot,painful,andthe
animalisreluctanttowalkonthattoe.
Inherited
Atraitpassedfromonegenerationtothenextinthegenesfromeachparent.
Innate
Apermanentcharacteristicthatispresentbecauseofthegeneticmakeupofthe
animal.
Insolublecarbohydrate
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Also,insolublefiber.Fiberthatresistsenzymaticdigestioninthesmallintestine.
Insulin
Ahormoneproducedbythepancreaswhichisnecessaryforglucosetobeabletoenter
thecellsofthebodyandbeusedforenergy.
Insulinresistance
Aconditioninwhichthebloodglucoselevelremainshigherthanitshouldataninsulin
dosageof2units/poundofbodyweightperdayincats.
Insulinoma
Insulinproducingtumorofthepancreastheincreasedproductionandbloodlevelof
insulinresultingfromthesetumorscancauselowbloodsugar(hypoglycemia).
IntermediateHost
Inthelifecycleofsomeparasites,theimmatureformoftheparasitemustpassthrough
adifferenttypeofhost(animal,insect,snail,etc.),calledtheintermediatehost,before
itcanreenterandinfectthetypeofanimalitcamefrom.Anexamplewouldbe
heartworms.Theadultwormlivesinthedogorcat.Theimmatureform,laidbythe
adultheartworm,istakenupbythemosquito.Theimmatureformdevelopswithinthe
mosquito,andisthenreintroducedintoanotherdogorcatwhereitdevelopsintothe
matureadultandthecyclerepeatsitself.Theintermediatehostforheartworms,then,is
themosquito.
Interstitial
Betweenpartsorwithinthespacesoftissue.
Intestine
Thepartofthedigestivesystemextendingfromthestomachtotherectumincludes
boththesmallandlargeintestinesandfunctionsintheabsorptionofwaterand
nutrientsalsocalledbowelorgut.

Intracellular
Anactiontakingplacewithinacell.
Intracranial
Originatingwithinthecranial(brain)cavity.
Intramuscular
Intothemuscle(IM).
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Intranasal
Intothenose.
Intravenous
Intothebloodstreamviaavein.
Intussusception
Aconditioninwhichonepartoftheintestine'telescopes'intoanother.
Iris
Thecoloredportionoftheeyeiscalledtheiris.Aswithhumans,dogs'iriscolorsvary.
Inthecenteroftheirisistheblackopeningcalledthepupil.Thisopeningcanbemade
largerorsmallerbymusclescalledciliarybodies,thatattachtothecolorediris,causing
ittoexpandorcontract.
Isoflavone
Anestrogenlikesubstanceproducedbypastureplantsatypeofphytoestrogen.
J
Jaundice
Theconditioninwhichthereisabuildupofwasteproductsinthebodycalledbilirubin.
Bilirubinisyellowincolor,therefore,ananimalwithjaundicewillhaveyellowgums,
skin(oftenseenontheinsideflapoftheear),andayellowishcasttothe'whites'ofthe
eyes.Itcanoccurifalargenumberofredbloodcellsaredestroyed,theliverisnot
functioningnormally,orthebileductsareblocked.
Jejunum
Thelongestpartofthesmallintestineextendingfromtheduodenumtotheileum.
Jugular
Referringtotheneckspecifically,thelargejugularveinsthatreturnbloodfromthe
headandnecktotheheart.
K
KCS
Keratoconjunctivitissiccaisthetechnicaltermforaconditionalsoknownas'dryeye.'
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Itoccursbecauseofinadequatetearproduction.Symptomsincludeathick,yellowish
dischargefromtheeye.
Keratitis
Inflammationofthecorneaoftheeyemaybecausedbyinfection,trauma,oran
allergicreaction.
Keratoconjunctivitissicca
Keratoconjunctivitissicca(KCS)isthetechnicaltermforaconditionalsoknownas
'dryeye'.Itoccursbecauseofinadequatetearproduction.Symptomsincludeathick,
yellowishdischargefromtheeye.

Keratolytic
Softensandloosenscrustsandscalesontheskin.
Ketoacidosis
Alifethreateningconditioninwhichketones,whichresultfromthebreakdownoffat
forenergy,accumulateinthebloodstreamandthepHoftheblooddecreases.
Killedvaccine
Vaccineswhicharemadebytakingthereal,diseasecausingviruses(orbacteria),
killingthem,andputtingthemintoaliquidbase.Comparewith'modifiedlivevaccine'
and'recombinantvaccine.'
Kineticskull
Havingmobilejointsbetweenvariouspartsoftheskull,e.g.,beingabletounhingethe
jaws.Thisallowsthemouthoftheanimal,e.g.,snake,toopenwidersothatitcaneat
largeprey.
L
Lactating
Producingmilk.
Largeintestine
Thelowerpartoftheintestinaltract,usuallymadeupofthecolon,cecum,andrectum.
Bacteriathatliveharmlesslyinthelargeintestinehelptodigestcomplex
carbohydrates.

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Larva
Thewormlikeoffspringofaninsect(plurallarvae).
Larynx
Thelarynxisamusculartubeintheneckthatallowsairtopassfromthethroattothe
trachea(windpipe).Thelarynxcontainsthevocalcords,whichallowpeopleand
animalstomakesounds.Thelarynxhascartilagethatopenstoallowairintothe
trachea.
Latent
Adormantstageofdiseasethepatientisinfectedwithanorganism,butisnotyetill.
Leukopenia
Aconditioninwhichthenumbersofwhitebloodcellsinthebloodarelowerthan
normal.
Lichenification
Thickeningandhardeningoftheskin.
Lipase
Digestiveenzyme,producedbythepancreas,whichbreaksdownfat.
Liver
Thelargestorganintheabdomen,responsibleforproducingenzymesrequiredfor
digestionoffood,andbilethathelpstodigestfat.Theliveralsodetoxifiestheblood
andmaybedamagedintheprocess.
Lowpassagevaccine
Alowpassagevaccinecontainsvirusparticleswhichhavebeenattenuated,or
weakened,lessthanthoseinthe'average'vaccine.Lowpassagevaccinescangenerally
elicitanimmunesystemresponseinyounganimalswhohaveamaternalantibody
levelthatwouldpreventthemfromrespondingtoan'average'vaccine.

Lymphnodes
Partoftheimmunesystemofananimal.Smallmassesoftissuethatcontainwhite
bloodcellscalledlymphocytes.Bloodfromthenearbyareaisfilteredthroughthe
lymphnodeallowingforeignorinfectiousmaterialtoberecognizedanddestroyedif
possible.
Lymphocytes
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Theclassofcellsinthebodywhichareresponsibleformountinganimmuneresponse.
TwomaintypesareBcellsandTcells.
Lymphokines
ChemicalsproducedbyTlymphocytes.Somelymphokinessignalmacrophagesand
otherphagocytestodestroyforeigninvaders.
M
Macrophage
Atypeofphagocyte(cellinthebodywhich'eats'damagedcellsandforeignsubstances
suchasvirusandbacteria).
Malabsorptionsyndrome
Maldigestionsyndrome:Aconditioninvolvingtheintestineinwhichfoodmaynotbe
properlydigestedorthenutrientsnotabsorbed.
Malignant
Aprocessthatdoesharmtonearbytissues.Usuallysynonymouswithcancer,atumor
thatgrowsquicklyandspreadsintoothertissues.
Malnutrition
Illhealthduetodietarydeficiencyorimbalance.
Mammary
Pertainingtothebreast.
Mandible
Lowerjaw.
Mange
Anyofseveralskinandearconditionscausedbyavarietyofmites.
MAOIs
Monoamineoxidaseinhibitors.Substancesthatinactivatetheenzymemonoamine
oxidasewhichregulatescertaintransmitterchemicalsbetweennerves.These
compoundsincludecertaintypesofantidepressantsandalsoinsecticidescontaining
amitraz(suchasMitabanandPreventiccollars).
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Marsupial
Anorderofmammalsincludingkangaroos,opossums,andsugarglidersinwhichthe
femalehasapouchontheabdomenwhichholdstheyoungandhasnipplesforthe
youngtonurse.

Mastcelltumor
Anodulargrowth,usuallyontheskin,whichinvolvescells(mastcells)whichcontain
largeamountsofhistamineandnormallyplayaroleinallergicreactions.Allmastcell
tumorsindogsshouldbeconsideredpotentiallymalignant.

Masticate
Chew.
Mastitis
Aninfectionorinflammationofthemammaryglands.
Maternalantibody
Antibodyinanewbornanimalwhichthenewbornacquiredthroughtheplacentaor
colostrum(thefirstmilk).
Meal
Whenreferringtofoodingredients,mealmeansagrounduppreparation.Chicken
mealisgroundupchicken,whichmightincludebonesandfeathers.Meatmealmeans
groundupmusclemeat.
Mediansurvivaltime
Timeatwhich50%oftheanimalshaddied.
Megacolon
Aconditioninwhichthecolonenlargesanddilates,whichresultsinfeces
accumulatinginthecolon.Constipationthenoccurs.Thisconditionismorecommonin
catsthandogs.
Melena
Darkeningofthestoolduetothepresenceofdigestedblood,whichindicatesbleeding
isoccurringinthestomachand/orbeginningofthesmallintestine.Thefecesgenerally
lookblackandtarry.
Memory
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(Immunologic)Memory:Whenananimalmountsanimmuneresponseagainsta
foreignsubstance,somecellsarecreatedto'remember'theantigensonthatsubstance.
Iftheanimalisagainexposedtothesubstance,thesecellswillhelpthebodyrespond
muchfasterandtoahigherdegree.
Metabolicacidosis
AconditioninwhichthepHofthebloodistooacidicbecauseoftheproductionof
certaintypesofacids.
Metabolize
Tohavemoleculestransformedwithinthebodytissuethroughchemicalprocesses.
Metabolizeenergy(ME)
(ME)isthenetenergyavailabletoananimalfromacertainfood.
Metacarpus
Thefrontlimbbetweenthecarpusandthephalanges(toes).
Metastasis
Spreadofatumorfromitsoriginallocationtoaremoteone,bytumorcellsthatare
carriedintheblood.
Metatarsus
Thepartoftherearlimbbetweenthetarsusandthephalanges(toes).
Methemoglobin
Analteredhemoglobinwhichdoesnotcarryoxygen.
Methemoglobinemia
Aconditionofthebloodinwhichtherearelargeamountsofmethemoglobinwhichis
analteredhemoglobinwhichdoesnotcarryoxygen.
Microfilaremia
Thepresenceofmicrofilariaeintheblood.
Microfilaria
Thelarvalformofsomeparasiticworms,forexampleheartworms.Thesewormsdo
notlayeggs,theyproducemicrofilariae(pluralofmicrofilaria)instead.
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Microfilaricide
Compoundwhichkillsmicrofilaria,theimmatureformsofheartwormswhichcirculate
intheblood.

Microorganism
Asinglecelledlifeformthatisinvisibletothenakedeyeandthatmaycausediseasein
manoranimals.
Mineralization
Theprocessinwhichmineralsarelaiddownwithintissueinanabnormalpattern
causingahardeningofthetissue.
Mineralocorticoids
Hormonesproducedbytheadrenalglandwhichregulatetheamountsofsodium,
potassium,andchlorideintheblood.
Miticide
Anagentthatkillsmites.
Mitochondria
Partsofthecellwhichareresponsibleforprovidingthecellwithenergy.
mL
Shortformilliliter.Aliquidmeasure,thesamevolumeasacc.28mL=1liquidoz.
Modifiedlivevaccine
Vaccineswhicharemadebytakingthereal,diseasecausingvirusandaltering
(attenuating)itinalaboratorytoanondiseasecausingvirus.Comparewith'killed
vaccine'and'recombinantvaccine.'
Monoamineoxidaseinhibitor
(MAOI):Substancesthatinactivatetheenzymemonoamineoxidasewhichregulates
certaintransmitterchemicalsbetweennerves.Thesecompoundsincludecertaintypes
ofantidepressantsandalsoinsecticidescontainingamitraz(suchasMitabanand
Preventiccollars).
Monovalentvaccine
Avaccinethatismanufacturedtostimulatethebodytoproduceprotectionagainstonly
onedisease,e.g.,rabiesvaccine.Comparewith'multivalentvaccine.'
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Motility
Movement,e.g.,intestinalmotilityisthemuscularcontractionsoftheintestineswhich
movethefoodfromthestomachtotheanus.

Mucolytic
Breaksdownmucous.

Mucopolysaccharide
Acarbohydratewhichalsocontainsahexosaminemoleculeandisacomponentof
mucous.
Mucosa
Specializedmembranewhichcoversvariouspassagesandcavitiesexposedtotheair
suchasthemouth,nose,innerportionoftheeyelids,vagina.Examinationofthe
mucousmembranescanprovideimportantinformation:iftheyaredry,theanimalis
likelydehydratedpale,andtheanimalmaybeanemicorinshockyellow,andthe
animalissaidtojaundicedduetoaccumulationofwasteproductswhichshouldbe
eliminatedbytheliver.Mucousmembranes.
Mucousmembranes
Specializedmembranewhichcoversvariouspassagesandcavitiesexposedtotheair
suchasthemouth,nose,innerportionoftheeyelids,vagina.Examinationofthe
mucousmembranescanprovideimportantinformation:iftheyaredry,theanimalis
likelydehydratedpale,andtheanimalmaybeanemicorinshockyellow,andthe
animalissaidtobejaundicedduetoaccumulationofwasteproductswhichshouldbe
eliminatedbytheliver.
Multivalentvaccine
Avaccinethatcombinestwoormorecomponentstostimulatethebodytoproduce
protectionagainstallthecomponents.Most'distemper'vaccinesforpuppiesareofthe
multivalenttype,andcommonlyincludedistemper,parvovirus,adenoviruscough,
hepatitis,andparainfluenza.Comparewith'monovalent'vaccine.
Musculoskeletal
Pertainingtothemusclesandskeleton.
Myastheniagravis
Myastheniagravisisaneuromusculardiseaseinwhichthereisafailureofthenerves'
abilitytostimulateandcontroltheactionsofcertainmuscles.Seearticle:Myasthenia
gravisinPuppies.

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Mycosis
Diseasecausedbyafungussuchasblastomycosis,histoplasmosis,andringworm.
Mydriasis
Smallpupilsize.
Myelogram
Radiograph(xray)ofthespinalcordtakenafteracontrastingdyehasbeeninjected
intothespacearoundthespinalcord.
Myocardium
Themiddlelayerofheartmuscle.
N
Nebulize
Convertintoafinesprayform.
Necropsy
Postmortemexamination.
Necrosis
Thedeathandbreakdownofcells.

Nematodes
AcommonnameforanyroundwormofthephylumNematoda.
Neoplasia
Abnormalgrowthandaccumulationofcells.Neoplasiasmaybebenignormalignant.
Nephropathy
Anydiseaseorabnormalfunctioningofthekidney.
Nephrotoxic
Destructivetokidneycells.

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Neuropathy
Abnormalfunctioningofnerves.
Neurotransmitter
Chemicalusedasamessengerfromonenervecelltoanother.
Neuter
Sterilizationbysurgicalremovalofthetesticlesofamaleanimalorovariesofafemale
animal.
Neutralize
TochangefromacidicoralkalinetoaneutralpH.
NIDDM
Noninsulindependentdiabetesmellitus(NIDDM):Atypeofdiabetesmellitusin
whichalthoughthebloodglucoselevelsarehigherthannormal,theyarenot
immediatelylifethreatening,andtheanimalcansurvivewithoutsupplementalinsulin.
AlsocalledTypeIIdiabetes.
Nocturnal
Animalsthatareactiveduringthenightandsleepduringtheday.
Nodule
Solidbumporlumpintheskinthatisover1/3inchindiameter.
Nonsteroidalantiinflammatory
NSAIDS:Agentswhichreduceinflammation,butarenotintheclassofdrugsknown
assteroids.Examplesincludeaspirin,Rimadyl,andphenylbutazone.
Noncorevaccine
Vaccinewhichshouldonlybegiventoanimalsatincreasedriskofexposuretoa
disease,example,leptospirosisindogsorfelineleukemiaincats(seecorevaccine).
Nonpathogenic
Notcausingdisease.Somebacteria,suchasthosethatnormallyliveinananimal's
intestines,arenonpathogenic.
Nonseptic
Aconditionnotcausedbyaninfection.Forexample,septicarthritisiscausedbyan
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infectionwithbacteria,yeast,orotheragentacaseofnonsepticarthritismaybe
causedbyinjuryorcancer.
Nucleatederythrocytes
Immatureformofredbloodcells.

Nutraceutical
Averybroadtermdescribingcertaincomponentsinfood(plantoranimal)or
nutritionalsupplements,whichcontainsubstancesnormallypresentinthebodythataid
intheproperfunctioningofbodysystems.
Nutrient
Compoundsinfoodswhichareessentialforlife.Nutrientsincludeprotein,fats,
vitamins,minerals,etc.
Nystagmus
Constantinvoluntarymovementoftheeye,oftenfromsidetoside.
O
Obligatecarnivore
Ananimalthatrequiresinitsdietnutrientsthatarefoundinsufficientquantitiesonly
inmeatorotheranimalproducts.
Obsessivecompulsive
Abehavioralconditioninwhichapetrepeatedlyperformsanactionoutofcontext.Itis
thoughtthatthebehaviorisanexpressionofstress,frustrationand/orconflict.Certain
breedsaremorepronetothesebehaviors.Thebehaviorsincludetailchasing,some
casesofexcessivebarking,continuallicking,andbitingtheairasifsnappingatan
invisiblefly.
Occult
Indicatingadiseaseorconditionthatisclinicallynotapparent.
Ocular
Relatingtotheeye.
Offlabel
TermusedtodescribetheuseofamedicationforaconditionforwhichitwasnotFDA
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approved.Alargenumberofmedicationsusedinveterinarymedicineareused'off
label.'IfveterinariansonlyusedFDAapprovedmedications,optionsfortreatmentsof
certainconditionswouldbeseverelylimitedornonexistent.Thesafetyandefficacyof
offlabelusesofmedicationsisoftendeterminedinuniversityresearchsettings,butthe
manufacturerofthedrugdoessubmittheresultsorgothroughtheelaborateFDA
approvalprocess.
Offal
Animalorgansrejectedatslaughterasunfitforhumanconsumption,e.g.,spleen,
intestine,brain,lungs.
Omnivore
Animalthateatsbothfleshandplants.
Opioid
Narcoticdrugwhichhasanactivitysimilartothatofopium.
Oralhypoglycemic
Amedication,givenbymouth,whichlowersthelevelofglucoseintheblood.
Example:glipizide.
Osmoticdiuretic
Acompoundthatincreasestheamountofurineformedandridsthebodyofexcess
fluidbybeingfilteredthroughthekidneyintotheurineinconcentratedamountsand
carryingwaterwithit.

Osteomyelitis
Aninflammationandinfectionofthebone.
Otic
Pertainingtotheear.
Ototoxic
Destructivetothestructuresoftheear.
Overthecounter
Canbepurchasedwithoutaprescription,likeaspirinandvitamins.
Ovulate
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Thereleaseofaneggfromtheovaryofthefemale.
Oxidize
Tocombinewithoxygen.
Oxytocin
Ahormonethatstimulatesmilkflowinlactatingmammals(femalesnursingtheir
young),andcontractionsofthemusclesofthereproductivetractinmanyspecies.
P
Packedcellvolume
(PCV),hematocrit:Alaboratorytesttomonitortherelativenumberofredbloodcells
presentintheblood.Abloodsampleisplacedinatinyglasstubeandspunina
centrifuge.Thecellsareheavierthantheplasmaandarecompactedatoneendofthe
tube.Afterthetubeisspun,itisexaminedandthepackedcellvolumeisdeterminedas
thepercentageoftheredcellularportionrelativetothetotalamountofbloodinthe
tube(i.e.,remainderbeingtheplasma).Thenormalfordogsis4059andcatsis2950.
Palatable
Tastyreferstofoodthatisreadilyaccepted.
Palpation
Toexaminewiththehandsorfingers.
Pancreatitis
Inflammationofthepancreas,asevereandsometimeslifethreateningdiseaseoften
associatedwitheatingfattyfoods.Symptomsincludevomitingandapainfulabdomen.
Pannus
Achronicconditionoftheeyeinwhichbloodvesselsgrowacrossthecornea(theclear
surfaceoftheeye).Thecornealookshazyandsometimesreddeneditmayeventually
takeonadarkpigment.Thisconditionisalsocalledchronicsuperficialkeratitis.
Papule
Solidbumpontheskin,lessthan1/3inchindiameter.
Paralysis
Lossofmotorfunction(movement)inacertainpartofthebody.Paralysismaybe
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flaccid,inwhichmusclesareweakandhavelittleornotoneorspastic,inwhichthe
musclesaretight.
Parasiticide
Medicationformulatedtokillparasites.
Parasympathetic
Theportionofthenervoussystemwhichstimulatesthepancreastoproducedigestive
enzymesandstimulatesmanyofthesmoothmusclesinthebodyincludingthoseofthe
stomachandintestine.Italsotendstoslowtheheartrate.
Parenterally
Atermusedtodescribetheadministrationofadrugbymeansotherthanbymouth.
Paresis
Slightorincompleteparalysis.
Parthenogenesis
Aformofreproductioninwhichtheeggdevelopsintoanewindividualwithout
fertilizationbysperm.Parthenogenesishasbeenobservedinmanyloweranimals,
includingsomesnailsandinsects.
Parturition
Theactofgivingbirth.
Passiveimmunity
Immunityproducedbyprovidingananimalwithantibodiesorimmunologiccellsfrom
anothersource,suchascolostrum.Comparewith'activeimmunity.'
Pathogenic
Causingdisease.
Pathologist
Aspecialistinveterinarymedicinewhoexaminesthechangesinbodytissuesand
organscausedbydisease.
PCV
Packedcellvolume.PCV,hematocrit:Alaboratorytesttomonitortherelativenumber
ofredbloodcellspresentintheblood.Abloodsampleisplacedinatinyglasstube
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andspuninacentrifuge.Thecellsareheavierthantheplasmaandarecompactedat
oneendofthetube.Afterthetubeisspun,itisexaminedandthepackedcellvolumeis
determinedasthepercentageoftheredcellularportionrelativetothetotalamountof
bloodinthetube(i.e.,remainderbeingtheplasma).Thenormalfordogsis4059and
catsis2950.
Pediculosis
Aninfestationoflice.
Penicillinase
Anenzymeproducedbysomebacteriawhichinactivatescertaintypesofpenicillin
thusmakingthebacteriaresistanttothem.
Perianalfistula
Adeepinfectionaroundtheanuswhichoftenresultsinulcersanddeepdrainingtracts,
mostcommonlyseeninGermanShepherds.
Perineal
Theareabetweentheanusandthegenitalorgans.
Peritonealdialysis
Aprocessusedtoremovewasteproductsfromthebody.Electrolytefluidsare
administeredintotheabdomen,wasteproductsofthebodyenterthefluids,andthen
thefluidsareremoved.
Peritoneum
Themembraneliningthewalloftheabdominalcavity.
Peritonitis
Inflammationoftheliningoftheabdomen.
Phagocyte
Cellinthebodywhich'eats'damagedcellsandforeignsubstancessuchasvirusand
bacteria.Amacrophageisatypeofphagocyte.
Phalanges
Toes.
Pheromone
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Chemicalsecretedbyananimalandsensedbyanotheranimalofthesamespecies,and
oftencausingbehaviorchangeinthatanimal.
Photoperiod
Thenumberofhoursoflightper24hourperiod.
Photosensitivity
Aconditioninwhichtheskinreactsabnormallytolight,especiallyultravioletlightor
sunlight.Itisusuallycausedbytheinteractionoflightwithcertainchemicalsinthe
skinsuchasantibiotics,othermedications,hormones,ortoxins.
Phytochemical
Substancesinplantswhichaffectabodysystemandmaypromotehealthanddecrease
theriskofadiseasesuchascancer.
Phytoestrogen
Substanceswhichhaveanactivitysimilartoestrogensandareproducedbyplants.
Pica
Cravingtoeatunnaturalarticlessuchasrocksordirt.
Placebo
Asubstancewhichisgiventhathasnotherapeuticvalueoftencalleda'dummypill'or
'sugarpill.'Oftengiventohalfofthepatientsinatrialofanewdrug,tobetterassess
theeffectivenessofthenewdrug.
Plantigradestance
Standingandwalkingwiththehocksonoralmosttouchingthefloor.
Plaque
Abuildupofbacteria,saliva,andfoodontheteeth.SeealsoTartar.
Platelets
Cellularcomponentsfoundinthebloodwhichhelpclotstoform.Inthebody,
microscopicallysmallvesselsoftenbreakinthenormalcourseofevents.Plateletsand
aproteincalledfibrinogen'plug'thebreakinthevesselandpreventbloodfromleaking
out.
Polyarthritis
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Arthritiswhichinvolvestwoormorejoints.
Polydactyl
Thepresenceofextratoes.
Polydipsia
Excessivethirstresultinginexcessivedrinking.
Polyestrous
Duringonesexualseason,continuingtocomeintoheatifnotbred.Catsare
polyestrous,dogsarenot.
Polyp
Asmallgrowthfrommucousmembranessuchasthoseliningthenasalcavityand
intestinaltract.
Polyphagia
Excessiveingestionoffood.
Polyuria
Excessiveurination.
Posterior
Positionedinbackofanotherbodypart,ortowardstherearhalfoftheanimal.
Oppositeofanterior.
Postoperative
Aftersurgery.
Prepuce
Thesheathofskinwhichcoversthepenis.
Proestrus
Thestageoftheestruscycle,rightbeforeananimalcomesintoheat.
Progesterone
Ahormoneproducedbytheovarieswhichisresponsibleforthecontinuationof
pregnancy.
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Prognosis
Theforecastedoutcomeandrecovery.
Prolactin
Hormonesecretedbythepituitaryglandthatstimulatesthegrowthofmammarytissue
andtheproductionofmilk.
Prolapsedrectum
Becauseofirritationorinjury,theinnerpartoftherectumispushedoutsothatitis
visibleasapinkmassprotrudingfromtheanalopening.
Prostaglandin
Severaltypesofchemicalsmadebycellswhichhavespecificfunctionssuchas
controllingbodytemperature,stimulatingsmoothmuscle,andinfluencingheatcycles.
Protease
Enzymewhichbreaksdownprotein.
Protozoans
Singlecelledanimalsinvisibletothenakedeye.Mostarefreelivingandafeware
parasitesinanimalsorman.
Pruritus
Itching.
Pulmonary
Relatingtothelungs.
Pulmonaryarteries
Thelargevesselsleadingfromthehearttothelungs.
Pulmonaryedema
Fluidaccumulationinthelungs.
Pulmonaryemboli
Pulmonaryembolism:Bloodclotthattravelstothebloodvesselsinthelungand
obstructsthem.
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Pupa
Adormantformofaninsect(pluralpupae).Alarvaspinsacocoontoprotectitself,and
becomesapupa.Thepupadoesnotfeed,butgraduallychangesformandbecomesa
newadult.

Pustule
Smallelevatedareaontheskinfilledwithpus.
Pyloroduodenal
Anobstructionintheareawherethestomachandsmallintestinemeet.
Pyoderma
Aninfectionoftheskinusuallytheresultofabacterialinvasion.
Pyometra
Aninfectionoftheuterus.
Q
Queen
Afemalecatusedforbreeding.
Queening
Incats,theactofgivingbirth.
R
Rabies
Afatalvirusdiseaseofwarmbloodedanimalsincludingman,thataffectsthebrainand
isspreadinthesalivaofinfectedanimals.Rabidanimalshaveatemperamentchange.
Wildcreaturesbecomeboldenoughtoattackhumanbeings,anddociledomestic
animalsmayturnontheirowners.
Radiology
Xray.
Reagentgrade
Acompoundwiththepurityandqualitythatallowsittobeusedinalaboratory.
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Recombinantvaccine
Therearecertainantigensonvirusesandbacteriawhicharebetteratstimulatingan
antibodyresponsebytheanimalthanothers.Thegenesfortheseantigenscanbe
isolated,andmadetoproducelargequantitiesoftheantigenstheycodefor.A
recombinantvaccinecontainstheseantigens,notthewholeorganism.Comparewith
'modifiedlivevaccine'and'killedvaccine.'
Recumbency
Lyingdown.
Reflexovulator
Onlyovulatingafterbeingbred.Catsarereflexovulators,dogsarenot.
Regulation
Usinginsulintomaintainthebloodglucoselevelofananimalwithintheacceptable
range.
Regurgitation
Expellingfoodfromtheesophagus.
Renal
Pertainingtothekidneys.
Renalinsufficiency
Thedecreasedabilityofthekidneystoridthebodyofwastes.
Resistance
Atermusedtodescribebacteriawhichhavemutatedorchangedsotheyarenot
affectedbyanantibioticthatpreviouslykilledthemorslowedtheirgrowth.Asmore
bacteriabecomeresistanttovariousantibiotics,therearefewerantibioticswhichwill
haveaneffectonthem,thusnewerandstrongerantibioticswillneedtobedeveloped.
Inappropriateuseofantibiotics(usingthemtoooften,fortooshortadurationorin
insufficientdose)maypromotethedevelopmentofresistance.
Resorption
Inpregnancy,aconditioninwhichthefetusdies,andinsteadofbeingaborted,thefetal
tissuedissolveswithintheuterusandisabsorbedbythemother.Themotherwillshow
nooutwardsignsofafetalresorption.
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Respiratory
Relatingtobreathingorthelungs.

Respiratorydepression
Decreaseintherateordepthofrespiration.
Retina
Therearinteriorsurfaceoftheeyeballiscalledtheretina.Theretinacontainsnerve
cellsreferredtoasrodsandcones.Therodsaresensitivetolightandtheconesto
color.Theretinareceivesthelightandcolorandconvertsthemintonerveimpulses
whichgotothebrain.
Ringworm
Atypeoffungalinfectionoftheskin.Seearticle:RingworminDogsandCats.
S

Scale
Accumulationofloosefragmentsofthetoplayeroftheskin.
SchiffScherringtonposture
Acondition,causedbyalesioninthespinalcord,inwhichthefrontlegsareheldrigid
andstraight,andtherearlegsareweakorparalyzed.Sometimes,theneckmaybe
hyperextended,withtheheadheldupandovertheback.
Sclerosis
Ahardeningoftissue,usuallytheresultofchronicinflammation.
Sebaceousadenitis
Inflammationofasebaceous(oilproducing)gland.Indogs,sebaceousglandsare
foundonthetopofthetailnearitsbase,andatthejunctionofmucousmembraneswith
skin.Incats,theseglandsarefoundonthechin,lipmargins,andthetopofthetail.
Sebaceousgland
Aglandintheskinwhichproducesanoilysubstance.
Secondgeneration
Adescriptionofmedicationsdevelopedfromanearlierformofthemedication.First
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generationmedicationsweredevelopedfromtheoriginalformofthedrugsecond
generationmedicationsareadaptationsoffirstgenerationdrugsthirdgenerationdrugs
areadaptationsofsecondgeneration,etc.
Secondaryinfection
Infectionwhichoccursbecausethetissueanditsnaturaldefenseshavebeendamaged
byanothercondition.
Secondaryresponse
Thefasterandgreaterimmuneresponseproducedbyananimalwhohaspreviously
encounteredthatspecificantigen.Memorycellsareresponsibleforthismoreefficient
response.Alsocalled'anamnesticresponse.'
Seizurethreshold
Thelevelofstimulationatwhichaseizureisproduced.Raisingtheseizurethreshold
makesitlesslikelyaseizurewilloccur.
Selectiveserotoninreuptakeinhibitor
(SSRIs),Selectiveserotoninreuptakeinhibitors:Medicationswhichslowdownthe
abilityofnervecellstoabsorbserotonin,aneurotransmitter(chemicalthatservesasa
messengerbetweennerves).Example:Prozac.
Separationanxiety
Abehavioralconditioninwhichthepetbecomesanxiouswhenseparatedfromthe
owner.Dogswithseparationanxietytendto'shadow'theirowners,greetthem
exuberantlywhentheyreturnafterbeinggone,andsometimesvocalize,chew
destructively,andurinateordefecatewhenseparatedfromtheirowners.
Sepsis
Thepresenceoftoxinsinthebloodorothertissuesthetoxinsareproducedbybacteria
orothermicroorganisms.
Septic
Aconditioncausedbyaninfectione.g.,withbacteriaorfungi,ortoxinstheyproduce.
Septicemia
Adiseaseaffectingmanyorgansystemsduetotoxinsinthebloodwhicharereleased
bybacteriaorothermicroorganisms.Signsincludefever,pinpointbruisesonmucous
membranes,andlesionsinthejoints,heartvalves,eyes,orotherorgans.

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Serology
Laboratorytestingforantibodyantigenreactionsandantibodylevels.
Serotype
Asubdivisionofaspeciesofmicroorganism,e.g.,abacteria,baseduponitsparticular
antigens.
Serous
Thinandwatery.
Serum
Thefluidportionofthebloodafterithasclottedandthecellshavebeenremoved.
Shedding
Shedding(oforganisms):Atermusedtodescribethereleaseoforganisms(bacteria,
protozoa,viruses)intotheenvironmentfromaninfectedanimal.Theorganismsmay
beinthestool,urine,respiratorysecretions,orvaginaldischarges.The'shedding'
animalmayormaynotbeshowingsymptomsofdisease.
Skincytology
Examination,withamicroscope,ofaskinscrapingormaterialfromswabbingtheskin.
Thematerialmaybestainedandcheckedforthepresenceofyeast,bacteria,tumor
cells,etc.
Skinscraping
Scrapingsomematerialfromthesurfaceoftheskinandlookingatitundera
microscope,e.g.,tocheckforskinmites.
Smoothmuscle
Thetypeofmusclefoundintheinternalorganssuchasstomachandintestines(notthe
heart).
Solublecarbohydrate
Also,solublefiber.Easilydigestedcarbohydrateslikestarch.
Somnolence
Sleepiness,aconditionofsemiconsciousnessapproachingcoma.
Somogyieffect
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Aconditioninwhichthebloodglucoselevelincreasesiftoomuchinsulinisgiven.It
occurswheninsulincausesthebloodglucoseleveltogosolowitstimulatesthe
productionofotherhormonesinthebodysuchasepinephrine,whichpromotethe
breakdownofglycogen(thechemicalcompoundwhichthebodyusestostoreglucose)
andincreasesthebloodglucoselevelabovenormal.Itisalsocalledrebound
hyperglycemiaorinsulininducedhyperglycemia.
Spay
Sterilizationbysurgicalremovaloftheovariesanduterusofafemaleanimal.
Sphincter
Aringlikebandofmusclethatconstrictsapassageorclosesanopening,e.g.,theanal
sphincterconstrictstoclosetheanusandrelaxeswhentheanimalispassingstool.The
urethralsphincterclosestheurinarybladder.
Spirochete
Atypeofbacteriawhichislong,slender,andassumesaspiralshape.Leptospira
speciesandthebacteriathatcausesLymedisease(Borreliaburgdorferi)are
spirochetes.
Spleen
Partoftheimmunesystemofananimal.Alarge,tongueshapedorganintheabdomen
containingmanylymphocytes.Thespleenfiltersbloodandremovesdamagedcells.It
canalsomanufacturenewbloodcellsiftheanimal'sbonemarrowisdamaged.
SSRI
Selectiveserotoninreuptakeinhibitors:Medicationswhichslowdowntheabilityof
nervecellstoabsorbserotonin,aneurotransmitter(chemicalthatservesasamessenger
betweennerves).Example:Prozac.
Stasis
Inthegastrointestinaltract,aconditioninwhichthefooddoesnotmovethrough
normally,butremainsinonesection,e.g.,fooddoesnotpassfromthestomachintothe
intestine.
Statusepilepticus
Aconditioninwhichtheanimalexhibitsonesevere(GrandMal)seizurerightafter
another,withnotimetorecoverinbetween.
Stenosis
Thenarrowingofanorganofpassagesuchasabloodvesselorintestine.
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Stressinducedhyperglycemia
Aconditionincatsinwhichthebloodglucoselevelbecomesabnormallyhighwhen
theanimalisstressed,e.g.,intheveterinarian'soffice.
Stricture
Thenarrowingofanorganofpassagesuchasabloodvesselorintestine.
Struvite
Achemicalcompound,magnesiumammoniumphosphate,whichismadebythebody
andcanformcrystalsandstonesintheurinarybladder.
Subcutaneous
Undertheskinoftencalled'subQ.'
Subluxation
Apartialdislocationofajointinwhichthebonesbecomeoutofalignment,butthe
jointitselfisstillintact.
Substrate
Relativetothehusbandryofreptiles,amphibians,andsmallmammals,thesubstrateis
thematerialthatlinesthebottomofacage.
Sulfonamides
Aclassofantibioticswhichcontainsulfur.Theyarebacteriostatic(theystopthe
growth(reproduction)ofbacteria,butdoNOTkillthem).
Superfecundation
Havingalitterwithmorethanonefather(orbreeding).
Supraventriculartachycardia
Aconditioninwhichtheheartbeatsveryrapidlybecauseofsignalscomingfromthe
atria(chambersoftheheartthatreceivetheblood)ornearthejunctionoftheatriawith
theventricles(thechambersoftheheartthatpumpthebloodtothebodyorlungs).
Sympathomimetic
Producingeffectssimilartothe'flightorfight'response,whichmeansthebodyis
alertedtoadangerofsomesortandpreparestobasicallyrunorfight.
Sympathomimeticeffectsincludeincreasedheartrate,sweating,andincreasedblood
pressure.
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Syncope
Thetemporarylossofconsciousnessfainting.
Synergist
Anagentthatenhancestheactionofanother.
Synovial
Pertainingtoajointmadeupofboneendscoveredwithcartilage,ligaments,acavity
filledwithsynovialfluid(jointfluid)andanoutsidefibrouscapsule,e.g.,hipjoint,
elbowjoint.
Systemic
Throughoutthebody.
T
Tcell
Alsocalled'Tlymphocytes.'Thetypeoflymphocytewhichisresponsibleforcell
mediatedimmunity.Tcellsmaydirectlykillacellorproducechemicalscalled
lymphokinesthatactivatemacrophageswhichwillkillthecell.Comparewith'Bcell.'
Tachycardia
Anabnormallyhighheartrate.
Tachypnea
Rapidbreathing.
Tarsus
Theankle(rearleg)ofdogsandcatsalsocalledthehock.
Tartar
Abuildupofbacteria,saliva,andfoodontheteethwhichbecomesmineralized,
formingahardcoatingandeventuallycausinggumdiseaseandtoothloss.Seealso
'Plaque.'
Temporomandibularjoint
Thejointbetweenthelowerjawandtheskull.
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Thirdgeneration
Adescriptionofmedicationsdevelopedfromanearlierformofthemedication.First
generationmedicationsweredevelopedfromtheoriginalformofthedrugsecond
generationmedicationsareadaptationsoffirstgenerationdrugsthirdgenerationdrugs
areadaptationsofsecondgeneration,etc.

Thrombocytopenia
Alowerthannormalnumberofplateletsintheblood.Platelets,whichareactually
fragmentsofspecifictypesofcells,arenecessaryforbloodtoclot.Signsof
thrombocytopeniaincludebruisingandbleedingfromthenose,intothegastrointestinal
tract,etc.

Thyrotropinreleasinghormone
Hormoneproducedbythehypothalamusthatstimulatesthepituitaryglandtoproduce
thyrotropin(thyroidstimulatinghormoneTSH),whichinturnstimulatesthethyroid
glandtoproducethyroidhormone.AlsocalledTSHreleasingfactororTSHreleasing
hormone.
Tissue
Agroupofspecializedcellsthattogetherperformaparticularfunction,e.g.,muscle
tissue,nervetissue,bone.
Titer
Ameasurementoftheamountofantibodiesintheblood.Thetesttomeasure
antibodiesisusuallyperformedbymakinganumberofdilutionsofthebloodandthen
measuringatwhatdilutionthereissufficientantibodytoreactinthetest.Forexample,
atiterof1:8(onetoeight)meansthebloodcanbedilutedtoonepartbloodandseven
partssalineandstillproduceapositivereactioninthetest.Thehigherthetiter(1:16is
higherthan1:8),themoreantibodyispresent.(NOTE:Theword'titer'mayalsobe
usedwhendiscussingtheamountofantigenpresent,e.g.,ahightitervaccinehasa
largenumberofvirusparticles.)
Topical
Tobeusedontheskin.
Torsion
Thetwistingofanorgan.
Toxemia
Aconditioninwhichtoxinsmoveintothebloodstream.

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Tracheobronchitis
Inflammationofthetracheaandbronchi.
Transient
Temporary.
Transporthost
Ananimalorinsectwhichcarriesanimmatureparasitefromonemammalianhostto
another.
Tricyclicantidepressant
Aclassofantidepressantswhichworkbydecreasingtheamountofcertainchemical
transmitterstakenupbyspecificnervecells.Thetricyclicantidepressantsinclude
clomipramine,amitriptyline,andnortryptylineandareoftenusedtotreatbehavioral
problemsinsmallanimals.
Tubule
Microscopicducts.Thetubulesinthekidneyshelptoconcentratetheurine.
Tumor
Abnormalgrowthorswellingtermoftenusedtodesignatecancer.
TypeIdiabetes
Aformofdiabetesinwhichsolittleinsulinisproducedthatsupplementalinsulinmust
begivenfortheanimaltolive.Alsocalledinsulindependentdiabetesmellitus
(IDDM).
TypeIIdiabetes
Atypeofdiabetesmellitusinwhichalthoughthebloodglucoselevelsarehigherthan
normal,theyarenotimmediatelylifethreatening,andtheanimalcansurvivewithout
supplementalinsulin.Alsocallednoninsulindependentdiabetesmellitus(NIDDM).

U
Ulcer
Alesioninwhichthetissuesurfaceiserodedaway.
Ultrasound
Ultrasound/ultrasonography:Atechniqueusedtogettheimageofadeepstructure
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withinthebodybydirectingultrasoundwavesatitandrecordingthereflections
(echoes)fromit.
Umbilicus
Theareaofthebodywheretheumbilicalcordisattachedthebellybutton.
Urate
Achemicalcompoundwhichcontainsuricacidandismadebythebody,andcanform
crystalsandstonesintheurinarybladder.Uricacidisawasteproductfromthe
breakdownofcertainproteins.
Urea
Wasteproductofproteinmetabolismthatisremovedfromthebodybythekidneys.
Urease
Anenzymethatbreaksdownurea.Ureaisawasteproductofproteinmetabolismthatis
removedfromthebodybythekidneys.
Urinaryincontinence
Aphraseusedtodescribetheinabilitytocontrolurination.
Urinaryobstruction
Ablockageintheurinarysystem,mostoftenoccurringintheurethra,thetubethat
leadsfromtheurinarybladdertotheoutsideofthebody.
Urinaryretention
Aconditioninwhichtheurinarybladderdoesnotriditselfofallurineitcontains
duringtheprocessofurination.
Urticaria
Hivesdevelopmentofsmallswellingswhichmayitchusuallycausedbyanallergic
reaction.
USP
UnitedStatesPharmacopeiaadrugregulatingagency.
Uveitis
Inflammationoftheeye.
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Vaccination
Theactofgivingavaccine.Seealso'immunization,'sincethetwowordshave
differentmeaningsandareoftenconfused.
Vaccinefailure
Atermoftenusedtodescribeaconditioninwhichananimalwhowasvaccinated
againstadiseasestillgetsthedisease.Intruth,thereisusuallynothingwrongwiththe
vaccine,butforsomereason,theanimal'simmunesystemdidnotadequatelyreactto
it.

Vasculitis
Inflammationofbloodvessels.
Vasoconstriction
Adecreaseinthediameterofbloodvessels.
Vasodilator
Agentwhichdilates,orincreasesthediameterofbloodvessels.
Venacava
Eitheroftwolargeveinscarryingbloodtotherightatriumoftheheart.Thecranial
venacavabringsbloodfromtheheadregion,frontlegs,andupperchesttotheheart
thecaudal(orposterior)venacavacarriesbloodfromtheareasoftheabdomenand
hindlegstotheheart.
Vent
Theoutsideopeningofthecloaca,whichisacommonpassagewayforfeces,urine,and
reproduction.
Ventricle
Thechambersoftheheartthatpumpthebloodtothebodyorlungs.
Ventriculararrhythmia
Aheartconditioninwhichtheheartbeatsirregularlyand/oratanabnormalrate
becauseofsignalscomingfromtheventricles(chambersoftheheartthatpumpthe
blood).

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Vertebrate
Animalwithavertebralcolumn(spine)includessuchanimalsasfish,birds,turtles,
reptiles,amphibians,andmammals.
Vesicle
Smallelevatedareaontheskinfilledwithaclearfluid.
Vestibularsystem
Portionsoftheinnerear,nerves,andbrainwhichhelpthebodymaintainbalance.
Villi
Microscopicprojectionswhichcovertheintestine,greatlyincreasingthesurfacearea
andtherefore,increasingtheabilitytoabsorbnutrients.Singular:Villus.
Virus
Thesmallestformoflife,invisiblewithanordinarymicroscope.Aninfectiousunitthat
entersandusescellsofplantsoranimalsforreplication.Somevirusescausediseasein
animalsorplants.
Viscerocutaneous
Pertainingtotheinternalorgansandskin.
Viscosity
Thicknessofafluid,e.g.,molassesismoreviscousthanwater.
Vitalsigns
Thesignsoflifewhicharepulse,respiration,andtemperature.
Volvulus
Twistingofthestomachorintestine,whichoftenhastheeffectofcuttingofftheblood
supplytoit.
Vomeronasalorgan
Sensoryorganalsocalled'Jacobson'sorgan,'whichdetectspheromones.
W
Warmblooded
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Havingarelativelyhighbodytemperaturethatisregulatedinternallyandis
independentoftheenvironmentaltemperature.Mammalsandbirdsarewarmblooded.
Wart
Benigngrowthcausedbyavirus.
Wasting
Lossofmusclemassduetodecreasedfoodintakeorincreasedmetabolicrate.
Whelping
Indogs,theactofgivingbirth.
Whitebloodcells
Cellsinthebloodwhosemajorroleistodefendthebodyagainstinvadingorganisms
suchasbacteria,viruses,andfungi.Therearedifferenttypesofleukocytes:
lymphocytesarepartoftheimmunesystemmonocytes,eosinophils,andneutrophils
eatorengulforganismsbasophilscontainhistamineandareinvolvedininflammatory
reactions.
Windowofsusceptibility
Atimeperiodinthelifeofayounganimalinwhichthematernalantibodiesaretoo
lowtoprovideprotectionagainstacertaindisease,buttoohightoallowavaccineto
workandproduceimmunity.
X
Y
Z
Zoonotic
Adiseasewhichcanbetransmittedbetweenanimalsandpeople.
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Rehoboth,MA02769
ph:(508)3364430
fax:(508)9152176
drgomaa_a@abbottanimalhospital.com
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