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DENR (Department of Environment and Natural Resources)

Executive Order No. 192 dated June 10, 1987 Providing for the Reorganization of
the Department of Environment, Energy and Natural Resources, Renaming it as the
Department of Environment and Natural Resources, and for other Purposes.
Executive Order No. 192 mandates the DENR to be the primary government agency
responsible for the conservation, management, development, and proper use of the
countrys environment and natural resources, specifically forest and grazing lands,
mineral resources, including those in reservation and watershed areas, and lands of
the public domain, as well as the licensing and regulation of all natural resources as
may be provided for by law in order to ensure equitable sharing of the benefits
derived therefrom for the welfare of the present and future generations of Filipinos.
To accomplish this mandate, the Department shall be guided by the following
1. Assure the availability and sustainability of the country's natural resources
through judicious use and systematic restoration or replacement, whenever
2. Increase the productivity of natural resources in order to meet the demands
for forest, mineral, and land resources of a growing population;
3. Enhance the contribution of natural resources for achieving national
economic and social development;
4. Promote equitable access to natural resources by the different sectors of the
population; and
5. Conserve specific terrestrial and marine areas representative of the Philippine
natural and cultural heritage for present and future generations.
"A nation enjoying and sustaining its natural resources and clean and healthy
To mobilize our citizenry in protecting, conserving and managing the environment
and natural resources for the present and future generations.
DENR is tasked to formulate and implement policies, guidelines, rules and
regulations relating to environmental management and pollution prevention and
Formulate implement and supervise the government's policies, plans and programs
pertaining to the management, conservation, development, use and replenishment
of the country's natural resources and ecological diversity; and
Promulgate and implement rules and regulations governing the exploration,
development, extraction, disposition, and use of the forests, lands, minerals,
wildlife, and other natural resources.


Office of the Secretary

Chief of Staf
Head Executive Assistant Office
Control Staff


Undersecretary/Chief of Staff

Head Executive Assistant

Head Document Management and

Office of the Undersecretaries

Undersecretary for Administration and
Information Systems
Undersecretary/Chief of Staff
Undersecretary for Field Operations
Undersecretary for Policy and Planning &
Foreign Assisted Programs
Office of the Assistant Secretaries
Assistant Secretary for Internal Audit and
OIC - Assistant Secretary for Legal Services
OIC - Assistant Secretary for Administration
and Finance
OIC - Assistant Secretary for Field Operations
Assistant Secretary for Foreign Assisted and
Special Projects
Officer-In-Charge, Assistant Secretary for
Human Resource Development and
Information Systems
Assistant Secretary for Planning
Public Afairs Office


OIC Director
Assistant Director
OIC - Chief, Research and Development
Communication Division
OIC - Chief, Public Information Division
OIC - Chief, Library

Special Concerns Office


OIC Director
OIC - Assistant Director



Coordination Division

Chief, Special Action and Investigation

OIC - Chief, Special Events and
Office in Charge, Inter-Agency and Sectoral
Networking Division

Legal Service

OIC - Director, Legal Service for Luzon

Director, Legal Service for Visayas
Director, Legal Service for Mindanao
Chief, Claims and Conflicts Division
Chief, Processing and
Documentation Division
Chief, Investigation and Litigation Division
OIC - Chief, Law Enforcement and Licenses
Chief, Research and Legal Opinion
OIC - Chief, Personnel Investigation
Administrative Service

OIC - Chief, Personnel Division
OIC - Chief, Records Management and
Documentation Division
OIC - Chief, General Services Division
Chief, Medical and Dental Unit

Human Resource Development Service

OIC-Chief, Institution Development Division
OIC-Chief, Career Development Division
OIC-Chief, Human Resource Research and
Development Division
Chief, Training Management Division
Internal Audit Service
Financial Management Service

Director, DENR Internal Audit Service

Chief, Operations Audit Division
Chief, Financial Audit Division
OIC-Chief, Accounting Division
Acting Chief,Budget Division
Chief, Management Division
Assistant Chief, Accounting Division
Assistant Chief, Budget Division

PAGASA (Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical

Services Administration)
PAGASA one of the attached agencies of the Department of Science and Technology
(DOST) under its Scientific and Technical Services Institutes is mandated to
provide protection against natural calamities and utilize scientific knowledge as an
effective instrument to insure the safety, well being and economic security of all the
people, and for the promotion of national progress. (Section 2, Statement of Policy,
Presidential Decree No. 78;December 1972 as amended by Presidential Decree No.
1149; August 1977)
Protecting lives and properties through timely, accurate and reliable weather-related
information and services.
Center of excellence for weather related information and services.
Intergrity, Commitment and Public Service Orientation .

Maintains a nationwide network pertaining to observation and forecasting of

weather and flood and other conditions affecting national safety, welfare and

Undertake activities relative to observation, collection, assessment and

processing of atmospheric and allied data for the benefit of agriculture, commerce
and industry;

Engage in studies of geophysical and astronomical phenomena essential to

the safety and welfare of the people;

Undertake researches on the structure, development and motion of typhoons

and formulate measures for their moderation; and

Maintain effective linkages with scientific organizations here and abroad and
promote exchange of scientific information and cooperation among personnel
engaged in atmospheric, geophysical, astronomical and space studies.


Office of the Administrator
Acting Deputy Administrator

Research and Development

Acting Deputy Administrator
Administration and Engineering Services
Acting Deputy Administrator
Operations and Services
Weather Division
Hydrometeorological Division
Climatology and Agrometeorology Division
Research & Development and Training
Administrative Division
Financial, Planning and Management Division
Engineering and Technical Services Division
PAGASA Regional Services Division - Northern
PAGASA Regional Services Division Southern Luzon
PAGASA Regional Services Division - National
Capital Region
PAGASA Regional Services Division Visayas
PAGASA Regional Services Division

NDRRMC (National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management

formerly known as the National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC), is a working
group of various government, non-government, civil sector and private sector
organizations of the Government of the Republic of the Philippines established by
Republic Act 10121 of 2009. It is administered by the Office of Civil Defense under
the Department of National Defense. The Council is responsible for ensuring the
protection and welfare of the people during disasters or emergencies.

The Council utilizes the UN Cluster Approach in disaster management. It is the

country's focal for the ASEAN Agreement on Disaster Management and Emergency
Response (AADMER) and many other related international commitments.
Local DRRM Offices
Thru the implementation of Republic Act 10121, various local governments
throughout the country have established Local DRRM Offices at the regional,
provincial, municipal, city and barangay levels. As functional arms of the local
governments, these Offices are responsible for the implementation of the disaster
management cycle at the local levels.
Local Offices usually have a Chief DRRM Officer supported by Administrative and
Training, Research and Planning, Operations and Warning Officers. Some of these
Offices have advanced to organizing their own search and rescue and emergency
medical services squads and command-control-and-communications centers.
Council Membership
In February 2010, the National Disaster Coordinating Council (NDCC) was renamed,
reorganized, and subsequently expanded. The following heads of agencies compose
Chairperson - Secretary of Department of National Defense(DND) - Voltaire Gazmin
Vice Chairperson for Disaster Preparedness - Secretary of Interior and Local
Government(DILG) - Mar Roxas
Vice Chairperson for Disaster Response - Secretary of Department of Social
Welfare and Development (DSWD) Corazon Dinky Soliman
Vice Chairperson for Disaster Prevention and Mitigation - Secretary of the
Department of Science and Technology(DOST)- Mario Montejo
Vice Chairperson for Disaster Rehabilitation and Recovery - Director-General
of the National Economic Development Authority- Arsenio Balisacan
Executive Director- Administrator, OCD- Eduardo del Rosario

Members/ Cabinet Officials

Secretary of the Department of
Secretary of the Department of
Secretary of the Department of
Secretary of the Department of
Secretary of the Department of
Secretary of the Department of
Secretary of the Department of
Secretary of the Department of
Secretary of the Department of
Secretary of the Department of
Secretary of the Department of
Secretary of the Department of

Health Dr. Enrique Ona

Environment and Natural Resources- Ramon Paje
Agriculture Proceso Alcala
Education Bro. Armin Luistro
Energy Carlos Jericho Petilla
Finance Cesar Purisima
Trade and Industry Gregory Domingo
Transportation and Communication Joseph Emilio
Budget and Management Florencio Butch Abad
Public Works and Highways Rogelio Singson
Foreign Affairs Albert del Rosario
Justice Leila De Lima

Secretary of the Department of Labor and Employment Rosalinda Baldos

Secretary of the Department of Tourism Ramon Jimenez
The Executive Secretary Paquito Ochoa
The NDRRMC is also composed of the following officials (incumbent as of
Nov 15, 2013):
Teresita Deles, Secretary, Office of the Presidential Adviser on the Peace Process
Patricia Licuanan, Chairman, Commission on Higher Education (CHED)
Gen. Emmanuel Bautista, Chief of Staff, Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP)
Director General Alan Purisima, Chief, Philippine National Police (PNP)
The Presidential Communications Group (represented by Presidential Spokesperson
Edwin Lacierda, PCDSPO Sec. Ramon Carandang and PCOO Sec. Herminio Coloma,
Gwendolyn Pang, Secretary-General, Philippine National Red Cross (PNRC)
Jose Eliseo Rocamora, Commissioner, National Anti-Poverty Commission - Victims of
Disasters and Calamities Sector (NAPCVDC)
Remedios Ignacio-Rikken, Chairperson, National Commission on the Role of Filipino
Vice President Jejomar Binay, Chairperson, Housing and Urban Development
Coordinating Council (HUDCC)
Mary Ann Lucille Sering, Executive Director, Climate Change Office of the Climate
Change Commission
Robert Vergara, President, Government Service Insurance System (GSIS)
Emilio de Quiros Jr, President, Social Security System (SSS)
Alexander Padilla, President, Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth)
Oriental Mindoro Gov. Alfonso Umali Jr, President, Union of Local Authorities of the
Philippines (ULAP) and League of Provinces of the Philippines (LPP)
Quezon City Mayor Herbert Bautista, President, League of Cities of the Philippines
Javier, Leyte Mayor Leonardo Javier Jr, President, League of Municipalities of the
Philippines (LMP)
Ricojudge Janvier Echiverri, President, Liga ng Mga Barangay (LMB)
Four (4) representatives from civil society organizations (CSO)
One (1) representative from the private sector


The LLDA was organized by virtue of Republic Act No. 4850 as a quasi-government
agency with regulatory and proprietary functions. Through Presidential Decree 813
in 1975, and Executive Order 927 in 1983, its powers and functions were further
strengthened to include environmental protection and jurisdiction over the lake
basins surface water. In 1993, through Executive Order 149, the administrative
supervision over LLDA was transferred from the Office of the President to the
Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR).
The Laguna Lake Development Authority was created by Republic Act No. 4850 (as
amended by Presidential Decree 813), entitled: AN ACT CREATING THE LAGUNA


Chapter I, Section 1:
It is hereby declared to be the national policy to promote, and accelerate the
development and balanced growth of the Laguna Lake area and the surrounding
provinces, cities and towns hereinafter referred to as the region, within the context
of the national and regional plans and policies for social and economic development
and to carry out the development of the Laguna Lake region with due regard and
adequate provisions for environmental management and control, preservation of
the quality of human life and ecological systems, and the prevention of undue
ecological disturbances, deterioration and pollution.
By 2020, the Laguna de Bay Basin has been transformed as the focal center for
sustainable development through sound ecological governance.
To catalyze a climate change-sensitive Integrated Water Resource Management in
the Laguna de Bay Region, with clear focus on preserving ecological integrity and
promoting sustainable economic growth.

Love of the Environment
We are foremost advocates of environmental protection and sustainable
development in this day and age of climate change.
Leadership / Professionalism
We adhere to the highest standards of civil service and professional meritocracy.
Disciplined / Science-Driven
We believe in empirically-driven and science-based environmental governance and
Adaptability / Innovativeness
We believe in change management and the value of innovation and creativity.
To effectively restore the lake and its delicate ecosystem, we need the full
involvement of all stakeholders, the soundness of science and research to guide

proper interventions and the strengthening of the overall environmental

management and governance to ensure that livelihood, economy and wealth will
flourish sustainably in what is the focal area of regional and national development.
-- Secretary J.R. Nereus O. Acosta, PhD.
Presidential Adviser for Environmental Protection
General Manager, LLDA
The Laguna Lake Development Authority envisions a Laguna Lake Region with a
balanced ecology, maintained through a science-based approach in monitoring,
management and maintenance of the ecosystem. It aims to make the Laguna Lake
Region a model of environmental governance in Asia and the focal area of
sustainable development for the region and the whole country.


A. Information
State-of-the-art Model Laboratory
Information Technology
- Using technology to implement more eco-friendly paperless transactions;
Information Systems Strategic Plans (ISSP)
- Text LLDA, guide response system
- Automated telemetering system, located in Looc, Cardona, generates realtime lake water level and rainfall data, accessible through the Advanced Science
and Technology Institute of the Department of and Technology (ASTI-DOST) website.
B. Interventions
Regulation/Enforcement of Laguna de Bay Institutional Strengthening and
Community Participation (LISCOP) Project
Identifying Areas for Reforestation planting different species of trees and
plants in identified areas; on-going consultations with communities and various
stakeholders on the preprogrammed reforestation project
Lake Fisheries Conservation Program conducts lake-seeding activities in
various locations around the Lake
C. Institutional Partnerships / Institution - Building
Public-Private Partnerships: World Bank, Asian Development Bank, United
Nations Development Programme, Department of Science and Technology,
Department of Transportation and Communications, Local Government Units,

Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources, Department of Environment and Natural

Resources, Department of Public Works and Highways, Department of Interior and
Local Government, Department of Tourism, Department of Trade and Industry and
other partners and stakeholders
- River Protection Convergence Program with DPWH
- Memorandum of Agreement (MOA) with the Quezon City government and
other Local Government Units on collaboration on regulatory programs
- Calauan Learning Resource Center
Water and Ecology summits, conferences and seminars
Construction of the first green building of the government and climate-smart
headquarters in the National Ecology Center.

D. Involvement
Community Impact Surveys
- Conducts lake primary productivity (LPP) measurements regularly in 3
selected stations. For assessing the quantity of natural food supply in the lake and
predicting potential fish yields
Water Quality Management
- Forest, Watershed, River Basin monitoring related to the River Rehabilitation
Program with thirty six (36) stations located in the rivers of Marikina, Bagumbayan,
Mangangati, Tunasan, San Pedro, Bian, Sta. Rosa, Cabuyao, San Cristobal, San
Juan, Los Baos, Bay, Pila, Sta. Cruz, Pagsanjan, Pangil, Siniloan, Sta. Maria, Jala-jala,
Pililla, Tanay, Baras, Taytay Barkadahan and Morong, and also in Sapang Baho and
the Buli Creek.
- LLDA Decision Support System (DSS): Bathymetric Surveys, Streamflow
Measurement, Total Pollution Loading Study, Remote Sensing and GIS
- Strengthening of the 120 Fisheries and Aquatic Resource Management
Councils (FARMCs) and River Councils
Taking sustainable development as the centrepiece of its development efforts, LLDA
sets its direction from a regulatory agency to a market client-driven development
To catalyze Integrated Water Resource Management in the Laguna de Bay Region,
showcasing the symbiosis of man and nature for sustainability, with focus on
preserving ecological integrity and promoting economic growth with equitable
access to resources.

Secretary, Department of Environment and Natural
Resources as Chairperson
Secretary/Presidential Adviser for Environmental
Protection as Vice-Chairperson
Governor, Rizal Province


Governor, Laguna Province


Deputy Executive Secretary,
Development Authority
Office of the President


Chairperson, Metro Manila


Deputy Director-General, National
and Industry
Economic Development Authority


Undersecretary, Department of Trade


Mayor, Binangonan, Rizal
as Concurrent Acting Board Secretary


Mayor, Pagsanjan, Laguna

Secretary/Presidential Adviser for Environmental Protection
General Manager
General Manager for Operations
Division Chief III
Board Secretary
Legal and Adjudication Division
Management Division


Officer-In-Charge-Assistant General
Manager for Administration
Division Chief III and Concurrent Acting
Policy Planning and Information

International Linkages & Research
Development Division
Officer-In-Charge | Department Head
Clearance & Permits Division


Surveillance and Monitoring


Enforcement Division
Project Development Management and Evaluation Division
Community Development Division
Environmental Quality and Research Division


Atty. III
Administrative Division
Finance Division


An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the result of a

sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. The
seismicity, seismism or seismic activity of an area refers to the frequency, type and
size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time.
Earthquakes are measured using observations from seismometers. The moment
magnitude is the most common scale on which earthquakes larger than
approximately 5 are reported for the entire globe. The more numerous earthquakes
smaller than magnitude 5 reported by national seismological observatories are
measured mostly on the local magnitude scale, also referred to as the Richter scale.
These two scales are numerically similar over their range of validity. Magnitude 3 or
lower earthquakes are mostly almost imperceptible or weak and magnitude 7 and
over potentially cause serious damage over larger areas, depending on their depth.
The largest earthquakes in historic times have been of magnitude slightly over 9,
although there is no limit to the possible magnitude. The most recent large
earthquake of magnitude 9.0 or larger was a 9.0 magnitude earthquake in Japan in
2011 (as of March 2014), and it was the largest Japanese earthquake since records
began. Intensity of shaking is measured on the modified Mercalli scale. The
shallower an earthquake, the more damage to structures it causes, all else being
At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and sometimes
displacement of the ground. When the epicenter of a large earthquake is located
offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami. Earthquakes
can also trigger landslides, and occasionally volcanic activity.
In its most general sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic
event whether natural or caused by humans that generates seismic waves.
Earthquakes are caused mostly by rupture of geological faults, but also by other
events such as volcanic activity, landslides, mine blasts, and nuclear tests. An
earthquake's point of initial rupture is called its focus or hypocenter. The epicenter
is the point at ground level directly above the hypocenter.
Efects of Earthquakes
Shaking and ground rupture

Shaking and ground rupture are the main effects created by earthquakes, principally
resulting in more or less severe damage to buildings and other rigid structures. The
severity of the local effects depends on the complex combination of the earthquake
magnitude, the distance from the epicenter, and the local geological and
geomorphological conditions, which may amplify or reduce wave propagation. The
ground-shaking is measured by ground acceleration.
Specific local geological, geomorphological, and geostructural features can induce
high levels of shaking on the ground surface even from low-intensity earthquakes.
This effect is called site or local amplification. It is principally due to the transfer of
the seismic motion from hard deep soils to soft superficial soils and to effects of
seismic energy focalization owing to typical geometrical setting of the deposits.
Ground rupture is a visible breaking and displacement of the Earth's surface along
the trace of the fault, which may be of the order of several metres in the case of
major earthquakes. Ground rupture is a major risk for large engineering structures
such as dams, bridges and nuclear power stations and requires careful mapping of
existing faults to identify any which are likely to break the ground surface within the
life of the structure.

Landslides and Avalanches

Earthquakes, along with severe storms, volcanic activity, coastal wave attack, and
wildfires, can produce slope instability leading to landslides, a major geological
hazard. Landslide danger may persist while emergency personnel are attempting
Earthquakes can cause fires by damaging electrical power or gas lines. In the event
of water mains rupturing and a loss of pressure, it may also become difficult to stop
the spread of a fire once it has started. For example, more deaths in the 1906 San
Francisco earthquake were caused by fire than by the earthquake itself.
Soil Liquefaction
Soil liquefaction occurs when, because of the shaking, water-saturated granular
material (such as sand) temporarily loses its strength and transforms from a solid to
a liquid. Soil liquefaction may cause rigid structures, like buildings and bridges, to
tilt or sink into the liquefied deposits. For example, in the 1964 Alaska earthquake,
soil liquefaction caused many buildings to sink into the ground, eventually
collapsing upon themselves.
Tsunamis are long-wavelength, long-period sea waves produced by the sudden or
abrupt movement of large volumes of water. In the open ocean the distance
between wave crests can surpass 100 kilometers (62 mi), and the wave periods can
vary from five minutes to one hour. Such tsunamis travel 600-800 kilometers per
hour (373497 miles per hour), depending on water depth. Large waves produced
by an earthquake or a submarine landslide can overrun nearby coastal areas in a
matter of minutes. Tsunamis can also travel thousands of kilometers across open

ocean and wreak destruction on far shores hours after the earthquake that
generated them.
Ordinarily, subduction earthquakes under magnitude 7.5 on the Richter scale do not
cause tsunamis, although some instances of this have been recorded. Most
destructive tsunamis are caused by earthquakes of magnitude 7.5 or more.
A flood is an overflow of any amount of water that reaches land. Floods occur
usually when the volume of water within a body of water, such as a river or lake,
exceeds the total capacity of the formation, and as a result some of the water flows
or sits outside of the normal perimeter of the body. However, floods may be
secondary effects of earthquakes, if dams are damaged. Earthquakes may cause
landslips to dam rivers, which collapse and cause floods.
The terrain below the Sarez Lake in Tajikistan is in danger of catastrophic flood if the
landslide dam formed by the earthquake, known as the Usoi Dam, were to fail
during a future earthquake. Impact projections suggest the flood could affect
roughly 5 million people.
Human impacts
An earthquake may cause injury and loss of life, road and bridge damage, general
property damage, and collapse or destabilization (potentially leading to future
collapse) of buildings. The aftermath may bring disease, lack of basic necessities,
and higher insurance premiums.

PHIVOLCS Earthquake Intensity Scale (PEIS)Intensity Scale



Scarcely Perceptible - Perceptible to people under favorable

circumstances. Delicately balanced objects are disturbed slightly. Still Water
in containers oscillates slowly.


Slightly Felt - Felt by few individuals at rest indoors. Hanging objects swing
slightly. Still Water in containers oscillates noticeably.


Weak - Felt by many people indoors especially in upper floors of buildings.

Vibration is felt like one passing of a light truck. Dizziness and nausea are
experienced by some people. Hanging objects swing moderately. Still water
in containers oscillates moderately.


Moderately Strong - Felt generally by people indoors and by some people

outdoors. Light sleepers are awakened. Vibration is felt like a passing of
heavy truck. Hanging objectsswing considerably. Dinner, plates, glasses,
windows and doors rattle. Floors and walls of wood framed buildings creak.
Standing motor cars may rock slightly. Liquids in containers are slightly
disturbed. Water in containers oscillate strongly. Rumbling sound may
sometimes be heard.

Strong - Generally felt by most people indoors and outdoors. Many sleeping
people are awakened. Some are frightened, some run outdoors. Strong
shaking and rocking felt throughout building. Hanging objects swing
violently. Dining utensils clatter and clink; some are broken. Small, light and
unstable objects may fall or overturn. Liquids spill from filled open
containers. Standing vehicles rock noticeably. Shaking of leaves and twigs of
trees are noticeable.


Very Strong - Many people are frightened; many run outdoors. Some
people lose their balance. motorists feel like driving in flat tires. Heavy
objects or furniture move or may be shifted. Small church bells may ring.
Wall plaster may crack. Very old or poorly built houses and man-made
structures are slightly damaged though well-built structures are not
affected. Limited rockfalls and rolling boulders occur in hilly to mountainous
areas and escarpments. Trees are noticeably shaken.


Destructive - Most people are frightened and run outdoors. People find it
difficult to stand in upper floors. Heavy objects and furniture overturn or
topple. Big church bells may ring. Old or poorly-built structures suffer
considerably damage. Some well-built structures are slightly damaged.
Some cracks may appear on dikes, fish ponds, road surface, or concrete
hollow block walls. Limited liquefaction, lateral spreading and landslides are
observed. Trees are shaken strongly. (Liquefaction is a process by which
loose saturated sand lose strength during an earthquake and behave like


Very Destructive - People panicky. People find it difficult to stand even

outdoors. Many well-built buildings are considerably damaged. Concrete dikes
and foundation of bridges are destroyed by ground settling or toppling. Railway
tracks are bent or broken. Tombstones may be displaced, twisted or overturned.
Utility posts, towers and monuments mat tilt or topple. Water and sewer pipes
may be bent, twisted or broken. Liquefaction and lateral spreading cause manmade structure to sink, tilt or topple. Numerous landslides and rockfalls occur in
mountainous and hilly areas. Boulders are thrown out from their positions
particularly near the epicenter. Fissures and faults rapture may be observed.
Trees are violently shaken. Water splash or stop over dikes or banks of rivers.


Devastating - People are forcibly thrown to ground. Many cry and shake
with fear. Most buildings are totally damaged. bridges and elevated
concrete structures are toppled or destroyed. Numerous utility posts, towers
and monument are tilted, toppled or broken. Water sewer pipes are bent,
twisted or broken. Landslides and liquefaction with lateral spreadings and
sandboils are widespread. the ground is distorted into undulations. Trees are
shaken very violently with some toppled or broken. Boulders are commonly
thrown out. River water splashes violently on slops over dikes and banks.

Completely Devastating - Practically all man-made structures are

destroyed. Massive landslides and liquefaction, large scale subsidence and
uplifting of land forms and many ground fissures are observed. Changes in
river courses and destructive seiches in large lakes occur. Many trees are
toppled, broken and uprooted.

Rossi-Forrel Scale of Earthquake Intensities (Adapted)



Hardly perceptible shock - felt only by an experienced observer

under favorable conditions.


Extremely feeble shock - felt by a small number of persons at



Very feeble shock - felt by several persons at rest. Duration and

direction may be perceptible. Sometimes dizziness or nausea


Feeble shock - felt generally indoors, outdoors by a few. Hanging

objects swing slightly. Creaking of frames of houses.

Shock of moderate intensity - felt generally by everyone.
Hanging objects swing freely. Overturning of tall vases and unstable



Fairly strong shock - general awakening of those asleep. Some

frightened persons leave their houses. Stopping of pendulum clocks.
Oscillation of hanging lamps. Slight damage to very old or poorly
built structures.


Strong shock - overturning of movable objects. General alarm, all

run outdoors. Damage slight in well-built houses, considerable in old
or poorly built structures, old walls, etc. Some landslides from hills
and steep banks. Cracks in road surfaces.


Very strong shock - people panicky. Trees shaken strongly.

Changes in the flow of springs and wells. Sand and mud ejected
from fissures in soft ground. Small landslides.


Extremely strong shock - panic general. Partial or total

destruction of some buildings. Fissures in ground. Landslides and


A tsunami (plural: tsunamis or tsunami; from Japanese: , lit. "harbour wave";
English pronunciation: /sunmi/ soo-NAH-mee or /tsunmi/ tsoo-NAH-mee ) is a
series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of
water, generally an ocean or a large lake. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and other
underwater explosions (including detonations of underwater nuclear devices),
landslides, glacier calvings, meteorite impacts and other disturbances above or
below water all have the potential to generate a tsunami.
Tsunami waves do not resemble normal sea waves, because their wavelength is far
longer. Rather than appearing as a breaking wave, a tsunami may instead initially
resemble a rapidly rising tide, and for this reason they are often referred to as tidal
waves. Tsunamis generally consist of a series of waves with periods ranging from
minutes to hours, arriving in a so-called "wave train".
Wave heights of tens of metres can be generated by large events. Although the
impact of tsunamis is limited to coastal areas, their destructive power can be
enormous and they can affect entire ocean basins; the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami
was among the deadliest natural disasters in human history with at least 290,000
people killed or missing in 14 countries bordering the Indian Ocean.

The Greek historian Thucydides suggested in his late 5th century BC, History of the
Peloponnesian War, that tsunamis were related to submarine earthquakes, but the
understanding of a tsunami's nature remained slim until the 20th century and much
remains unknown. Major areas of current research include trying to determine why
some large earthquakes do not generate tsunamis while other smaller ones do;
trying to accurately forecast the passage of tsunamis across the oceans; and also to
forecast how tsunami waves would interact with specific shorelines.
The term tsunami comes from the Japanese , composed of the two kanji (tsu)
meaning "harbour" and (nami), meaning "wave". (For the plural, one can either
follow ordinary English practice and add an s, or use an invariable plural as in the
Tsunami are sometimes referred to as tidal waves, which are unusually high sea
waves that are triggered especially by earthquakes. In recent years, this term has
fallen out of favor, especially in the scientific community, because tsunami actually
have nothing to do with tides. The once-popular term derives from their most
common appearance, which is that of an extraordinarily high tidal bore. Tsunami
and tides both produce waves of water that move inland, but in the case of tsunami
the inland movement of water is much greater and lasts for a longer period, giving
the impression of an incredibly high tide. Although the meanings of "tidal" include
"resembling" or "having the form or character of" the tides, and the term tsunami is
no more accurate because tsunami are not limited to harbours, use of the term tidal
wave is discouraged by geologists and oceanographers.
There are only a few other languages that have an equivalent native word. In
Acehnese language, the words are i beuna or aln buluk (depending on the
dialect). In Tamil language, it is aazhi peralai. On Simeulue island, off the western
coast of Sumatra in Indonesia, in Devayan language the word is smong, while in
Sigulai language it is emong. In Singkil (in Aceh province) and surrounding, the
people name tsunami with word gloro.

A tidal wave (or simply bore in context, or also aegir, eagre, or eygre) is a tidal
phenomenon in which the leading edge of the incoming tide forms a wave (or
waves) of water that travels up a river or narrow bay against the direction of the
river or bay's current.
Bores occur in relatively few locations worldwide, usually in areas with a large tidal
range (typically more than 6 metres (20 ft) between high and low water) and where
incoming tides are funneled into a shallow, narrowing river or lake via a broad bay.
The funnel-like shape not only increases the tidal range, but it can also decrease the
duration of the flood tide, down to a point where the flood appears as a sudden
increase in the water level. A tidal bore takes place during the flood tide and never
during the ebb tide.
A tidal bore may take on various forms, ranging from a single breaking wavefront
with a roller somewhat like a hydraulic jump to undular bores, comprising a

smooth wavefront followed by a train of secondary waves known as whelps.Large

bores can be particularly unsafe for shipping but also present opportunities for river
Two key features of a tidal bore are the intense turbulence and turbulent mixing
generated during the bore propagation, as well as its rumbling noise. The visual
observations of tidal bores highlight the turbulent nature of the surging waters. The
tidal bore induces a strong turbulent mixing in the estuarine zone, and the effects
may be felt along considerable distances. The velocity observations indicate a rapid
deceleration of the flow associated with the passage of the bore as well as large
velocity fluctuations.A tidal bore creates a powerful roar that combines the sounds
caused by the turbulence in the bore front and whelps, entrained air bubbles in the
bore roller, sediment erosion beneath the bore front and of the banks, scouring of
shoals and bars, and impacts on obstacles. The bore rumble is heard far away
because its low frequencies can travel over long distances. The low-frequency
sound is a characteristic feature of the advancing roller in which the air bubbles
entrapped in the large-scale eddies are acoustically active and play the dominant
role in the rumble-sound generation.
The word bore derives through Old English from the Old Norse word bra, meaning
"wave" or "swell".
The tidal bores may be dangerous and many bores have had a sinister reputation:
the River Seine (France); the Petitcodiac River (Canada); and the Colorado River
(Mexico), to name a few. In China, despite warning signs erected along the Qiantang
River banks, a number of tragic accidents happen each year.[1] The tidal bores
affect the shipping and navigation in the estuarine zone, for example, in Papua New
Guinea (Fly and Bamu Rivers), Malaysia (Benak at Batang Lupar), and India (Hoogly
On the other hand, the tidal-bore affected estuaries are the rich feeding zones and
breeding grounds of several forms of wildlife.The estuarine zones are the spawning
and breeding grounds of several native fish species, while the aeration induced by
the tidal bore contribute to the abundant growth of many species of fish and
shrimps (for example in the Rokan River).
Scientific Studies
Scientific studies have been carried out at the River Dee in the United Kingdom; the
Garonne and Slunerivers in France and the Daly River in Australia. The force of the
tidal bore flow often poses a challenge to scientific measurements, as evidenced by
a number of field work incidents in the River Dee, Rio Mearim, Daly River and
Slune River.

A storm surge is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomena of rising water

commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones
and strong extratropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the

shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, and the timing
of tides. Most casualties during tropical cyclones occur as the result of storm surges.
The two main meteorological factors contributing to a storm surge are a long fetch
of winds spiraling inward toward the storm, and a low-pressure-induced dome of
water drawn up under and trailing the storm's center. The second effect is
responsible for destructive meteotsunamis associated with the most intense tropical
The Galveston Hurricane of 1900, a Category 4 hurricane that struck Galveston,
Texas, drove a devastating surge ashorebetween 6,000 and 12,000 lives were
lost, making it the deadliest natural disaster ever to strike the United States.[1] The
deadliest storm surge caused by a tropical cyclone in the twenty-first century is
from Cyclone Nargis which killed more than 138,000 people in Myanmar in May
2008. The next deadliest this century is from Typhoon Haiyan in 2013. Haiyan
(Yolanda) killed more than 3,600 people in the central Philippines and resulted in
economic losses estimated at $14 billion (USD).
The highest storm tide noted in historical accounts was produced by the 1899
Cyclone Mahina, estimated at 43 ft (13 metres) at Bathurst Bay, Australia, but
research published in 2000 noted the majority of this was likely wave run-up, due to
the steep coastal topography. In the United States, one of the greatest recorded
storm surges was generated by 2005's Hurricane Katrina, which produced a
maximum storm surge of more than 25 ft (8 metres) in the communities of
Waveland (41.5 ft), Bay St. Louis (38 ft), Diamondhead (30 ft) and Pass Christian (35
ft) in Mississippi. Another record storm surge occurred in New York City from
Hurricane Sandy in October 2012, with a high tide of 14 ft (4.2 m), also found in
Pass Christian (the back side of St. Louis Bay got up to 35 ft). The worst storm
surge, in terms of loss of life, was the 1970 Bhola cyclone. In general, the Bay of
Bengal is vulnerable to storm surges.
Measuring Surge
Surge can be measured directly at coastal tidal stations as the difference between
the forecast tide and the observed rise of water. Another method of measuring
surge is by the deployment of pressure transducers along the coastline just ahead
of an approaching tropical cyclone. This was first tested for Hurricane Rita in
2005.These types of sensors can be placed in locations that will be submerged, and
can accurately measure the height of water above them.
After surge from a cyclone has receded, teams of surveyors map high-water marks
(HWM) on land, in a rigorous and detailed process that includes photos and written
descriptions of the marks. HWM denote the location and elevation of flood waters
from a storm event. When HWM are analyzed, if the various components of the
water height can be broken out so that the portion attributable to surge can be
identified, then that mark can be classified as storm surge. Otherwise, it is classified
as storm tide. HWM on land are referenced to a vertical datum (a reference
coordinate system). During evaluation, HWM are divided into four categories based
on the confidence in the mark; only HWM evaluated as "excellent" are used by NHC
in post storm analysis of the surge.
Two different measures are used for storm tide and storm surge measurements.
Storm tide is measured using a geodetic vertical datum (NGVD 29 or NAVD 88).
Since storm surge is defined as the rise of water beyond what would be expected by
the normal movement due to tides, storm surge is measured using tidal predictions,

with the assumption that the tide prediction is well-known and only slowly varying in
the region subject to the surge. Since tides are a localized phenomenon, storm
surge can only be measured in relationship to a nearby tidal station. Tidal bench
mark information at a station provides a translation from the geodetic vertical
datum to mean sea level (MSL) at that location, then subtracting the tidal prediction
yields a surge height above the normal water height.
In meteorology, a cyclone is an area of closed, circular fluid motion rotating in the
same direction as the Earth. This is usually characterized by inward spiraling winds
that rotate anti-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern
Hemisphere of the Earth. Most large-scale cyclonic circulations are centered on
areas of low atmospheric pressure. The largest low-pressure systems are cold-core
polar cyclones and extratropical cyclones which lie on the synoptic scale. According
to the NHC glossary, warm-core cyclones such as tropical cyclones and subtropical
cyclones also lie within the synoptic scale. Mesocyclones, tornadoes and dust devils
lie within the smaller mesoscale. Upper level cyclones can exist without the
presence of a surface low, and can pinch off from the base of the Tropical Upper
Tropospheric Trough during the summer months in the Northern Hemisphere.
Cyclones have also been seen on extraterrestrial planets, such as Mars and
Neptune. Cyclogenesis describes the process of cyclone formation and
intensification. Extratropical cyclones form as waves in large regions of enhanced
mid-latitude temperature contrasts called baroclinic zones. These zones contract to
form weather fronts as the cyclonic circulation closes and intensifies. Later in their
life cycle, cyclones occlude as cold core systems. A cyclone's track is guided over
the course of its 2 to 6 day life cycle by the steering flow of the cancer or
subtropical jet stream.
Weather fronts separate two masses of air of different densities and are associated
with the most prominent meteorological phenomena. Air masses separated by a
front may differ in temperature or humidity. Strong cold fronts typically feature
narrow bands of thunderstorms and severe weather, and may on occasion be
preceded by squall lines or dry lines. They form west of the circulation center and
generally move from west to east. Warm fronts form east of the cyclone center and
are usually preceded by stratiform precipitation and fog. They move poleward
ahead of the cyclone path. Occluded fronts form late in the cyclone life cycle near
the center of the cyclone and often wrap around the storm center.
Tropical cyclogenesis describes the process of development of tropical cyclones.
Tropical cyclones form due to latent heat driven by significant thunderstorm activity,
and are warm core
Cyclones can transition between extratropical, subtropical, and tropical phases
under the right conditions. Mesocyclones form as warm core cyclones over land, and
can lead to tornado formation.
Waterspouts can also form from mesocyclones, but more often develop from
environments of high instability and low vertical wind shear. In the Atlantic basin, a
tropical cyclone is generally referred to as a hurricane (from the name of the ancient
Central American deity of wind, Huracan), a cyclone in the Indian Ocean and parts
of the Pacific, and a typhoon in the Northwest Pacific region.

There are a number of structural characteristics common to all cyclones. A cyclone
is a low-pressure area. A cyclone's center (often known in a mature tropical cyclone
as the eye), is the area of lowest atmospheric pressure in the region. Near the
center, the pressure gradient force (from the pressure in the center of the cyclone
compared to the pressure outside the cyclone) and the force from the Coriolis effect
must be in an approximate balance, or the cyclone would collapse on itself as a
result of the difference in pressure.
Because of the Coriolis effect, the wind flow around a large cyclone is
counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and clockwise in the Southern
Hemisphere. Cyclonic circulation is sometimes referred to as contra solem. In the
Northern Hemisphere, the fastest winds relative to the surface of the Earth
therefore occur on the eastern side of a northward-moving cyclone and on the
northern side of a westward-moving one; the opposite occurs in the Southern
Hemisphere. (The wind flow around an anticyclone, on the other hand, is clockwise
in the northern hemisphere, and counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere.)
Cyclogenesis is the development or strengthening of cyclonic circulation in the
atmosphere (a low-pressure area). Cyclogenesis is an umbrella term for several
different processes, all of which result in the development of some sort of cyclone. It
can occur at various scales, from the microscale to the synoptic scale.
Extratropical cyclones form as waves along weather fronts before occluding later in
their life cycle as cold core cyclones.
Tropical cyclones form due to latent heat driven by significant thunderstorm activity,
and are warm core.
Mesocyclones form as warm core cyclones over land, and can lead to tornado
formation. Waterspouts can also form from mesocyclones, but more often develop
from environments of high instability and low vertical wind shear. Cyclogenesis is
the opposite of cyclolysis, and has an anticyclonic (high-pressure system)
equivalent which deals with the formation of high-pressure areasAnticyclogenesis.
The surface low has a variety of ways of forming. Topography can force a surface
low when dense low-level high-pressure system ridges in east of a north-south
mountain barrier. Mesoscale convective systems can spawn surface lows which are
initially warm core. The disturbance can grow into a wave-like formation along the
front and the low will be positioned at the crest. Around the low, flow will become
cyclonic, by definition. This rotational flow will push polar air equatorward west of
the low via its trailing cold front, and warmer air with push poleward low via the
warm front. Usually the cold front will move at a quicker pace than the warm front
and catch up with it due to the slow erosion of higher density airmass located out
ahead of the cyclone and the higher density airmass sweeping in behind the
cyclone, usually resulting in a narrowing warm sector. At this point an occluded front
forms where the warm air mass is pushed upwards into a trough of warm air aloft,
which is also known as a trowal.

Tropical cyclogenesis is the technical term describing the development and

strengthening of a tropical cyclone in the atmosphere. The mechanisms through
which tropical cyclogenesis occurs are distinctly different from those through which
mid-latitude cyclogenesis occurs. Tropical cyclogenesis involves the development of
a warm-core cyclone, due to significant convection in a favorable atmospheric
environment. There are six main requirements for tropical cyclogenesis: sufficiently
warm sea surface temperatures, atmospheric instability, high humidity in the lower
to middle levels of the troposphere, enough Coriolis force to develop a low-pressure
center, a preexisting low-level focus or disturbance, and low vertical wind shear.[26]
An average of 86 tropical cyclones of tropical storm intensity form annually
worldwide, with 47 reaching hurricane/typhoon strength, and 20 becoming intense
tropical cyclones (at least Category 3 intensity on the SaffirSimpson Hurricane

A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops in the western part of the
North Pacific Ocean between 180 and 100E. This region is referred to as the
northwest Pacific basin.For organisational purposes, the northern Pacific Ocean is
divided into three regions: the eastern (North America to 140W), central (140W to
180), and western (180 to 100E). The Regional Specialized Meteorological Center
(RSMC) for tropical cyclone forecasts is in Japan, with other tropical cyclone warning
centers for the northwest Pacific in Honolulu (the Joint Typhoon Warning Center), the
Philippines and Hong Kong. While the RSMC names each system, the main name list
itself is coordinated amongst 18 countries that have territories threatened by
typhoons each year. The Philippines use their own naming list for systems which
approach the country.
Within the northwestern Pacific there are no official typhoon seasons as tropical
cyclones form throughout the year. Like any tropical cyclone, there are six main
requirements for typhoon formation and development: sufficiently warm sea surface
temperatures, atmospheric instability, high humidity in the lower to middle levels of
the troposphere, enough Coriolis force to develop a low pressure center, a preexisting low level focus or disturbance, and low vertical wind shear. The majority of
storms form between June and November whilst tropical cyclone formation is at a
minimum between December and May. On average, the northwestern Pacific
features the most numerous and intense tropical cyclones globally. Like other
basins, they are steered by the subtropical ridge towards the west or northwest,
with some systems recurving near and east of Japan. The Philippines receive a brunt
of the landfalls, with China and Japan being impacted slightly less. Some of the
deadliest typhoons in history have struck China. Southern China has the longest
record of typhoon impacts for the region, with a thousand year sample via
documents within their archives. Taiwan has received the wettest known typhoon on
record for the northwest Pacific tropical cyclone basin.
Typhoons in the Philippines

In the Philippines, tropical cyclones (typhoons) are called bagyo.Tropical cyclones

entering the Philippine Area of Responsibility are given a local name by the
Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration
(PAGASA), which also raises public storm signal warnings as deemed
necessary.Around 19 tropical cyclones or storms enter the Philippine Area of
Responsibility in a typical year and of these usually 6 to 9 make landfall.
The deadliest overall tropical cyclone to impact the Philippines is believed to have
been the September 1881 typhoon which is estimated to have killed up to 20,000
people as it passed over the country in September 1881. In modern meteorological
records, the deadliest storm was Typhoon Haiyan, which became the strongest
landfalling tropical cyclone ever recorded as it crossed the Central Philippines on
November 7-8, 2013. The wettest known tropical cyclone to impact the archipelago
was the July 1418, 1911 cyclone which dropped over 2,210 millimetres (87 in) of
rainfall within a 3-day, 15-hour period in Baguio City.[6] Tropical cyclones usually
account for at least 30 percent of the annual rainfall in the northern Philippines
while being responsible for less than 10 percent of the annual rainfall in the
southern islands.
The Philippines is the most-exposed large country in the world to tropical cyclones,
and it has even affected settlement patterns in the northern islands; for example,
the eastern coast of Luzon is very sparsely populated.
Etymology and Naming Conventions
The term bagyo, a Filipino word meaning typhoon arose after a 1911 storm in the
city of Baguio had a record rainfall of 46 inches within a 24-hour period.
Names of Storms
Since the middle of the 20th Century, American forecasters have named tropical
storms after people, originally using only female names. Philippine forecasters from
the now-PAGASA started assigning Filipino names to storms in 1963 following the
American practice, using names of people in alphabetical order, from A to
Z.Beginning in January 2000, the World Meteorological Organization"s Typhoon
Committee began assigning names to storms nominated by the 14 Asian countries
who are members with each country getting 2 to 3 a year.These names, unlike the
American and Filipino traditions, are not names for people exclusively but include
flowers, animals, food, etc. and they are not in alphabetical order by name but
rather in alphabetical order by the country that nominated the name.After January
2000, Filipino forecasters continued their tradition of naming storms that enter the
Philippines Area of Responsibility and so there are often two names for each storm,
the PAGASA name and the so-called "international name".
Variability in Activity
On an annual time scale, activity reaches a minimum in May, before increasing
steadily through June, and spiking from July through September, with August being
the most active month for tropical cyclones in the Philippines. Activity falls off
significantly in October. The most active season, since 1945, for tropical cyclone
strikes on the island archipelago was 1993 when nineteen tropical cyclones moved
through the country (though there were 36 storms that were named by PAGASA).
There was only one tropical cyclone which moved through the Philippines in 1958.
The most frequently impacted areas of the Philippines by tropical cyclones are

northern Luzon and eastern Visayas. A ten-year average of satellite determined

precipitation showed that at least 30 percent of the annual rainfall in the northern
Philippines could be traced to tropical cyclones, while the southern islands receive
less than 10 percent of their annual rainfall from tropical cyclones.
Public Storm Warning Signals
The Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration
(PAGASA) releases tropical cyclone warnings in the form of Public Storm Warning
Signals. An area having a storm signal may be under:

PSWS #1 - Tropical cyclone winds of 30 km/h (19 mph) to 60 km/h (37 mph)
are expected within the next 36 hours. (Note: If a tropical cyclone forms very
close to the area, then a shorter lead time is seen on the warning bulletin.)

PSWS #2 - Tropical cyclone winds of 60 km/h (37 mph) to 100 km/h

(62 mph) are expected within the next 24 hours.

PSWS #3 - Tropical cyclone winds of 100 km/h (62 mph) to 185 km/h
(115 mph) are expected within the next 18 hours.

PSWS #4 - Tropical cyclone winds of greater than 185 km/h (115 mph) are
expected within 12 hours.

Classes for Preschool are canceled when Signal No. 1 is in effect. Elementary and
High School classes and below are cancelled under Signal No. 2 and classes for
Colleges and Universities and below are cancelled under Signal No. 3 and Signal
No. 4.

Monsoon (UK: /mnsun/; US: /mnsun/) is traditionally defined as a seasonal
reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now
used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation
associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea. Usually, the term monsoon
is used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally-changing pattern, although
technically there is also a dry phase.
The major monsoon systems of the world consist of the West African and AsiaAustralian monsoons. The inclusion of the North and South American monsoons with
incomplete wind reversal has been debated.
The term was first used in English in British India (now India, Bangladesh and
Pakistan) and neighbouring countries to refer to the big seasonal winds blowing
from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea in the southwest bringing heavy rainfall to
the area. The south-west monsoon winds are called 'Nairutya Maarut' in India.

Strengthening of the Asian monsoon has been linked to the uplift of the Tibetan
Plateau after the collision of the Indian sub-continent and Asia around 50 million
years ago. Because of studies of records from the Arabian Sea and that of the windblown dust in the Loess Plateau of China, many geologists believe the monsoon first
became strong around 8 million years ago. More recently, studies of plant fossils in
China and new long-duration sediment records from the South China Sea led to a
timing of the monsoon beginning 1520 million years ago and linked to early
Tibetan uplift. Testing of this hypothesis awaits deep ocean sampling by the
Integrated Ocean Drilling Program. The monsoon has varied significantly in strength
since this time, largely linked to global climate change, especially the cycle of the
Pleistocene ice ages. A study of marine plankton suggested that the Indian Monsoon
strengthened around 5 million years ago. Then, during ice periods, the sea level fell
and the Indonesian Seaway closed. When this happened, cold waters in the Pacific
were impeded from flowing into the Indian Ocean. It is believed that the resulting
increase in sea surface temperatures in the Indian Ocean increased the intensity of
Five episodes during the Quaternary at 2.22 Ma (PL-1), 1.83 Ma (PL-2), 0.68 Ma (PL3), 0.45 Ma (PL-4) and 0.04 Ma (PL-5) were identified which showed a weakening of
Leeuwin Current (LC). The weakening of the LC would have an effect on the sea
surface temperature (SST) field in the Indian Ocean, as the Indonesian through flow
generally warms the Indian Ocean. Thus these five intervals could probably be those
of considerable lowering of SST in the Indian Ocean and would have influenced
Indian monsoon intensity. During the weak LC, there is the possibility of reduced
intensity of the Indian winter monsoon and strong summer monsoon, because of
change in the Indian Ocean dipole due to reduction in net heat input to the Indian
Ocean through the Indonesian through flow. Thus a better understanding of the
possible links between El Nio, Western Pacific Warm Pool, Indonesian Throughflow,
wind pattern off western Australia, and ice volume expansion and contraction can
be obtained by studying the behaviour of the LC during Quaternary at close
stratigraphic intervals
The English monsoon came from Portuguese mono, ultimately from Arabic
mawsim (" season"), "perhaps partly via early modern Dutch monsun".
Strength of Impact
The impact of monsoon on the local weather is different from place to place. In
some places there is just a likelihood of having a little more or less rain. In other
places, quasi semi-deserts are turned into vivid green grasslands where all sorts of
plants and crops can prosper.

The Indian Monsoon turns large parts of India from a kind of semi-desert into green
lands. See photos only taken 3 months apart in the Western Ghats. In places like
this it is crucial for farmers to have the right timing for putting the seeds on the
fields, as it is essential to use all the rain that is available for growing crops.
Monsoons are large-scale sea breezes which occur when the temperature on land is
significantly warmer or cooler than the temperature of the ocean. These
temperature imbalances happen because oceans and land absorb heat in different
ways. Over oceans, the air temperature remains relatively stable for two reasons:
water has a relatively high heat capacity (3.9 to 4.2 J g1 K1), and because both
conduction and convection will equilibrate a hot or cold surface with deeper water
(up to 50 metres). In contrast, dirt, sand, and rocks have lower heat capacities (0.19
to 0.35 J g1 K1),and they can only transmit heat into the earth by conduction
and not by convection. Therefore, bodies of water stay at a more even temperature,
while land temperature are more variable.
During warmer months sunlight heats the surfaces of both land and oceans, but
land temperatures rise more quickly. As the land's surface becomes warmer, the air
above it expands and an area of low pressure develops. Meanwhile, the ocean
remains at a lower temperature than the land, and the air above it retains a higher
pressure. This difference in pressure causes sea breezes to blow from the ocean to
the land, bringing moist air inland. This moist air rises to a higher altitude over land
and then it flows back toward the ocean (thus completing the cycle). However,
when the air rises, and while it is still over the land, the air cools. This decreases the
air's ability to hold water, and this causes precipitation over the land. This is why
summer monsoons cause so much rain over land.
In the colder months, the cycle is reversed. Then the land cools faster than the
oceans and the air over the land has higher pressure than air over the ocean. This
causes the air over the land to flow to the ocean. When humid air rises over the
ocean, it cools, and this causes precipitation over the oceans. (The cool air then
flows towards the land to complete the cycle.)
Most summer monsoons have a dominant westerly component and a strong
tendency to ascend and produce copious amounts of rain (because of the
condensation of water vapor in the rising air). The intensity and duration, however,
are not uniform from year to year. Winter monsoons, by contrast, have a dominant
easterly component and a strong tendency to diverge, subside and cause drought.
Similar rainfall is caused when moist ocean air is lifted upwards by
mountains,surface heating,convergence at the surface,divergence aloft, or from
storm-produced outflows at the surface.However the lifting occurs, the air cools due
to expansion in lower pressure, and this produces condensation.


The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (a

protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer) is an
international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer by phasing out the
production of numerous substances that are responsible for ozone depletion. The
treaty was opened for signature on September 16th, 1987, and entered into force
on January 1st, 1989, followed by a first meeting in Helsinki, May 1989. Since then,
it has undergone seven revisions, in 1990 (London), 1991 (Nairobi), 1992
(Copenhagen), 1993 (Bangkok), 1995 (Vienna), 1997 (Montreal), and 1999 (Beijing).
If the international agreement is adhered to, the ozone layer is expected to recover
by 2050. Due to its widespread adoption and implementation it has been hailed as
an example of exceptional international co-operation, with Kofi Annan quoted as
saying that "perhaps the single most successful international agreement to date has
been the Montreal Protocol". The two ozone treaties have been ratified by 197
parties, which includes 196 states and the European Union,making them the first
universally ratified treaties in United Nations history.
Terms and Purposes
The treaty is structured around several groups of halogenated hydrocarbons that
have been shown to play a role in ozone depletion. All of these ozone depleting
substances contain either chlorine or bromine (substances containing only fluorine
do not harm the ozone layer). For a table of ozone-depleting substances.
For each group, the treaty provides a timetable on which the production of those
substances must be phased out and eventually eliminated.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) Phase-out Management Plan
The stated purpose of the treaty is that the signatory states
"Recognizing that worldwide emissions of certain substances can significantly
deplete and otherwise modify the ozone layer in a manner that is likely to result in
adverse effects on human health and the environment Determined to protect the
ozone layer by taking precautionary measures to control equitably total global
emissions of substances that deplete it with the ultimate objective of their
elimination on the basis of developments in scientific knowledge"
"Acknowledging that special provision is required to meet the needs of developing
shall accept a series of stepped limits on CFC use and production, including:
from 1991 to 1992 its levels of consumption and production of the controlled
substances in Group I of Annex A do not exceed 150 percent of its calculated levels
of production and consumption of those substances in 1986;
from 1994 its calculated level of consumption and production of the controlled
substances in Group I of Annex A does not exceed, annually, twenty-five percent of
its calculated level of consumption and production in 1986.
from 1996 its calculated level of consumption and production of the controlled
substances in Group I of Annex A does not exceed zero.
There was a slower phase-out (to zero by 2010) of other substances (halon 1211,
1301, 2402; CFCs 13, 111, 112, etc.) and some chemicals were given individual
attention (Carbon tetrachloride; 1,1,1-trichloroethane). The phasing-out of the less

active HCFCs only began in 1996 and will go on until a complete phasing-out is
achieved by 2030.
There are a few exceptions for "essential uses", where no acceptable substitutes
have been found (for example, in the past metered dose inhalers commonly used to
treat asthma and other respiratory problems were exempt, but no longer as of
12/31/11.[7]) or Halon fire suppression systems used in submarines and aircraft (but
not in general industry).
The substances in Group I of Annex A are:

CFCl3 (CFC-11)

CF2Cl2 (CFC-12)

C2F3Cl3 (CFC-113)


C2F5Cl (CFC-115)

The provisions of the Protocol include the requirement that the Parties to the
Protocol base their future decisions on the current scientific, environmental,
technical, and economic information that is assessed through panels drawn from
the worldwide expert communities. To provide that input to the decision-making
process, advances in understanding on these topics were assessed in 1989, 1991,
1994, 1998 and 2002 in a series of reports entitled Scientific assessment of ozone
Several reports have been published by various governmental and nongovernmental organizations to present alternatives to the ozone depleting
substances, since the substances have been used in various technical sectors, like
in refrigerating, agriculture, energy production, and laboratory measurements.
Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) Phase-out Management Plan (HPMP)
Under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, especially
Executive Committee (ExCom) 53/37 and ExCom 54/39, Parties to this Protocol
agreed to set year 2013 as the time to freeze the consumption and production of
HCFCs. They also agreed to start reducing its consumption and production in 2015.
The time of freezing and reducing HCFCs is then known as 2013/2015.
The HCFCs are transitional CFCs replacements, used as refrigerants, solvents,
blowing agents for plastic foam manufacture, and fire extinguishers. In term of
Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP), in comparison to CFCs that have ODP 0.6 1.0,
these HCFCs have less ODP, i.e. 0.01 0.5. Whereas in term of Global Warming
Potential (GWP), in comparison to CFCs that have GWP 4,680 10,720, HCFCs have
less GWP, i.e. 76 2,270.
Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs)

Produced mostly in developed countries, HFCs replaced CFCs and HCFCs. HFCs pose
no harm to the ozone layer because, unlike CFCs and HCFCs, they do not contain
chlorine. But it has been established that HFCs are not innocuous either.[11] They
are greenhouse gases, with a high global warming potential (GWP), comparable to
that of CFCs and HCFCs.
The Montreal Protocol does not address HFCs, but these substances figure in the
basket of six greenhouse gases under the Kyoto Protocol. Developed countries
following the Kyoto Protocol report their HFC emission data to UNFCCC; parties to
the Montreal Protocol have no such obligation.

The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC) is an international treaty that sets binding obligations on
industrialized countries to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases. The UNFCCC is an
environmental treaty with the goal of preventing dangerous anthropogenic (i.e.,
human-induced) interference of the climate system. According to the UNFCC
website, the Protocol "recognises that developed countries are principally
responsible for the current high levels of GHG emissions in the atmosphere as a
result of more than 150 years of industrial activity, and places a heavier burden on
developed nations under the principle of 'common but differentiated
responsibilities'."[11] There are 192 parties to the convention: 191 states (including
all the UN members except Andorra, Canada, South Sudan and the United States)
and the European Union. The United States signed but did not ratify the Protocol
and Canada withdrew from it in 2011. The Protocol was adopted by Parties to the
UNFCCC in 1997, and entered into force in 2005.
As part of the Kyoto Protocol, many developed countries have agreed to legally
binding limitations/reductions in their emissions of greenhouse gases in two
commitments periods. The first commitment period applies to emissions between
2008-2012, and the second commitment period applies to emissions between 20132020. The protocol was amended in 2012 to accommodate the second commitment
period, but this amendment has (as of January 2013) not entered into legal force.
The 37 parties with binding targets in the second commitment period are Australia,
the European Union (and its 28 member states), Belarus, Iceland, Kazakhstan,
Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland, and Ukraine. Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine
have stated that they may withdraw from the Protocol or not put into legal force the
Amendment with second round targets. Japan, New Zealand, and Russia have
participated in Kyoto's first-round but have not taken on new targets in the second
commitment period. Other developed countries without second-round targets are
Canada (which withdrew from the Kyoto Protocol in 2012) and the United States
(which has not ratified the Protocol).

International emissions trading allows developed countries to trade their

commitments under the Kyoto Protocol. They can trade emissions quotas among
themselves, and can also receive credit for financing emissions reductions in
developing countries. Developed countries may use emissions trading until late
2014 or 2015 to meet their first-round targets.
Developing countries do not have binding targets under the Kyoto Protocol, but are
still committed under the treaty to reduce their emissions. Actions taken by
developed and developing countries to reduce emissions include support for
renewable energy, improving energy efficiency, and reducing deforestation. Under
the Protocol, emissions of developing countries are allowed to grow in accordance
with their development needs.
The treaty recognizes that developed countries have contributed the most to the
anthropogenic build-up of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (around 77% of
emissions between 1750 and 2004), and that carbon dioxide emissions per person
in developing countries (2.9 tonnes in 2010) are, on average, lower than emissions
per person in developed countries (10.4 tonnes in 2010).

A number of developed countries have commented that the Kyoto targets only
apply to a small share of annual global emissions. Countries with second-round
Kyoto targets made up 13.4% of annual global anthropogenic greenhouse gas
emissions in 2010. Many developing countries have emphasized the need for
developed countries to have strong, binding emissions targets. At the global scale,
existing policies appear to be too weak to prevent global warming exceeding 2 or
1.5 degrees Celsius, relative to the pre-industrial level.
The main goal of the Kyoto Protocol is to contain emissions of the main
anthropogenic (i.e., human-emitted) greenhouse gases (GHGs) in ways that reflect
underlying national differences in GHG emissions, wealth, and capacity to make the
reductions. The treaty follows the main principles agreed in the original 1992 UN
Framework Convention. According to the treaty, in 2012, Annex I Parties who have
ratified the treaty must have fulfilled their obligations of greenhouse gas emissions
limitations established for the Kyoto Protocol's first commitment period (2008
2012). These emissions limitation commitments are listed in Annex B of the
The Kyoto Protocol's first round commitments are the first detailed step taken within
the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (Gupta et al., 2007). The Protocol
establishes a structure of rolling emission reduction commitment periods. It set a
timetable starting in 2006 for negotiations to establish emission reduction
commitments for a second commitment period (see Kyoto Protocol#Successor for
details) The first period emission reduction commitments expired on 31 December

The ultimate objective of the UNFCCC is the "stabilization of greenhouse gas

concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would stop dangerous
anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Even if Annex I Parties succeed
in meeting their first-round commitments, much greater emission reductions will be
required in future to stabilize atmospheric GHG concentrations.
For each of the different anthropogenic GHGs, different levels of emissions
reductions would be required to meet the objective of stabilizing atmospheric
concentrations. Carbon dioxide (CO
2) is the most important anthropogenic GHG. Stabilizing the concentration of CO
2 in the atmosphere would ultimately require the effective elimination of
anthropogenic CO
2 emissions. Some of the principal concepts of the Kyoto Protocol are:

Binding commitments for the Annex I Parties. The main feature of the
Protocol[47] is that it established legally binding commitments to reduce
emissions of greenhouse gases for Annex I Parties. The commitments were
based on the Berlin Mandate, which was a part of UNFCCC negotiations
leading up to the Protocol.[48][49]:290
Implementation. In order to meet the objectives of the Protocol, Annex I
Parties are required to prepare policies and measures for the reduction of
greenhouse gases in their respective countries. In addition, they are
required to increase the absorption of these gases and utilize all
mechanisms available, such as joint implementation, the clean
development mechanism and emissions trading, in order to be rewarded
with credits that would allow more greenhouse gas emissions at home.
Minimizing Impacts on Developing Countries by establishing an adaptation
fund for climate change.
Accounting, Reporting and Review in order to ensure the integrity of the
Compliance. Establishing a Compliance Committee to enforce compliance
with the commitments under the Protocol.
The Stockholm Convention
The Stockholm Convention is a global treaty to protect human health and the
environment from persistent organic pollutants (POPs). POPs are chemicals that
remain intact in the environment for long periods, become widely distributed
geographically, accumulate in the fatty tissue of living organisms and are toxic to
humans and wildlife. POPs circulate globally and can cause damage wherever they
travel. In implementing the Convention, Governments will take measures to
eliminate or reduce the release of POPs into the environment.
Over 150 countries signed the Convention and it entered into force, on 17 May
2004, 90 days after the ratification by the fiftieth country.
The Stockholm Convention focuses on eliminating or reducing releases of 12 POPs,
the so-called "Dirty Dozen". It sets up a system for tackling additional chemicals
identified as unacceptably hazardous. It recognizes that a special effort may
sometimes be needed to phase out certain chemicals for certain uses and seeks to
ensure that this effort is made. It also channels resources into cleaning up the
existing stockpiles and dumps of POPs that litter the world's landscape. Ultimately,

the Convention points the way to a future free of dangerous POPs and promises to
reshape our economy's reliance on toxic chemicals.
The Stockholm Convention is perhaps best understood as having five essential
Eliminate dangerous POPs, starting with the 12 worst
Support the transition to safer alternatives
Target additional POPs for action
Cleanup old stockpiles and equipment containing POPs
Work together for a POPs-free future
The Global Environmental Facility (GEF) is the designated interim financial
mechanism for the Stockholm Convention.
The Stockholm Convention is the most significant global legally binding instrument
for targeting POPs. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) coordinated
the organisation of the Stockholm Convention, which was originally signed by 92
nations and the European Community on the 23 May 2001 in Stockholm, Sweden.
The Stockholm Convention established an initial list of 12 key POPs chemicals (the
socalled dirty dozen) for which signatories are required to reduce the risks to human
health and the environment arising from their release. Enlisted parties are required
to take measures (legal and/or administrative) to eliminate or heavily restrict the
production and use of POP pesticides and PCBs, and to minimise the unintentional
production and release of POPs. The 12 key POPs that are targeted by the
Convention include Aldrin, Chlordane, DDT, Dieldrin, Dioxins, Endrin, Furans,
Hexachlorobenzene, Heptachlor, Mirex, PCBs and Toxaphene.
Both the Stockholm Convention and the CLRTAP Protocol on POPs make allowances
for further chemicals to be qualified as POPs. This allowance is described in Article 8
and Annex D of the Stockholm Convention, and requires parties to submit proposals
of new POPs according to a set of strict screening criteria.
In order to integrate some of the aspects of the Basel Convention, Article 6(2) of the
Stockholm Convention outlines the requirements for cooperation between the two
ruling bodies. By integrating and ratifying the various global instruments for dealing
with hazardous wastes and POPs, regional and national leaders can establish
effective legal and institutional controls on such chemicals.


The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous

Wastes and their Disposal was adopted on 22 March 1989 by the Conference of
Plenipotentiaries in Basel, Switzerland, in response to a public outcry following the
discovery, in the 1980s, in Africa and other parts of the developing world of deposits
of toxic wastes imported from abroad.
Awakening environmental awareness and corresponding tightening of
environmental regulations in the industrialized world in the 1970s and 1980s had
led to increasing public resistance to the disposal of hazardous wastes in
accordance with what became known as the NIMBY (Not In My Back Yard) syndrome

and to an escalation of disposal costs. This in turn led some operators to seek
cheap disposal options for hazardous wastes in Eastern Europe and the developing
world, where environmental awareness was much less developed and regulations
and enforcement mechanisms were lacking. It was against this background that the
Basel Convention was negotiated in the late 1980s, and its thrust at the time of its
adoption was to combat the toxic trade, as it was termed. The Convention entered
into force in 1992.
The overarching objective of the Basel Convention is to protect human health and
the environment against the adverse effects of hazardous wastes. Its scope of
application covers a wide range of wastes defined as hazardous wastes based on
their origin and/or composition and their characteristics, as well as two types of
wastes defined as other wastes - household waste and incinerator ash.
Aims and provisions
The provisions of the Convention center around the following principal aims:

the reduction of hazardous waste generation and the promotion of

environmentally sound management of hazardous wastes, wherever the
place of disposal;

the restriction of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes except

where it is perceived to be in accordance with the principles of
environmentally sound management; and

a regulatory system applying to cases where transboundary movements are


The first aim is addressed through a number of general provisions requiring States
to observe the fundamental principles of environmentally sound waste management
(article 4). A number of prohibitions are designed to attain the second aim:
hazardous wastes may not be exported to Antarctica, to a State not party to the
Basel Convention, or to a party having banned the import of hazardous wastes
(article 4).

Parties may, however, enter into bilateral or multilateral agreements on hazardous

waste management with other parties or with non-parties, provided that such
agreements are no less environmentally sound than the Basel Convention (article
In all cases where transboundary movement is not, in principle, prohibited, it may
take place only if it represents an environmentally sound solution, if the principles of

environmentally sound management and non-discrimination are observed and if it is

carried out in accordance with the Conventions regulatory system.
The regulatory system is the cornerstone of the Basel Convention as originally
adopted. Based on the concept of prior informed consent, it requires that, before an
export may take place, the authorities of the State of export notify the authorities of
the prospective States of import and transit, providing them with detailed
information on the intended movement. The movement may only proceed if and
when all States concerned have given their written consent (articles 6 and 7). The
Basel Convention also provides for cooperation between parties, ranging from
exchange of information on issues relevant to the implementation of the Convention
to technical assistance, particularly to developing countries (articles 10 and 13). The
Secretariat is required to facilitate and support this cooperation, acting as a
clearing-house (article 16). In the event of a transboundary movement of hazardous
wastes having been carried out illegally, i.e. in contravention of the provisions of
articles 6 and 7, or cannot be completed as foreseen, the Convention attributes
responsibility to one or more of the States involved, and imposes the duty to ensure
safe disposal, either by re-import into the State of generation or otherwise (articles
8 and 9).
The Convention also provides for the establishment of regional or sub-regional
centres for training and technology transfers regarding the management of
hazardous wastes and other wastes and the minimization of their generation to
cater to the specific needs of different regions and subregions (article 14). Fourteen
such centres have been established. They carry out training and capacity building
activities in the regions.

A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure
center, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce
heavy rain. Depending on its location and strength, a tropical cyclone is referred to

by names such as hurricane (/hrken/ or /hrkn/), typhoon /tafun/, tropical

storm, cyclonic storm, and simply cyclone.
Tropical cyclones typically form over large bodies of relatively warm water. They
derive their energy from the evaporation of water from the ocean surface, which
ultimately recondenses into clouds and rain when moist air rises and cools to
saturation. This energy source differs from that of mid-latitude cyclonic storms, such
as nor'easters and European windstorms, which are fueled primarily by horizontal
temperature contrasts. The strong rotating winds of a tropical cyclone are a result of
the (partial) conservation of angular momentum imparted by the Earth's rotation as
air flows inwards toward the axis of rotation. As a result, they rarely form within 5
of the equator.[2] Tropical cyclones are typically between 100 and 4,000 km (62 and
2,485 mi) in diameter. A cyclone is turned into a hurricane when the wind speed
reaches 120 kilometres per hour (75 mph).
The term "tropical" refers to the geographical origin of these systems, which form
almost exclusively over tropical seas. The term "cyclone" refers to their cyclonic
nature, with wind blowing counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere and
clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. The opposite direction of circulation is due to
the Coriolis force.
In addition to strong winds and rain, tropical cyclones are capable of generating
high waves, damaging storm surge, and tornadoes. They typically weaken rapidly
over land where they are cut off from their primary energy source. For this reason,
coastal regions are particularly vulnerable to damage from a tropical cyclone as
compared to inland regions. Heavy rains, however, can cause significant flooding
inland, and storm surges can produce extensive coastal flooding up to 40 kilometres
(25 mi) from the coastline. Though their effects on human populations are often
devastating, tropical cyclones can relieve drought conditions. They also carry heat
energy away from the tropics and transport it toward temperate latitudes, which
may play an important role in modulating regional and global climate.
Physical Structure
Tropical cyclones are areas of relatively low pressure in the troposphere, with the
largest pressure perturbations occurring at low altitudes near the surface. On Earth,
the pressures recorded at the centres of tropical cyclones are among the lowest
ever observed at sea level. The environment near the center of tropical cyclones is
warmer than the surroundings at all altitudes, thus they are characterized as "warm
core" systems.
The near-surface wind field of a tropical cyclone is characterised by air rotating
rapidly around a centre of circulation while also flowing radially inwards. At the
outer edge of the storm, air may be nearly calm; however, due to the Earth's
rotation, the air has non-zero angular momentum. As air flows radially inward, it
begins to rotate cyclonically (counter-clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, and
clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere) in order to conserve angular momentum. At
an inner radius, air begins to ascend to the top of the troposphere. This radius is
typically coincident with the inner radius of the eyewall, and has the strongest nearsurface winds of the storm; consequently, it is known as the radius of maximum

winds. Once aloft, air flows away from the storm's center, producing a shield of
cirrus clouds.
The previously mentioned processes result in a wind field that is nearly
axisymmetric: Wind speeds are low at the centre, increase rapidly moving outwards
to the radius of maximum winds, and then decay more gradually with radius to
large radii. However, the wind field often exhibits additional spatial and temporal
variability due to the effects of localized processes, such as thunderstorm activity
and horizontal flow instabilities. In the vertical direction, winds are strongest near
the surface and decay with height within the troposphere.
Eye and Center
At the center of a mature tropical cyclone, air sinks rather than rises. For a
sufficiently strong storm, air may sink over a layer deep enough to suppress cloud
formation, thereby creating a clear "eye". Weather in the eye is normally calm and
free of clouds, although the sea may be extremely violent. The eye is normally
circular in shape, and is typically 3065 km (1940 mi) in diameter, though eyes as
small as 3 km (1.9 mi) and as large as 370 km (230 mi) have been observed.
The cloudy outer edge of the eye is called the "eyewall". The eyewall typically
expands outward with height, resembling an arena football stadium; this
phenomenon is sometimes referred to as the stadium effect. The eyewall is where
the greatest wind speeds are found, air rises most rapidly, clouds reach to their
highest altitude, and precipitation is the heaviest. The heaviest wind damage occurs
where a tropical cyclone's eyewall passes over land.
In a weaker storm, the eye may be obscured by the central dense overcast, which is
the upper-level cirrus shield that is associated with a concentrated area of strong
thunderstorm activity near the center of a tropical cyclone.
The eyewall may vary over time in the form of eyewall replacement cycles,
particularly in intense tropical cyclones. Outer rainbands can organize into an outer
ring of thunderstorms that slowly moves inward, which is believed to rob the
primary eyewall of moisture and angular momentum. When the primary eyewall
weakens, the tropical cyclone weakens temporarily. The outer eyewall eventually
replaces the primary one at the end of the cycle, at which time the storm may
return to its original intensity.
Storm "intensity" is defined as the maximum wind speed in the storm. This speed is
taken as either a 1-minute or a 10-minute average at the standard reference height
of 10 meters. The choice of averaging period, as well as the naming convention for
classifying storms, differs across forecast centers and ocean basins.