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HVAC and Energy Efficiency

Speaker : Kelvin Ong

Energy efficiency with Power & Automation

HVAC and Energy Efficiency Speaker : Kelvin Ong Energy efficiency with Power & Automation

What will I explain during this seminar?

Energy Efficiency HVAC Equipment Overview Our Solution

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

What will I explain during this seminar? ● Energy Efficiency ● HVAC Equipment Overview ● Our

Lifecycle solutions for Energy Efficiency

Energy Audit & Measure building, industrial process… Fix the basics Low consumption devices, Insulation material Power
Energy Audit
& Measure
building, industrial
process…
Fix the basics
Low consumption
devices,
Insulation material
Power factor
correction…
Optimize through
Automation and
regulation
Monitor,
Control
maintain,
Improve
improve
HVAC control,
lighting control,
variable speed
drives…
Meters installation
Monitoring services
EE analysis software
Lifecycle solutions for Energy Efficiency Energy Audit & Measure building, industrial process… Fix the basics Low

Passive Energy Efficiency

Lifecycle solutions for Energy Efficiency Energy Audit & Measure building, industrial process… Fix the basics Low

Active

Energy Efficiency

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Control and monitoring technologies will sustain the savings

100% Up to 12% per year is lost without regulation and control systems 70% Monitoring &
100%
Up to 12% per year is lost without
regulation and control systems
70%
Monitoring & Maintenance
Energy
Consumption
Efficient devices
and installation
Optimized usage
via automation

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Time

Overview of a building HVAC system

Overview of a building HVAC system Water Stage Components ● Chillers ● Boiler ● Cooling Tower

Water Stage Components

Chillers Boiler Cooling Tower Pumps

Air Stage Components

Air Handling Unit (AHU) Fan Coil Unit (FCU)

Heating-Ventilation-Air Conditioned System

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

HVAC typical equipments setup

HVAC typical equipments setup “Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation” Schneider Electric Inspiration 2008

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Different cooling system

Chiller systems

Air cooled Chiller :

Condenser fan Compressor Chiller pump Air handling unit

Different cooling system Chiller systems ● Air cooled Chiller : ● Condenser fan ● Compressor ●

Packaged systems

Different cooling system Chiller systems ● Air cooled Chiller : ● Condenser fan ● Compressor ●

Rooftop units:

Condenser fan Air handling fan Compressor

Water cooled Chiller :

Tower fan Compressor Chiller pump Condenser pump Air handling unit

Different cooling system Chiller systems ● Air cooled Chiller : ● Condenser fan ● Compressor ●

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Different cooling system Chiller systems ● Air cooled Chiller : ● Condenser fan ● Compressor ●

Self-contained units :

Tower fan Compressor Condenser pump Air handling fan

The Chillers

Air cooled
Air cooled
Centrifugal Water cooled
Centrifugal Water cooled

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

A key component of most air- conditioning systems

One of the major energy consumer Functions : generate cooling and removing heat from a building Refrigerant based chiller : the most common type (fridge)

Refrigeration: the states of matter

solid
solid
Refrigeration: the states of matter solid gas θ liquid θ gas θ θ liquid solid ●

gas

θ

θ

θ
liquid

liquid

θ
θ

θ

θ
θ
 

gas

θ

θ

 
θ

θ

liquid

 
liquid

solid

Heat must be added to a substance to make

it change state :

from solid to liquid

and

from liquid to gas

Heat must be removed from a substance to make it change state :

from gas to liquid

and

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

from liquid to solid

What is inside a chiller?

● Evaporator ● Heat exchanger from water to refrigerant and collect more heat (heat absorbed) ●
● Evaporator
● Heat exchanger from water to
refrigerant and collect more heat (heat
absorbed)
● Compressor
● Vapour compression pump, compress
the refrigerant gas (temperature rise)
● Condenser
● Heat exchanger remove heat from the
hot compressed gas and condense it
to liquid (heat released)
● Expansion Valve
● Restricts the flow, forcing the liquid to
go through a small hole which cause
a pressure drop (temperature drop)

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Air-Cooled Chiller

Chilled Water Loop Compressor Refrigerant 13°C 10°C 50°C Evaporator Condenser Fan Cooling coil 6°C 3°C 43°C
Chilled Water
Loop
Compressor
Refrigerant
13°C
10°C
50°C
Evaporator
Condenser Fan
Cooling coil
6°C
3°C
43°C
Chilled pump
Expansion device
A ri

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Water-Cooled Chiller

Chilled Water Loop
Chilled Water
Loop

Chiller

Compressor 13°C 10°C 50°C 38°C Evaporator Condenser Cooling coil 6°C 3°C 43°C 29°C Condenser pump Chilled
Compressor
13°C
10°C
50°C
38°C
Evaporator
Condenser
Cooling coil
6°C
3°C
43°C
29°C
Condenser pump
Chilled pump
Expansion device
Refrigerant
A ri

Heat Rejection Loop

Cooling tower fan

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Chilled Water Loop Evaporator Cooling coil Chilled pump A ri
Chilled Water Loop
Evaporator
Cooling coil
Chilled pump
A ri

Cooling Coil :

The cold liquid flowing through the tubes can be water or liquid refrigerant. The heat is exchanged from the air and transferred to the water flowing through the coil.

Evaporator :

It ’s a heat exchanger and basically cools the warmer water from the outflow side of the cooling coil. The heat is exchanged from the water to the refrigerant inside the evaporator.

Control valve :

can be used to vary the quantity of water flowing through the cooling coil.

Pump

:

moves water around the loop

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Heat Rejection Loop

Cooling tower fan Condenser
Cooling tower fan
Condenser

Condenser pump

Condenser :

transfers heat from the hot refrigerant to air, water or some other fluid.

Cooling tower :

allows heat transfer from the water to the air.

Pump :

needed to move the water in this loop.

Control valve :

can be used to vary the quantity of water flowing to the cooling tower.

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Cooling Tower Fan

Cooling Tower Fan “Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation” ● Cooling tower is an important part
Cooling Tower Fan “Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation” ● Cooling tower is an important part
Cooling Tower Fan “Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation” ● Cooling tower is an important part

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Cooling tower is an important part of many HVAC system

The cooling tower fan removes heat from water

The cooling tower fan speed is controlled to maintain the optimal condenser water temperature

The fans are the number-one user of power in a cooling tower, and that's the first place to look for energy savings

There is an advantage using drives because fan power varies as the cube of the air rate and thermal performance varies directly as the air rate

Typical Cooling Tower System

AC Line Optional Cooling Towers Manual Optional COOLING TOWER COOLING TOWER Bypass Speed Circuit Reference Power
AC Line
Optional Cooling Towers
Manual
Optional
COOLING TOWER
COOLING TOWER
Bypass
Speed
Circuit
Reference
Power Control
Circuits
Auto
Pressure/
Electrical
Transducer
CONDENSER WATER RETURN
CONDENSER WATERSUPPLY
27°C-29°C
Temperature
Set Point
Electrical
Transmitter
Controller

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Air Handling Unit (AHU)

Air Handling Unit (AHU) “Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation” The AHU is the indoor unit,
Air Handling Unit (AHU) “Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation” The AHU is the indoor unit,

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

The AHU is the indoor unit, which includes a coil and an air blower

Its job is to circulate conditioned air throughout the building

In an AHU, the fan is the largest energy consumer

Constant Air Volume - CAV RETURN AIR Return temperature: 25°C Thermostat Cold air temperature: OUTSIDE AIR
Constant Air Volume - CAV
RETURN AIR
Return temperature: 25°C
Thermostat
Cold air temperature:
OUTSIDE AIR
22°C
Set temperature: 23°C
COOLING COIL
(AHU)
● Room Temperature Control

Temperature is monitored at the Return Air (RA) Chilled Water Supply (CHWS) flow through the cooling coil is regulated based on RA temperature The faster the flow of the CHWS, the faster the cooling rate of the blow air

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Chain Reaction of CAV System

Return Air temperature -> Chilled Water Supply Valve

Chilled Water Supply Valve -> Chilled Water Pipe Pressure

Chilled Water Pipe Pressure -> Chilled

Chilled Water

Water Pump

Pump Speed

Speed

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Variable Air Volume - VAV

RETURN AIR Return temperature: 25°C Thermostat Cold air temperature: 22°C OUTSIDE AIR Static Thermostat Pressure 22°C
RETURN AIR
Return temperature: 25°C
Thermostat
Cold air temperature:
22°C
OUTSIDE AIR
Static
Thermostat
Pressure
22°C
COOLING COIL
(AHU)
Thermostat
24°C
● Room Temperature Control
Thermostat
● Damper opening of each VAV box is regulated
●To maintain the temperature at the set point
23°C
Set temperature: 23°C
● Pressure Control

Damper opening after the AHU is regulated to maintain duct pressure

Cold Air Supply Temperature

Chilled Water Supply flow rate through the cooling coil of the AHU is regulated based on Return Air (RA) temperature

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Chain Reaction of VAV System

Temperature of each room -> Damper opening/closing

Damper opening/closing -> Pressure of the main duct

Pressure of the main duct -> AHU

AHU Fan

Fan Speed

Speed

Return Air temperature -> Chilled Water Supply Valve

Chilled Water Supply Valve -> Chilled Water Pipe Pressure

Chilled Water Pipe Pressure -> Chilled

Chilled Water

Water Pump

Pump Speed

Speed

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Typical AHU Control System

Pressure Regulation of the AHU using VSD

AC Line Manual Optional Bypass AC Motor Fan Speed Circuit Optional Optional Reference Power Control Circuits
AC Line
Manual
Optional
Bypass
AC Motor
Fan
Speed
Circuit
Optional
Optional
Reference
Power Control
Circuits
Auto
Pressure/
Electrical
Transducer
AC Motor
Fan
3 to 15 PSI
Set Point
Pressure
Electrical
Controller
Transmitter
Typical AHU Control System ● Pressure Regulation of the AHU using VSD AC Line Manual Optional

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Why variable torque load can saves energy?

Torque Speed
Torque Speed
Torque Speed
Torque Speed

Torque

Speed

Torque Speed
Torque Speed

Centrifugal Load:

Fan Centrifugal Pump

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Torque varies as the square of

speed (centrifugal load)

T = k w

²

Power = Torque x Speed

Power = k W² x W = k W³

Hence, power varies as the cubic of speed!

Fan Flow Rate Control Using Damper

Fan Flow Rate Control Using Damper “Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation” ● Placing damper at
Fan Flow Rate Control Using Damper “Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation” ● Placing damper at

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Placing damper at the DOWNSTREAM to control the flow rate by changing circuit’s characteristic

LESS efficient

Placing damper at the UPSTREAM to control the flow rate by changing the fan’s characteristic

MORE efficient

Fan Flow Rate Control Using VSD

Fan Flow Rate Control Using VSD “Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation” ● Fan’s characteristic at
Fan Flow Rate Control Using VSD “Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation” ● Fan’s characteristic at

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Fan’s characteristic at two DIFFERENT SPEEDs Shifting of fan curve downwards

Shifting of the fan’s characteristic at different operating speeds and the resulting flow rate

Energy consumption reduced!

Please visit our booth for LIVE demonstration!

Where can energy optimisation can be implemented?

Cooling Tower

Control cooling tower fan speed by monitoring the returned condenser water temperature

AHU

Control fan speed to maintain pressure of the main duct while the load changes

Chilled Water Pump

Control pump speed to maintain pressure of the piping while the load changes

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Where are the drives potentially can be installed?

Fan Cooling tower Pump Pump Condenser Pump Chiller Chilled Water Pump Supply air Fan Supply air
Fan
Cooling tower
Pump
Pump
Condenser Pump
Chiller
Chilled Water Pump
Supply air Fan
Supply air Fan

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Our solution to HVAC

Lifecycle approach EE Solution

S54 IP54 Enclosed Drive with Bypass Starter

ATV21/61 HVAC Drive

Our solution to HVAC ● Lifecycle approach EE Solution ● S54 IP54 Enclosed Drive with Bypass

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Our solution to HVAC ● Lifecycle approach EE Solution ● S54 IP54 Enclosed Drive with Bypass

Lifecycle solution approach

Measure = Conduct site measurement and study

Fix the Basics = Power Quality, Harmonic mitigation solution, VSD

Optimise = HVAC Control (TAC), Lighting Control (Clipsal)

Monitor and Improve = SCADA (Vijeo Citect) and BMS (TAC)

Control Energy Audit Improve & Measure Optimize through Monitor, Fix the basics Automation and maintain, regulation
Control
Energy Audit
Improve
& Measure
Optimize through
Monitor,
Fix the basics
Automation and
maintain,
regulation
improve

Passive Energy Efficiency

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Active

Energy Efficiency

S-54 IP54 Enclosed Drive Offer

Range:

0.75kW to 75kW IP-54 rated enclosure Thermal studies conducted By-pass starter built-in Local standard adaptation

Target HVAC Market:

Commercial buildings Hotels Government facilities Schools and Universities

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Please visit our booth

for this Plug

Plug nnPlay

Play

Solution

S-54 IP54 Enclosed Drive Offer Range: ● 0.75kW to 75kW ● IP-54 rated enclosure ● Thermal

Design Consideration

Type 1 Coordination component selection

Circuit breaker + contactor + thermal overload Type tested components to ensure maximum safety to personnel

IP54 rating and thermal study of the panel

PSB tested

Bypass Starter for Emergency Use

< 15kW: DOL Bypass >= 15kW: Soft-starter bypass

VSD with “C-Less” Technology

Current Harmonic Level, THDi < 35%

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Design Consideration ● Type 1 Coordination component selection ● Circuit breaker + contactor + thermal overload

Variable speed drives

Altivar 21

A breath of fresh air for your HVAC applications!

Variable speed drives Altivar 21 A breath of fresh air for your HVAC applications ! Variable
Variable speed drives Altivar 21 A breath of fresh air for your HVAC applications ! Variable

Variable torque offer for 3-phase asynchronous motors:

Variable speed drives Altivar 21 A breath of fresh air for your HVAC applications ! Variable

From 0,75 to 30 kW 3-phase 200/240 V and 3-phase 380/480 V UL Type 1 / IP20 and IP54 Integrated EMC class A or B filters

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Variable speed drives

Altivar 61

At the heart of your HVAC applications!

Variable speed drives Altivar 61 At the heart of your HVAC applications ! Variable torque offer
Variable speed drives Altivar 61 At the heart of your HVAC applications ! Variable torque offer

Variable torque offer for 3-phase asynchronous motors:

Variable speed drives Altivar 61 At the heart of your HVAC applications ! Variable torque offer

From 37 to 220 kW 3-phase 200/240 V 380/480 V UL Type 1 / IP20 and UL Type 12 / IP54 Integrated EMC class A or B filters

Some example on energy savings ...

Some example on energy savings ... ● Energy Saving Calculation Tools ● Used in Fan &

Energy Saving Calculation Tools

Used in Fan & Pump application

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

In summary ...

EE is not short term effort, but a long term effort.

Active Energy Efficiency - Continuous control and monitoring program

shall be in placed in order to sustain the savings

Potential of 30% reduction in energy consumption in existing building,

through today technologies , control and automation

Schneider is able to provide comprehensive EE solution to our

customer – life cycle EE solution approach!

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Questions ?

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Helping you make the most of your energy!

Speaker : Kelvin Ong Email : kelvin.ong@sg.schneider-electric.com Contact number : 64855197

“Energy Efficiency with Power and Automation”

Schneider Electric Inspiration 2008

Helping you make the most of your energy! Speaker : Kelvin Ong Email : kelvin.ong@sg.schneider-electric.com Contact