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Procedia Computer Science 47 (2015) 400 – 407

Efficient Packet Transmission and Energy Optimization in Military Operation
Scenarios of MANET
J Sandeepa, J Satheesh Kumarb1
a
Research Scholar, bAssistant Professor
Dept. of Computer Application, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore, 641046, India

Abstract
In recent years mobile ad hoc network has gained popularity with its wide range of applications. This has result into number of contributions toward the
challenges of bring reliability in the network and enhance its packet transmission performance. Military and rescue operations are one of t he highly
sensitive applications of MANET. The objective of this research was to identify the networking gaps in MANET for military scenarios and enhance
networks efficiency based on networks demand. This paper presents three different network situations and possible solutions. These approaches were
analyzed with network simulations using NS2. The results of simulation have reflected positively for all three approaches. In the first case, the
responsibility of cluster head was shared by dual cluster heads which reduces the energy consumption of cluster head by 12.4 %. The second case study
identifies critical nodes and network was optimized to improve the life time of these critical nodes. Finally in the third case, study an enhanced
architecture was analyzed which performs better at different mobility scenarios with an average of 1.41% higher packet delivery ratio.
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B.V. B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
© 2015
2015The
TheAuthors.
Authors.
Published
by Elsevier
Peer-review
under responsibility of organizing committee of the Graph Algorithms, High Performance Implementations and Applications
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
(ICGHIA2014).
Peer-review under responsibility of organizing committee of the Graph Algorithms, High Performance Implementations

and Applications (ICGHIA2014)

Keywords: MANET; Rebroadcasting; Clustered Network, Wireless Networks; Military Networks;

* 1Corresponding author. Tel.: +91-422-2428347 ;
E-mail address: jsathee@rediffmail.com

1877-0509 © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license
(http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Peer-review under responsibility of organizing committee of the Graph Algorithms, High Performance Implementations and Applications (ICGHIA2014)
doi:10.1016/j.procs.2015.03.223

2. different protocols have been suggested in literature6. MANET performance in any environment depends on the applied architecture and its protocol suite. Workload of any node in MANET depends on the criticality of its position in high traffic8. flood4. 1. In an example scenario (shown in fig. each data has importance at the risk of human life. This makes it important for the network to be reliable in its communication. In military operations. Thus it becomes critical to share the workload on the sharp edge of networks reliability. Some scenarios increase the workload of individual nodes and drains out its limited resource. limited resources. communicate in the lack of any fixed infrastructure and faster and easier implementation of network in emergency sites. War field scenario: In scenario A the soldiers are communicated with a normal networking. Enhancement to existing approaches where discussed with the real time war field scenario and military operation sites. As a contribution in this work. and missile ships.J. fire explosions5. a case study was made with few possible military operation scenarios. Military operations can come across critical and unpredictable situations in times so it becomes important to analyze the protocols with different serious situations. This paper presents three different case studies for highly influencing network attributes. Introduction Effective communication can help the decision makers to work together in common framework that can help military force to achieve rapid. Fig. tankers. and lack of infrastructure1. It is widely used at locations where the fixed infrastructure for communication has been destroyed or impossible situations such as earthquake3. Selecting an alternative path to reduce the load of individual and improves lifetime of such nodes at high traffic. concurrent discovery of enemy activity and disposition military operations. plane/air rash and the area of disaster and natural calamities. Usual communication networks have the vulnerabilities of military operation site scenarios like unpredictable movement of nodes. 401 . the scenario B is with load sharing networking. To improve networks performance. Military environment has its own critical requirement that needs enhancement of MANET protocols which can ensure the involved risk. MANET has nodes to form a virtual infrastructure and overcome the vulnerability of war and disaster site scenarios2. It has the ability to handle dynamic topological changes.7. Any implication of workload sharing cannot be risked at the cost of its reliability10. Satheesh Kumar / Procedia Computer Science 47 (2015) 400 – 407 1. MANET was used in military for communication where the armed soldiers (data units) engaged in the battle field such as fighter planes. the importance of sharing the workload to improve the lifetime of node with high traffic has been discussed. Sharing network responsibilities among efficient devices can further improve the performance of any network9. 1). Sandeep and J. Case I : Advantages of Load Sharing Effective Military operations are carried out in localities where there is no infrastructure and backup support for available resources.

To analyze the advantage of workload sharing. Loss of any node results into the loss of its consequent links to other neighbors11. uneven workload distribution among the nodes at high traffic increases the possibility of nodes battery exhaustion with its repeated usage. leaf node exposed to risk of life because of the uneven energy flow in the network. Consider a war field scenario (Scenario A) where lack of workload sharing with in cluster reduces the life time of the network. Single cluster head (b). The result of simulation is presented in Fig. cluster performs its network transactions with single cluster head as shown in fig. Simulations and Results To study the importance of shared workload. At a time Tn . a network was formed with 50 nodes geographically clustered into four groups. Every node in the network consumes energy for its transactions and this happens to be at a proportion of its communication load. 1. Sharing the workload among the master nodes reduces its packet processing overheads and increases the lifetime of master node. 2. (a) (b) Fig. 2 (b). These situation leads to the importance of optimization in ad hoc networks as shown in fig. life time of the network increases and network remains reliable for longer time. Packets of size 512 bytes were transmitted at 1 Mbps data rate. In Scenario B with optimized and shared workload. Satheesh Kumar / Procedia Computer Science 47 (2015) 400 – 407 In fig. 1. In scenario A. Cluster heads were also responsible for monitoring the member nodes. two similar network scenarios (A & B) are presented with high energy at initial time T 1. Scenario A represents. Simulation scenario generated with (a). bandwidth and fixed communication range. a critical military network was formed and simulated using network simulator (NS2)12 . It also . respond to route request and cluster maintains. 2. 3 which shows that all the masters in the generated scenario were consuming less energy for dual cluster head approach compare to single cluster head approach. existing work has been made to improve the networks performance by sharing the workload of master node among primary and secondary masters as shown in fig. an exhaust node result into the connection loss of its end neighbor node from the network. Dual cluster head In another developed scenario. the energy consumed by both the scenarios can be visualized for both the scenarios. Thus at a time Tn.402 J. 2 (a). Scenario A represents the existing routing approach and scenario B represents network which shares workload of a node with high traffic to extend lifespan of such critical nodes. In scenario A. Every node was provided with limited energy. The node gets exhaust at early because of high traffic and workload. This approach also increases the availability of master node for its member request processing. Each cluster elects a cluster head which is loaded with the responsibility of evaluating efficient route between source and destination. CBR traffic was used for the transmission of packets inside the network. the network becomes unreliable for the critical situation as shown in Scenario A.1. In the first scenario. Distance node communicated with multi-hop transmissions. Nodes were allowed to exchange packets with its neighbors. Sandeep and J.

an example scenario has been discussed. Optimization with an effective and efficient approach can increase the lifetime of such nodes and helps in receiving critical data for longer period of time.J. Energy Consumption Dual CH Single CH Energy in Joules 5 4 3 2 1 0 Master 1 (25) Master 2 (49) Master 3 (45) Master 4 (8) Clusterhead to the Network Fig. The inner circle of each node shows the available energy at every node. The average differences in energy consumption at dual cluster head approaches have been identified as 0. Satheesh Kumar / Procedia Computer Science 47 (2015) 400 – 407 shows that energy consumed by the cluster head has been reduced which increases its life time. F. C. Case II : Increase the Lifetime of Weak Nodes In military operations. 4. B. 15. MANET nodes connect different source of data. an example scenario is visualized where nine mobile nodes (A. To illustrate the criticality of such a network. Optimization of communication algorithms to handle this situation improves the standard of military operations. it participates in all network activities resulting into early drain up of node connecting critical data. 4. Consider a scenario in which Commanders are connected through MANET devices and operating from different localities. This brings the need for special attention towards the life of such nodes. In fig. H and I) form an ad hoc network. In this approach.418 joules lesser. G. Node A was assumed to be connected with some data sources and the nodes E and F connected with critical data source. Comparison of Simulation Results for the Two Scenarios. E. Nodes which rapidly loses its energy or which is left with low energy are identified and their workloads 403 . 3. this commander X becomes a vital node to get critical data for the network. a contribution was made towards the enhancement of protocol for improving the lifetime of weak nodes14. D. A Critical Scenario where node F have low power responsible for collecting critical data. an enhanced ant colony based method was used to improve the life time of vital nodes. irrespective of nodes low energy level. In any existing communication approach. Based on the analysis. Let. Source 2: Critical Data Source 1: Data I F H B D A E G C Source 3: Critical Data Fig. commander X able to gets control to see every movement of the militants. In this situation. 3. Sandeep and J. The node connecting the source of critical data also becomes vital to the network13.

20 4. lose or addition of a node to the network 16. Residual Energy Nodes 4. Result shows more number of packet drops in the network and even critical nodes got exhausted in the process. priority of packet increases when there is repeated request for the same packet id. Monitoring helps in analyzing these changes and design new enhanced protocols to overcome the situations17. The proposed work proves efficient transactions at energy critical scenarios. MANET protocols focus on selecting shortest and efficient paths for its transactions. At the end of the executions.59 9 11.34 10 3. state and performance.404 J. 20 nodes were randomly spread in an area of 1000 square meters and traffic was generated between few of the nodes. In the experiment. Increased priority of the packet allows it to be transmitted through weak nodes.79 1.41 4 7. Scenarios which conclude with weak nodes in the network were generated using network simulator NS2. Satheesh Kumar / Procedia Computer Science 47 (2015) 400 – 407 were limited for critical transactions. The algorithm allows the weak node to make a mutual bonding with its frequently accessed neighbor. Mobility of nodes results into dynamic change in its topology where this dynamism can also be consequence of variation in signal quality. The proposed network selects alternate route whenever the intermediate node goes low with its energy. it increases the productivity at critical scenarios with higher packet delivery ratio. Table 1. Energy consumption of participating nodes is shown in table 1. In this phase.001 3. Several management solutions have been proposed in literatures . The tie up neighbor shares the workload of the weak node and increases the life time of the weak node. It shows that every node participated in the transaction because of the intensive care to the weak nodes have extended their availability for long term critical data services.62 9.933 7.75 6 0.89 6. These nodes are not reliable for networks transaction. In the first simulation. Sandeep and J. In the network.063 1. Network with such protocols performs well at energy efficient network scenarios whereas at energy critical scenarios they fail to perform. 6.72 16 (Destination) 11. 3. It influences the network to be monitored for its every change in size. Once a weak node is identified. MANET is entirely a self managing network which usually not requires any human intervention which makes it compatible with management operations. The same scenario when executed for the proposed approach.1. nodes work in teams for its transactions where the nodes which drain its energy is no longer usable to the network. Residual energy of the nodes participating in the routing process. The information is used by the neighbor for networks update and transactions. The simulation was executed for AODV with ant colony based routing algorithm and for enhanced ant colony based algorithm with an intensive care for weak nodes. network was simulated for ant colony based routing protocol. Simulation and Results Nodes with very less residual energy were considered as weak or ill node of the network. the algorithm limits packet transactions through these nodes. The result of simulation is presented in table 1 which illustrate how the proposed approach has outperform the ant colony based routing protocol when the network has energy critical situation. the network with proposed approach has higher number of nodes alive. 12 in the existing approach have exhausted routing overload where as the proposed approach has selected alternative path to reduce the overload of critical nodes. Existing Approaches Enhanced Approach 15 (Source) 0.93 12 0. the node shares its table information with the tie up neighbor.70 Case III : Network Monitoring to Be Reliable in Crisis Situations In MANET. Node 15.

In addition to the neighbor information. Routing in such network was carried based on the cluster head information. Lastly the security category includes issues like confidentiality. NS2 network simulator was used to develop the environment and scenario and implement the protocols for comparison. The survivability issues include robustness.. Most of the approaches perform routing based on cluster heads information table. This study considers routing architecture used in clustered MANET. This study analyzes survivability issue in MANET. Fig. (2014) presented four categories of monitoring issues in mobile ad hoc network. Critical use issue includes the timeliness and accuracy related monitoring issues. bear external management and monitoring to optimize networks constraints19. Satheesh Kumar / Procedia Computer Science 47 (2015) 400 – 407 for the organization and management of MANET devices18. In general. larger networks form cluster to optimize networks control overhead 21. Case study 1 and 2 shows the enhancement made in the existing protocols to improve the efficiency of network to handle the resource consumption issues. Mission critical characteristic of military operations calls for efficient reliable multi-hop communication protocol in MANET20. Clusters in the network are connected through the intermediate gateways. each monitored by a cluster head. The network shows source and destination in two different clusters. This request is forwarded based on cluster head information and for some scenarios it may get the information from gateway node. 5 shows an example scenario with three clusters. 22. authentication. Directional straight and dotted lines shows the route request path of cluster head dominated approach and enhanced gateway based modified approach. Every route request in the network is broadcasted by the source node up to n hop distance. Cluster head based and enhanced gateway oriented routing architecture. Cluster head node forwards the route request to the destination nodes cluster head as shown in fig. and privacy etc. Source node requests cluster head for destination nodes route. The resource consumption issue includes energy consumption. The network was analyzed for existing architecture and modified approach and compared based on their simulation results. Application in emergency and disaster situation. scalability. This has influenced the need for enhancements of organization and management approaches in MANET. In military operation. minimal human intervention.J. lack of centralized infrastructure and limitation of resources. distribution of storage load. The existing approach has been modified with enhanced gateway nodes that can also respond to the route request packet. bandwidth consumption. 405 . 5. Sandeep and J. gateway nodes of the existing model have been enhanced to maintain the information of its ‘n’ hop neighbors (Hop distance between the node and cluster head). 5 suggests that the modified model forwards the route request with minimum hop distance. In the modified approach. etc. Destination Source Gateway Cluster head Cluster Fig. gateway node also maintains the route to other gateway nodes and information table illustrating gateway connected to the cluster. Nadia et al. Mobile ad hoc network used for military communication are vulnerable for its unpredictable movement. and distribution of control load. size and complexity of the network has increased with the popularity of network centric warfare. The scenario shown in fig. Inter-cluster routing in cluster head dependent network is performed between source and destination through cluster head. There have been many design and developments in MANET architecture to overcome the complexity of large networks. 5.

Five different mobility scenarios were generated with. data exchanged between the nodes is critical thereby the networking protocols enclosed with data for its transaction needs to provide reliable service. All traffics were of CBR flow and the packet size of 1000 Bytes. Packet Delivery Ratio at Various Mobility Existing Modified 100 98 96 PDF 94 92 90 88 86 84 82 20 40 60 Pause Time 80 100 Fig. Sandeep and J. Result also shows that the protocols give higher performances at low mobility scenarios and packet delivery ratio has come down with an increase in networks mobility. In military operations. Interval between the packet transmissions was set as 0. Simulation result shows that the performance of protocols gets affected by variation in networks mobility. 80 and 100 as pause time. Satheesh Kumar / Procedia Computer Science 47 (2015) 400 – 407 4. Initial energy of all the devices were 100 joules. intrinsic flexibility. To experiment the metrics the flow was executed for both the protocols with different scenarios. Graph shows how the modified work has outperformed existing approach at different mobility levels.1 joules and idle state power consumption is 0. Modified model had average range of packet delivery rate from 91. 6. three different military situations were analyzed which suggests the need of contributions to suit . 6 shows the performance of modified model by taking average output of sample scenarios. Fig.02 joules. In general network topology. Thereby the criticality of the network is that it needs to perform high in all sorts of mobility situations. receiving power 0. As the military operations were risked on human life.09 %. Network bandwidth of wireless channel is 1 Mbps. Different routing metrics identifies different paths between source and destination. In this paper. still there is a need to improve the performance with higher optimizations and enhancements. Conclusion Lack of infrastructure. ease of deployment and low cost in MANET makes it essential effective part in military communication. Communication network has to be more reliable for these situations with high packet delivery rates.1. 60.67% of packets when the modified model proved with 85. packet transmission power is 0. 40. existing protocol was modified to get a reliable mechanism that can increase routing performance at different mobility situations.34% to 95. At critical scenario it was noted that the existing protocol had delivered only 77. Results have shown that the modified approach has dominated in performance at all different mobility scenarios. Movement of nodes and devices cannot be predefined for military operation sites. Simulation result of average packet delivery rate at different pause time.25 sec. Then the network was deployed for the five flows in the 50 nodes network.92% whereas the existing approach had the range 88.92. In this approach. Simulation and Results An extensive simulation was conducted using NS2 with 802. 50 nodes were randomly deployed in area of 700 x 700 m.06% to 97.11 MAC protocol23. 5.406 J. Integration of MANET with other wireless networks and fixed infrastructures will be an important part of the development towards future generation networks. 20.2 joules. The proposed model was compared with the existing cluster head based communication network for their packet delivery ratio in the network.

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