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Air Properties

Common properties for air can be taken from the table below:

Temperature

Density

Kinematic viscosity

Expansion coefficient

--

Specific heat capacity


- cp -

Thermal conductivity

-t-

-l-

x 10-6

b x 10-3

(oC)

(kg/m3)

(kJ/kg.K)

(W/m.K)

(m2/s)

(1/K)

-150

2.793

1.026

0.0116

3.08

8.21

-100

1.980

1.009

0.0160

5.95

5.82

0.74

-50

1.534

1.005

0.0204

9.55

4.51

0.725

Prandtl's number
Pr
0.76

1.293

1.005

0.0243

13.30

3.67

0.715

20

1.205

1.005

0.0257

15.11

3.43

0.713

40

1.127

1.005

0.0271

16.97

3.20

0.711

60

1.067

1.009

0.0285

18.90

3.00

0.709

80

1.000

1.009

0.0299

20.94

2.83

0.708

100

0.946

1.009

0.0314

23.06

2.68

0.703

120

0.898

1.013

0.0328

25.23

2.55

0.70

140

0.854

1.013

0.0343

27.55

2.43

0.695

160

0.815

1.017

0.0358

29.85

2.32

0.69

180

0.779

1.022

0.0372

32.29

2.21

0.69

200

0.746

1.026

0.0386

34.63

2.11

0.685

250

0.675

1.034

0.0421

41.17

1.91

0.68

300

0.616

1.047

0.0454

47.85

1.75

0.68

350

0.566

1.055

0.0485

55.05

1.61

0.68

400

0.524

1.068

0.0515

62.53

1.49

0.68

Absolute and Kinematic Viscosity


Temperature

Dynamic Viscosity

-t-

--

Kinematic Viscosity
--

(oC)

(N.s/m2) x 10-5

(m2/s) x 10-5

-40

1.57

1.04

-20

1.63

1.17

1.71

1.32

1.73

1.36

10

1.76

1.41

15

1.80

1.47

20

1.82

1.51

25

1.85

1.56

30

1.86

1.60

40

1.87

1.66

50

1.95

1.76

60

1.97

1.86

70

2.03

1.97

80

2.07

2.07

90

2.14

2.20

100

2.17

2.29

200

2.53

3.39

300

2.98

4.84

400

3.32

6.34

500

3.64

7.97

1,000

5.04

18.2

Altitude and Air Pressure


Altitude

Barometer

(m)

(mmHg)

749

75

743

150

735

250

726

300

723

450

709

600

695

750

681

900

668

1,000

658

1,200

643

1,350

632

1,500

620

1,800

598

2,100

577

2,400

555

Altitude and Air Density


Air density and specific volume as functions of altitude above sea level are indicated in the diagrams below:

STP - Standard Temperature and Pressure


STP - Standard Temperature and Pressure is 0oC and 101.325 kN/m2.

NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure


NTP - Normal Temperature and Pressure, commonly used for testing and documentation of fan capacities, is 20 oC and 101.6 kN/m2 (60oF , 30 in Hg)

Altitude and Specific Volume Correction


The specific volume of standard air at a certain altitude can be calculated by multiplying with the volume correction factor below
Altitude
(m)

(ft)

Volume Correction Factor

480

1600

1.05

990

3300

1.11

1500

5000

1.17

1980

6600

1.24

2460

8200

1.31

2970

9900

1.39

Air - Density and Specific Weight


Temperature

Density

Specific Weight

-t-

--

--

(oC)

(kg/m3)

(N/m3)

-40

1.514

14.85

-20

1.395

13.68

1.293

12.67

1.269

12.45

10

1.247

12.23

15

1.225

12.01

20

1.204

11.81

25

1.184

11.61

30

1.165

11.43

40

1.127

11.05

50

1.109

10.88

60

1.060

10.40

70

1.029

10.09

80

0.9996

9.803

90

0.9721

9.533

100

0.9461

9.278

200

0.7461

7.317

300

0.6159

6.040

400

0.5243

5.142

500

0.4565

4.477

1000

0.2772

2.719

( C)

(oF)

Volume Correction Factor

-46

-50

0.77

-40

-40

0.79

-34

-30

0.81

-28

-20

0.83

-23

-10

0.85

-18

0.87

-9

10

0.89

-5

20

0.91

-1

30

0.93

40

0.94

10

50

0.96

18

60

0.98

22

70

1.00

27

80

1.02

32

90

1.04

38

100

1.06

43

110

1.08

49

120

1.10

Temperature and Volume


Air Temperature
o

Air volume used by single-acting pistons


The diagram below indicates the air volume used by single-acting pistons.

1 cubic feet = 0.028 m3


1 in = 25.4 mm

Specific Heat Ratio of Air


Specific Heat Ratio of Air at Standard Atmospheric Pressure in Imperial (BG) Units:

Temperature

Specific Heat Ratio

-t-

-k

( F)
o

-40

1.401

-20

1.401

1.401

10

1.401

20

1.401

30

1.401

40

1.401

50

1.401

60

1.401

70

1.401

80

1.400

90

1.400

100

1.400

120

1.400

140

1.399

160

1.399

180

1.399

200

1.398

300

1.394

400

1.389

500

1.383

750

1.367

1000

1.351

1500

1.329

Specific Heat Ratio of Air at Standard Atmospheric Pressure in SI Units:

Temperature
-t-

Specific Heat Ratio


-k-

(oC)
-40

1.401

-20

1.401

1.401

1.401

10

1.401

15

1.401

20

1.401

25

1.401

30

1.400

40

1.400

50

1.400

60

1.399

70

1.399

80

1.399

90

1.398

100

1.397

200

1.390

300

1.379

400

1.368

500

1.357

1000

1.321

Speed of Sound in Air


Speed of Sound in Air at Standard Atmospheric Pressure in Imperial (BG) Units
Temperature

Speed of Sound

-t-

-c-

( F)

(ft/s)

-40

1004

-20

1028

1051

10

1062

20

1074

30

1085

40

1096

50

1106

60

1117

70

1128

80

1138

90

1149

100

1159

120

1180

140

1200

160

1220

180

1239

200

1258

300

1348

400

1431

500

1509

750

1685

1000

1839

1500

2114

Speed of Sound in Air at Standard Atmospheric Pressure in SI Units


Temperature

Speed of Sound

-t-

-c-

(oC)

(m/s)

-40

306.2

331.4

334.4

10

337.4

15

340.4

20

343.3

25

346.3

30

349.1

40

354.7

50

360.3

60

365.7

70

371.2

80

376.6

90

381.7

100

386.9

200

434.5

300

476.3

400

514.1

500

548.8

Steam and Vapor Enthalpy


When a liquid evaporates its go through a process where
the liquid heats up to the evaporation temperature
the liquid evaporate at the evaporation temperature by changing state from fluid to gas
the vapor heats above the evaporation temperature - superheating
The heat transferred to a substance when temperature changes is often referred to as sensible heat. The heat required for changing state as evaporation is referred to as
latent heat of evaporation.
The most common vapor is evaporated water - steam or moist.

Enthalpy
Enthalpy of a system is defined as the mass of the system - m - multiplied by the specific enthalpy - h - of the system and can be expressed as:

H = m h (kJ)
where
H = enthalpy (kJ)
m = mass (kg)
h = specific enthalpy (kJ/kg)

Specific Enthalpy
Specific enthalpy is a property of the fluid and can be expressed as:

h = u + p v (kJ/kg)
where
u = internal energy (kJ/kg)

p = absolute pressure (N/m2)


v = specific volume (m3/kg)
Part of the water vapor - steam - properties can be expressed in a table as:
ts
vf
vg

p
(bar)
0.006112

(oC)

(m3/kg)

(m3/kg)

uf

ug

hf

(kJ/kg)

(kJ/kg)

(kJ/kg)

0.01

0.0010002

206.1

2,375

0.0006

0,010

0.0010001

129.2

29

2,385

29

100

0.001044

1.673

419

2,507

419

220

373.7

0.00269

0.00368

1,949

2,097

2,008

221.2 3)

374.15

0.00317

0.00317

2,014

2,014

2,084

1.01325
.

1)

2)

s is the steam entropy


suffix - f - referrer to saturated liquid
suffix - g - referrer to saturated vapor - steam
Internal energy - u - can be calculated from (2) and is often omitted in tables. vf - change very little and is also often omitted.
referrer to absolute vacuum.
referrer to water boiling at standard atmosphere.
3)
referrer to water critical point. For pressures above the critical point there is no definite transition from liquid to vapor.
1)
2)

Specific Enthalpy of Saturated Water


Specific enthalpy of saturated water - hf - can be obtained from tables as above. The value depends on the pressure.
For saturated water at standard atmosphere - 2) -the specific enthalpy - hf - is 419 kJ/kg. At standard atmosphere - 1 bar (14.7 psi) - water starts boiling at 100 oC (212 oF).
The specific enthalpy of water (in SI units) can be calculated from:

hf = cw (tf - t0)
where
hf = enthalpy of water (kJ/kg)
cw = specific heat of water = 4.19 (kJ/kg.oC)
tf = saturation temperature (oC)
t0 = refer temperature = 0 (oC)

Specific Enthalpy of Saturated Steam

Specific enthalpy of saturated steam - hg - can be obtained from tables as above. The value depends on the pressure.
For saturated steam at standard atmosphere - 2) - the specific enthalpy - hg - is 2,676 kJ/kg.
The specific enthalpy of evaporation can be calculated from:

he = hg - hf (4)
where
he = specific evaporation enthalpy (kJ/kg)
Specific evaporation enthalpy for water at standard atmosphere is:
he = 2,676 - 419 (kJ/kg)
= 2,257 (kJ/kg)

Specific Enthalpy of Superheated Steam


The specific enthalpy of superheated steam can be calculated from:

hs = hg + cps (ts - tf)


where
hs = enthalpy of superheated steam (kJ/kg)
cps = specific heat of steam at constant pressure = 1.860 (kJ/kg.oC)
tf = saturation temperature (oC)
ts = superheated steam temperature (oC)
cps = 1.860 (kJ/kg.oC) at standard atmosphere. Be aware that cps varies with temperature.

Common Units for Specific Enthalpy


1 kJ/kg = 1,000 J/kg
1 erg/g = 1E-4 J/kg
1 Btu/lbm = 2,326 J/kg
1 cal/g = 4,184 J/kg

Vacuum
Vacuum is defined as air pressure below atmospheric pressure

The vacuum level is the difference in pressure between the atmospheric pressure and the pressure in the evacuated system:
0% vacuum = 760 torr = 14.7 psia = 29.92 inc mercury abs = 101.4 kPa abs
50% vacuum = 380 torr = 7.3 psia = 15 inc mercury abs = 50.8 kPa abs
99.9% vacuum = 1 torr = 0.01934 psia = 0.03937 inc mercury abs = 1.3 kPa abs
For perfect vacuum (100%) - the pressure is 0 torr, 0 psia or 0 Pa abs.

Vacuum in %, torr, mm Mercury, psi and kPa


The table below can be used to convert between common vacuum units:
%

Torr

psia,

Inches

Inches

kPa

Vacuum

(mm Mercury)

(lb/in2)

Mercury

Mercury

abs

Micron

abs

Absolute

Gauge

760

760,000

14.7

29.92

101.4

1.3

750

750,000

15.5

29.5

0.42

99.9

1.9

735.6

735,600

14.2

28.9

1.02

97.7

7.9

700

700,000

13.5

27.6

2.32

93.5

21

600

600,000

11.6

23.6

6.32

79.9

34

500

500,000

9.7

19.7

10.22

66.7

47

400

400,000

7.7

15.7

14.22

53.2

50

380

380,000

7.3

15

14.92

50.8

61

300

300,000

5.8

11.8

18.12

40

74

200

200,000

3.9

7.85

22.07

26.6

87

100

100,000

1.93

3.94

25.98

13.3

88

90

90,000

1.74

3.54

26.38

12

89.5

80

80,000

1.55

3.15

26.77

10.7

90.8

70

70,000

1.35

2.76

27.16

9.3

92.1

60

60,000

1.16

2.36

27.56

93

51.7

51,700

2.03

27.89

6.9

93.5

50

50,000

0.97

1.97

27.95

6.7

94.8

40

40,000

0.77

1.57

28.35

5.3

96.1

30

30,000

0.58

1.18

28.74

96.6

25.4

25,400

0.14912

28.92

3.4

97.4

20

20,000

0.39

0.785

29.14

2.7

98.7

10

10,000

0.193

0.394

29.53

1.3

99

7.6

7,600

0.147

0.299

29.62

99.9

1,000

0.01934

0.03937

29.88

0.13

99.9

0.75

750

0.0145

0.0295

29.89

0.1

99.99

0.1

100

0.00193

0.00394

29.916

0.013

99.999

0.01

10

0.000193

0.000394

29.9196

0.0013

100

29.92

1 psi (lb/in2) = 6,894.8 Pa (N/m2) = 6.895x10-3 N/mm2 = 6.895x10-2 bar

Velocities in Vacuum pipes


The air velocity in vacuum pipes can be estimated with the diagrams below.

Standard and Actual Air Volume - cfm

The diagram is calculated for steel pipes schedule 40.

Standard and Actual Air Volume - l/s

hg

sf

sg

(kJ/kg)

(kJ/kg.K)

(kJ/kg.K)

2,501

9.155

2,514

0.106

8.974

2,676

1.307

7.355

2,178

4.289

4.552

2,084

4.43

4.43