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CONSUMERS BUYING BEHAVIOR OF BOTTLED WATER IN SURINAME

A study on the relation between demographic & psychological factors and bottled
water buying behavior

by

MANISHA DURGA

SURINAME
2010

This research proposal was submitted at August 25, 2010

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Thirty years ago bottled water barely existed. Nowadays the product forms an essential
business by its stable and still growing market locally and globally. Bottled water can be
described as any product, including natural spring or well water, taken from municipal or
private utility systems or other water, distilled water or any of the foregoing to which
chemicals may be added and which are put into sealed bottles, packages or other
containers, to be sold for domestic consumption or culinary use. 1

In 2012 the global bottled water market is forecast to have a value of $94.2 billion, an
increase of 41% since 2007. This increasing trend reveals that the product meets the
demand of countless consumers. And this, while the study of literature is still lacking in a
clear and definite assumption regarding the health and safety theories of bottled water.
Therefore the question arises: what factors are related to the consumers buying behavior of
bottled water?

This research examines two categories of influencing factors of the consumer buying
decision process of Kotler e.a. (2008): demographic (personal) and psychological factors.
More specific, the researcher tests if there is a relationship between the factors gender,
age, education, income, beliefs and perception and consumers buying behavior of
bottled water.

The results of this research have shown that there is a small relationship between the
income and perception of the consumers and their buying behavior of bottled water.
Regarding the income, people with a relatively high income and students/other young people
(16-25 years) are the most frequent users of bottled water. Despite their low income,
students/other young people are frequent users of bottled water because they are assumed
to be more sensitive to advertising and socially accepted and luxury products.
Furthermore, the more positive the perception of consumers of bottled water is, the more
they use the product. For more than ten years now, bottled water is being presented as
healthy, safe and pure. These (misleading) efforts have resulted in a positive pschycological- effect. Especially in comparison to tap water, bottled water scores an overall
high perception and positive beliefs of consumers. Despite the fact that consumers perceive
1

Department of Health, New York State (2006, February). Bottled water frequently-asked
questions. Retrieved January 28, 2010, from http://www.health.state.ny.us/

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both tap and bottled water as safe and reliable for consumption, bottled water is seen as
higher qualified, safer, healthier and a product with a better taste than tap water.
Furthermore it is good available and convenient. Logically, enough reasons for consumers
to use bottled water.
It can be concluded that both demographic and psychological factors are related to the
buying behavior of bottled water to some extent.

Therefore it is recommended that bottled water producers/marketers should focus (more) on


these consumer groups, since they seem to be the target groups of the product. However,
since only demographic and psychological factors are investigated, further research with
other influencing factors is recommended to gain more insights. Finally, all bottlers of water
should be controlled by a separate institute to guarantee the quality of the product and
prevent misleading advertisement.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
EXECUTIVE SUMMARY ......................................................................................................... ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS .......................................................................................................... iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ........................................................................................................v
GLOSSARY ........................................................................................................................... vii
CHAPTER 1

Introduction .................................................................................................. 1

1.1

Research background ............................................................................................. 1

1.2

Research problem, research questions and objectives........................................... 4

1.3

Justification for this research ................................................................................... 7

1.4

Limitation of scope .................................................................................................. 8

1.5

Significance of this research ................................................................................... 8

1.6

Chapters content ..................................................................................................... 9

CHAPTER 2

Literature review ........................................................................................ 10

2.1

Introduction............................................................................................................ 10

2.2

Bottled water ......................................................................................................... 10

2.2.1

Definitions.......................................................................................................... 11

2.2.2

Historical background .................................................................................... 11

2.2.3

Global bottled water market .............................................................................. 12

2.2.4

The Surinamese bottled water market .............................................................. 13

2.3

Literature of research area .................................................................................... 16

2.3.1

Bottled water ..................................................................................................... 16

2.3.2

Consumer Buying Behavior ............................................................................... 17

2.4

Contribution to research area ................................................................................ 19

2.5

Summary ............................................................................................................... 20

CHAPTER 3

Research Methodology.............................................................................. 21

3.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................. 21


3.2

Justification of survey methodology ...................................................................... 22

3.2.1

Research strategy ............................................................................................. 22

3.2.2 Research design ................................................................................................ 22


3.3

Questionnaire design and administration .............................................................. 23

3.3.1

Step 1: specifying the data required .................................................................. 24

3.3.2

Step 2: specifying the survey method ............................................................... 25

3.3.3

Step 3: developing measurement scales .......................................................... 25

3.3.4

Step 4: reliability and validity test ...................................................................... 26

3.3.5

Step 5: preparing draft questionnaire ................................................................ 26

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3.3.6

Step 6: testing, revising and distributing the questionnaire ............................... 27

3.3.7

Step 7: questionnaire administration ................................................................. 27

3.4 Sampling strategy ..................................................................................................... 27


3.5 Data analysis strategy ............................................................................................... 29
3.6 Summary ..................................................................................................................... 29
CHAPTER 4

Findings ..................................................................................................... 31

4.1

Introduction............................................................................................................ 31

4.2

Data preparation.................................................................................................... 31

4.3

Data profile ............................................................................................................ 31

4.4

Descriptive statistics .............................................................................................. 33

4.5

Inferential statistics ................................................................................................ 36

4.6

Summary ............................................................................................................... 38

CHAPTER 5

Analysis ..................................................................................................... 39

5.1 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 39


5.2 Descriptive analysis ................................................................................................... 39
5.3 Inferential analysis ..................................................................................................... 43
5.4 Summary .................................................................................................................... 49
CHAPTER 6

Conclusions & recommendations .............................................................. 50

BIBLIOGRAPHY ................................................................................................................... 53
APPENDICES ....................................................................................................................... 56
APPENDIX A: Main differences between mineral, spring, well, distilled, purified and tap and
other drink water ................................................................................................................... 57
APPENDIX B: Questionnaire developed for this research .................................................... 58
APPENDIX C: Reliability tests .............................................................................................. 62
APPENDIX D: Statistics ........................................................................................................ 63
APPENDIX E: Descriptives of demographics ...................................................................... 66
APPENDIX F: Relationships between variables .................................................................. 68
APPENDIX G: Multi comparison test and ANOVA of variable income ............................... 71

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This research project has not only been finalized by my own efforts, but certainly also with
the support of many people. Deservedly I like to thank those who have made this opportunity
possible and have given me the necessary support.

First and foremost a thanks to the Almighty; my endless support throughout my life-journey.

A special thanks to my parents Jack & Mavis for their priceless support and belief in me. My
love and gratitude cannot be expressed in words.

Thanks to the FHR Lim A Po Institute for Social Studies for sharing valuable knowledge and
experiences through this fruitful study. Keep on doing the good job!

Thanks to my supervisor Dr. Silvio De Bono and the survey participants. Without your time
and kind assistance this research could not have been completed.

Last but not least a word of thanks to my boyfriend Tariq. Your understanding and
assistance during the last two years are much appreciated.

Thank you all!

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GLOSSARY
Definitions
Belief

A descriptive thought that someone holds about something.

Bottled water

Any product, including natural spring or well water, taken from


municipal or private utility systems or other water, distilled water or any
of the foregoing to which chemicals may be added, which are put into
sealed bottles, packages or other containers, to be sold for domestic
consumption or culinary use.

Consumer buying

The buying behavior of final consumers- individuals and households

behavior

who buy goods and services for personal consumption.

P-value

The probability that a correlation is one just by chance.

Pearson Correlation A measure which indicates the strength and direction of a linear
Coefficient

relationship between two variables.

Perception

The process by which people select, organize and interpret information


to form a meaningful picture of the world.

Abbreviations
ABWI

Australian Bottled Water Institute

ANOVA

Analysis of Variances

CAGR

Compound Average Growth Rate

USD

United States Dollar

NRDC

National Resource Defense Council

USA

United States of America

Sign for United States Dollar

SPSS

Statistical Package for Social Science

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

CHAPTER 1 Introduction

1.1

Research background

Research and studies regarding consumer attitude and behavior are generally a common
approach in post-war marketing contexts in order to establish or acquire insight knowledge
to guide marketing activities regarding the buying behaviors of individuals. Complicated it is,
but understanding buyer behavior is central to marketing management. Just as marketing
ends with consumption, so marketing management must begin with understanding
customers.

Due to Bottled water industry under pressure but drinks growth to be robust of Ferre (2009),
bottled water consumption has been growing exponentially since the past decade. This
growth takes place globally, but particularly in North America and Europe. The bottled water
industry has literally created its own water culture. For example, when one enters a
supermarket or a restaurant in any country of the world, one is bound to find at least a few
different brands of bottled water.
Bottled water can be defined as any product, including natural spring or well water, taken
from municipal or private utility systems or other water, distilled water or any of the foregoing
to which chemicals may be added, which are put into sealed bottles, packages or other
containers, to be sold for domestic consumption or culinary use.

Just like any other consumer product, bottled water requires thorough research regarding
consumer buying behavior to guide present and future marketing activities. This is especially
so, given the circumstances that the bottled water market is considered as one of the fastest
growing markets in the beverage category.

Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Wong, V., Saunders, J. (2008). Principles of Marketing (5th ed.).
Harlow, England: Pearson Education Limited.

Department of Health, New York State (2006, February). Bottled water frequently-asked
questions. Retrieved January 28, 2010, from http://www.health.state.ny.us/

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More specifically, the market was the second largest commercial beverage category in the
United States in 2008, surpassing fruit juices and sport drinks and only behind carbonated
soft drinks. 4

The global increasing trend in bottled water consumption is continuing for almost ten
successive years now. 5 Figure 1.1 below shows this trend during a five-year former period.

Total Global Consumption of bottled water (1998-2002)

160.000,00
140.000,00
120.000,00
100.000,00
Million liters

80.000,00
60.000,00
40.000,00
20.000,00
0,00
98

99

00

01

02

Year

Figure 1.1 Total Global Consumption of Bottled Water, 1998-2002


Source: Gleick, P.H. (2004). The myth and reality of bottled water. Retrieved from http://www.pacinst.org/

From this figure it can be concluded that the Compound Average Growth Rate (CAGR) from
this period is 10.6% and the global consumption increased with nearly 50% in 2002,
compared with 1998.

More recently, in 2008 the global bottled water consumption grew 4.5% to 218 billion liters,
according to a new report from drinks consultancy Zenith International. 6

4
5

Wikipedia (2010, January). Bottled water. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/


Rodwan, J. (2009, May). Confronting Challenges; U.S. and International Bottled Water
Developments and Statistics for 2008. Retrieved from
http://www.bottledwater.org/public/2008%20Market%20Report%20Findings%20reported%20
in%20April%202009.pdf
Palmer, D. (2009). Bottled water industry gets boost from developing economies. Retrieved
from http://www.ausfoodnews.com.au/2009/09/03/global-bottled-water-industry-gets-boost-fromdeveloping-economies.html

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Figure 1.2 shows the global bottled water volume share in 2008 by region. North America
was the largest market for more than five successive years in both volume and value.
However, throughout the last years some other countries are showing to overtake this
position (see section 2.2.3). Although many are probably assuming that bottled water is a
luxury product, the increasing trend of the business is also seen in developing countries.

Global bottled w ater volum e share by region


(2008)
All others
13%

North
America
31%

Asia
26%

Europe
30%

Figure 1.2 Global bottled water volume share by region (2008)


Source: Palmer, D. (2009, September). Bottled water industry gets boost from developing economies.

More specifically, the trend is also part of the bottled water industry in Suriname. The local
bottled water market increased with an CAGR of 11% and increased nearly 62% in 2009,
compared with 2005. In 2009 the market had an estimated value of USD 7 million. Figure 1.3
shows the Surinamese total bottled water market during these last years.

Total bottled water market in Suriname (2005-2009)

12.000.000
10.000.000
8.000.000
Liters

6.000.000
4.000.000
2.000.000
0
2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Year

Figure 1.3 Total bottled water market Suriname (2005-2009)


Source: Ministry of Trade and Industry (2010, February). Data monitor: Bottled Water Industry Statistics 20052009.

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In brief, both the global and local bottled water market are becoming an essential part of the
beverage market. This remarkable increase raises several questions and is therefore one of
the drivers of this research.

Although there is a general understanding by consumers of bottled water that the product is
better in some or all aspects, there are studies (Ferrier, 2001; NRDC, 2008) which
concluded that this is not always the case. This raised several questions, mainly focusing on
why do customers prefer to choose an often more expensive and less comfortable product.
Studies stress several factors which determine the choice for bottled water. However, due to
another study (Doria, 2006) surveys usually come up with two main reasons: dissatisfaction
with tap water (especially taste) and health/risk concerns. But to what extent are these
factors applicable to the Surinamese market? And which (other) factors determine the
buying behavior of consumers toward bottled water in Suriname?

1.2

Research problem, research questions and objectives

Kotler, Armstrong, Wong and Saunders (2008) argue that consumer purchases are
influenced strongly by cultural, social, personal and psychological factors. Consumers
perception and buying behavior of bottled water in Suriname is not fully understood.
Researches and studies regarding the Surinamese setting in this area can namely not be
found. Therefore, the Surinamese market will be sampled as a relevant and accessible
segment to investigate the following research problem for this research:

Are demographic factors as well as psychological factors related to the buying


behavior of bottled water?

Essentially, this study argues that both demographic and psychological factors are related to
the buying behavior of bottled water.

To answer this research problem, the two following questions are being researched:
1. To what extent is there a relationship between demographic factors and bottled water
buying behavior?
2. To what extent is there a relationship between psychological factors and bottled
water buying behavior?

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The objectives of this research are therefore:

To identify if demographic factors are directly related to the buying behavior of bottled
water; demographic factors are considered by this research to be directly related to
the consumer buying behavior. Factors as age and income may strongly influence
the buying behavior toward bottled water. For instance, it is assumed that young
people with middle and higher incomes are the best target group for bottled water
because of their potency and lifestyle.

To identify if psychological factors are directly related to the buying behavior of


bottled water; this research also considers psychological factors as one of the most
important type of factors which influences the buying behavior. The beliefs someone
has about something, determines his/her attitude toward and perception of it. One is
inclined to use something which he/she perceives to be good and is not inclined to
use something which he/she perceives not to be good.

To test these research questions in a field survey, hypotheses are developed for the
research questions/objectives. The next table shows a summary and list of these
hypotheses with the corresponding research question:

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Research questions

Hypotheses

RQ1: How do demographic factors affect

H 1.1: There is a relationship between gender

bottled water buying behavior?

and buying behavior.


H0 1.1: There is no relationship between
gender and buying behavior.

H 1.2: There is a relationship between age and


buying behavior.
H0 1.2: There is no relationship between age
and buying behavior.

H 1.3: There is a relationship between


education and buying behavior.
H0 1.3: There is no relationship between
education and buying behavior.

H 1.4: There is a relationship between income


and buying behavior.
H0 1.4: There is no relationship between
income and buying behavior.

RQ2: How do psychological factors affect

H 2.1: There is a relationship between beliefs

bottled water buying behavior?

and buying behavior.


H0 2.1: There is no relationship between
beliefs and buying behavior.

H 2.2: There is a relationship between


perception and buying behavior.
H0 2.2: There is no relationship between
perception and buying behavior.

Table 1.1: Summary of research questions and hypotheses


Source: developed for this research

Figure 1.4 illustrates the conceptual model developed for this research.

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Gender
Age

Demographic factors

Education

Independent variables
Income

Buying behavior
Beliefs
Beliefs

about

Dependent variable

bottled

water (+)

Psychological factors
Perception
Perceived that bottled

Independent variables

water differs positively


from tap water and
other drinks (+)

Figure 2.3: Conceptual model of this research


Source: developed for this research

1.3

Justification for this research

This research is justified on the following grounds:


1. Rapid growth of both global and local bottled water market and consumer adoption
rate; this justification is partly explained in section 1.1 (Research background). The
worldwide growth of the bottled water market creates numerous commercial
opportunities for bottlers, retailers and brand owners. Moreover, it is combined with
growing health awareness of the general public.
2. Gaps in research; this justification emphasizes the lack of research in this area.
Even though information regarding buying behavior may be helpful to bottled water
marketers, research about this issue in Surinamese context is sparse.
3. Anticipated benefits to provide guidance for bottled water marketing activities;
the results of this research may provide potential benefits to bottled water marketers,
bottlers or retailers. Marketing campaigns may be aimed more towards the (potential)

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customer by having the right information about the consumer. For example, building
the product image of health, pureness or taste depends on findings of consumers
perception and buying behavior of bottled water.

1.4

Limitation of scope

The major limitation for this research is that it is confined to the city of Suriname,
Paramaribo. This geographical limitation is not only chosen because of time and access
restrictions, but also because of the fact that the major part of the Surinamese population is
concentrated in Paramaribo. The city is therefore considered as a good representation of the
whole population.
Furthermore this research is only researching the consumer buying behavior of bottled
water, since the consumption pattern from other products may differ. Consumers show an
unique buying behavior to every single product. For instance, the buying behavior toward
milk or alcoholic drinks differs from bottled water.
This research also limits itself to the Surinamese consumer, since it is considered that
consumers of different parts of the world behave differently because of cultural factors.
Although the bottled water market is global, generalization of the findings of this research
beyond Suriname is therefore not recommended.
Finally, only some demographic and psychological factors are selected for this research.
Although there are more types of factors which influence the consumer buying behavior, only
two types are investigated by this research. This as a result of time and administration
restrictions. Hence, not all possible results are explored by this study.

1.5

Significance of this research

The significance of this research expresses itself by being a helpful tool for marketers,
bottlers and retailers of bottled water to direct marketing campaigns in the right way.
Moreover, there is no

grounded research about the Surinamese bottled water market and the consumers buying
behavior toward the product.

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1.6

Chapters content

The content of this research consists of six chapters. Chapter 1 (Introduction) indicates the
research problem and introduces the subject area. This is followed by the literature review
(chapter 2), which analyses the existing literature about the subject field to develop a new
concept to be tested by this research. Thereafter Chapter 3 (Research Methodology)
describes the execution of this research to achieve the research objectives. Chapter 4
(Findings) describes the results of the research by giving facts. These results are analyzed
and tested on the research model in Chapter 5 (Analysis). Finally the author describes the
conclusions drawn from the findings and gives relevant recommendations on the basis of the
conclusions. This is presented in Chapter 6 (Conclusions & Recommendations).

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CHAPTER 2 Literature review

2.1

Introduction

For a seemingly basic food product, the demand for bottled water has increased worldwide
and has generated an impressive market share. Due to the report Asia boosts global bottled
water market of Drake (2010), the bottled water market -again- had a likely increase of 4%
in 2009, compared to 2008. If this increasing trend continues, the global market is forecast to
have a value of $86,421.2 million in 2011, an increase of nearly 42% since 2006. 7
This chapter analyses the existing literature on the bottled water market and consumer
buying behavior. Hence, on the basis of the existing literature, this chapter develops a
theoretical framework which will be tested by this research. First an introduction of this
chapter is given in section 2.1, before describing bottled water and its market generally in
section 2.2. Section 2.3 analyses the existing literature of key writers. This is followed by a
contribution of the researcher to the research field in section 2.4. Finally a summary of the
chapter is given in section 2.5.

2.2

Bottled water

Water. A natural resource we can hardly live without. A great part of us has access to it
against minimal costs. But at the same time many people still do not have access to safe
drinking water because of limited or polluted resources.
Over the past decade there has been a remarkable increase in the bottled water market. It
can be stated that a phenomenon occurred within the water industry: bottled water.

There are several types of bottled water. Appendix A shows the main differences between
mineral, spring, well, distilled, purified, tap and other drink water.

Wikipedia (2010). Bottled water. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bottled_water

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2.2.1

Definitions

During the years bottled water has been described in a number of different ways. For this
research the following definition is used on the basis of relative simplicity and clarity:
Bottled water is any product, including mineral, spring or well water taken from municipal or
private utility systems, distilled or other water, to which chemicals may be added and which
are put into sealed bottles, packages or other containers to be sold for domestic
consumption or culinary use. (Department of Health, New York State, 2006).
Furthermore the concept global market was adopted as follows due to the relevant
information sources for this research:
The global market is divided into and refers to Asia, Europe, North America and All others. 8

With regard to this research, these parts of the world all consist of their official countries.

2.2.2

Historical background

The bottled water market started in Europe and Russia by the early 1900s and extended
years later to the US and China. Throughout history, water was to survive. Starting with a
very small market, the main reason to use bottled water was health concerns (possible
medicinal properties).
It was in the early 19th century when the market showed a noticeable change in Europe and
captured a great part of the beverage market share. The real boost of bottled water
commenced in 1968 when the French company Vittel revolutionarily launched the first
plastic bottled water- aimed for general public consumption. With France and Germany on
top with their highest sales in volume, Europe became an established and leading market. 9
Bottlers marketed the product to consumers as safer, healthier, refreshing, more reliable and
above all, better than other soft drinks. Moreover, consumers had become more health
8

Beverage Marketing Corporation (2009). The Global Bottled Water Market. Retrieved February 13,
2010,
from http://www.beveragemarketing.com/
9

Finlayson, D. (2005). Market development of bottled waters. In D. Senior and N. Dege (2nd ed.),
Technology of bottled water (p.6). UK: Blackwell Publishing.

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conscious and in some parts of the world tap water was unavailable or unsafe. These drivers
were the beginning of a booming global bottled water market.

2.2.3

Global bottled water market

Thirty years ago, bottled water barely existed as a business. Nowadays we drink globally
millions of bottles a week. And this, while water is a product which can often be obtained for
minimal costs from taps in our homes. Moreover, we are grown up on tap water since many
of us have access to it. The next paragraphs briefly describe the growth and value of the
global market.

2.2.3.1 Market growth

After several leading years, the European and North American market deteriorated
somewhat over the last years. Drake (2010) argues in his report Asia boosts global bottled
water market that these markets showed a decrease in growth in 2008 and 2009 because of
two main reasons. Firstly because of the global recession (consumers are switching to less
expensive options such as tap water), and secondly because of concerns about the impact
of bottled water on the environment. It can be concluded that bottled water is an extra
commodity for many consumers in these countries since financial concerns play a crucial
role.
Thanks to the developing Asian market the global market maintains stable. It is China who
boosted the regional and indeed the global market. The rapidly growing economy of China
can be seen as the main driver of this growth. The global market increased by approximately
2% in 2009. This is a slowdown in comparison to previous years, but it also expresses that
the bottled water category can maintain growth in even the most challenging times of trading
environments.

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2.2.3.2 Market value

The value of the global bottled water market increased obviously parallel to the consumption.
In 2012 the global bottled water market is forecast to have a value of $94.2 billion, an
increase of 41% since 2007. Despite the decline in growth last year, consultants expect
every region of the market to post growth in 2010. 10

Global Bottled Water Market Value 2005-2009


100.000.000
80.000.000
$

60.000.000
40.000.000
20.000.000
0,00

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

56.900.000 60.900.000 66.700.000 74.700.000 81.700.000


Year

Figure 2.1: The Global Bottled Water Market Value 2005-2009


Source: Datamonitor (2009). Bottled Water: Global Industry Guide. Retrieved from
http://www.researchandmarkets.com/

2.2.4

The Surinamese bottled water market

The market of bottled water in Suriname has been growing consistently and has captured a
remarkable share in the beverage market for the last five years. 11 From 2005 on, the market
-with mainly local bottlers and brands- has become an almost indispensable category to
consumers. Strong competitive prices, aggressive promotion to achieve brand awareness
and brand loyalty, and a good availability, are some of the aspects which set the basis for a
stable and strong competitive market. The market currently consists of the following bottled
water brands:
10

Drake, I. (2010, January). Asia boosts global bottled water market. Retrieved from
http://www.ausfoodnews.com.au/
11
Ministry of Trade and Industry. (2010, February). Datamonitor: Bottled Water Industry Statistics
2005-2009, 17-22. Retrieved from HIinfo2010 Database.

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Aqua Para

Basic One

Dasani

Desha

Diamond Blue

Parasprings

Spa

Whahaha

Except for Spa Water, all other brands are locally produced. Figure 2.2 provides an overview
of all brands with their corresponding bottlers and year of launch to the market.

Brand

Bottler

Year of launch

Prestigious Brands N.V. (Suriname)

2008

Future Beverages N.V. (Suriname)

2007

Fernandes Bottling Company N.V. (Suriname)

2007

Aqua Para

Basic One

Dasani

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Para Bron N.V. (Suriname)

2006

Rudisa Juices & Beverages N.V. (Suriname)

2006

Caribbean Beverages N.V. (Suriname)

2002

Spadel Group (Belgium)

1998

Amer Asian Production Company N.V. (Suriname)

2008

Dsha

Diamond Blue

Para Springs

Spa

Whahaha

Figure 2.2: Water brands in Suriname (2010)


Source: developed for this research

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

2.3

Literature of research area

During the last decennia several institutes -such as Pacific Institute and the Australian
Bottled Water Institute (ABWI)- and writers have made their opinion about bottled water to
be known. Both proponents and opponents expressed themselves as the market turned into
a global phenomenon.

2.3.1 Bottled water

There have been several studies over the past years to investigate what factors exactly have
been driving the buying behavior of consumers toward bottled water. The outcomes of these
studies and opinions of researchers vary widely.
Doria (2006) stated in his article Bottled water versus Tap water: understanding Consumers
Preferences that several studies have shown two main drivers for bottled water
consumption. These drivers concern consumers buying behavior in USA, Canada and
France. The drivers are: organoleptics (water characteristics that affect the senses of taste,
odour and sight) and health and risk concerns (risk concerns may be seen as safety). Doria
(2006) argued that many consumers in these developed countries are not satisfied with the
tap water quality. Moreover, the consumption of bottled water have often been high in
communities that have serious problems with their tap water. Such problems provide new
opportunities for bottled water producers and marketers, who present their product as pure,
safe and healthy. He also argued that consumers are sensitive to the marketing of the
business. Not only the advertisement, but also the package influences their buying behavior.
As many consumers prefer products which seem to have higher health benefits, a great part
perceives bottled water to be reliable and, most of all, healthier than other water.
Rodwan (2009) partly agrees with Doria (2006). Rodwan (2009) agreed in his report
Confronting Challenges that the bottled water industry is just taking advantage of the
growing health and well-being consciousness of consumers. However, he stated another
main reason of consumers in developed countries as the USA and Canada. Consumers in
developed countries perceive bottled water as a good alternative to other beverages, such
as carbonated soft drinks and juices. It is not only a way to achieve hydration for them, but it
is also healthy and thirst-quenching.
It is in the developing countries, Rodwan (2009) argues in contrast with Doria (2006), where
bottled water serves as an alternative since these countries often have unsafe water.

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In contrast with both Doria (2006) and Rodwan (2009), Shandling (2008) did not come to a
regional conclusion in her report Global bottled water consumption on the rise. She claimed
another main global driver: an increased awareness of people of the need for and benefits of
hydration for body and mind. Furthermore, bottled water is becoming more accessible in
growing economies such as Latin America and Eastern Europe, she argued. The results of
this research will also show to what extent this theory is applicable to the Surinamese
market.

Phend (2009) took the study of driving factors in bottled water consumption further. She
admits that earlier studies indicated the perceived purity, safety and taste as the main drivers
for consumers to use bottled water. However, on the basis of a more recent survey
conducted in England, she argued that health is not a driving factor in bottled water
consumption. It is convenience and taste which drive the use of bottled water. Due to Phend
(2009), the municipal water systems are improving the last years and prices of bottled water
are very high in comparison to tap water.
Overall, the reasons for bottled water consumption seem to vary; both by author and
country. Health/risk concerns and taste seem to be the most frequently mentioned causes.
The main conclusion is that consumers generally value bottled water and are prepared to
pay several times more to consume what they perceive to be a safe, healthy, tasty or
convenient product.

2.3.2

Consumer Buying Behavior

Understanding consumer behavior and knowing customers is not simple. Customers may
say one thing but do another. They can get influenced and change their mind the last
minute. Or their needs or wants change from time to time. Consumer buying behavior refers
to the buying behavior of final consumers- individuals and households who buy goods and
services for personal consumption. 12

12

Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Wong,V., Saunders, J. (2008). Principles of Marketing. (5th ed.). England: Pearson
Education Limited.

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2.3.2.1 Consumer decision process

According to Kotler et al. (2008), consumers pass through several stages before purchasing
something. They argue that the buying process is one which starts long before the actual
purchase and continues long after. The marketer therefore needs to focus on the entire
buying process, rather than just the purchase decision. Figure 2.2 shows the consumer
decision process with influencing factors.

Cultural

Social

Personal

Psychological

Culture

Reference groups

Age & life-cycle stage

Motivation

Subculture

Family

Occupation

Perception

Social class

Roles and status

Economic situation

Learning

Lifestyle

Beliefs and attitudes

Personality and self -concept

Consumer
Consumer
buying
buying
decision
decision
process
process
Need
recognition

Information
search

Evaluation
of
alternatives

Purchase
decision

Post purchase
behavior

Figure 2.2: Consumer buying decision process with influencing factors


Source: Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Wong,V., Saunders, J. (2008). Principles of Marketing. (5th ed.).
England: Pearson Education Limited.

The process starts when the buyer recognizes a problem or need. Thereafter the buyer will
or will not search for more information related to the need. This information will be used to
evaluate alternative brands in the choice set. After evaluation, the buyer actually buys the
product. Based on the satisfaction or dissatisfaction of the buyer, he/she will take further
actions after the purchase.

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Kotler et al. (2008) agree that the next factors strongly influence the buying behavior of
consumers: cultural, social, personal and psychological factors. The consumers choice
therefore results from the complex interplay of all these factors. Although the marketer
cannot influence many of these factors, they can be useful in identifying potential customers
to serve their needs better.

2.4

Contribution to research area

The discussion about the quality and other aspects (such as health benefits) of tap and
bottled water is still going on. Till today the opinions about bottled water differ and
researches show different results. Nevertheless, in most cases consumers do choose for
bottled water for one or more of the following reasons:

Health/risk concerns

Consumers have become more health-conscious during last decade and bottled water has
the attraction of no calories and no additives. Besides, it is being presented as purer,
healthier and more reliable than tap water.

Quality

In many countries the public water supply is unsafe or of inferior quality. As a result, many
people do prefer bottled water.

Marketing

From promotion to packaging; effective marketing has increased the demand for bottled
water. As a real business, bottled water brands are sharply competing against each other by,
amongst others, competitive prices and aggressive promotion.

Convenience

For many people, bottled water is just a convenient beverage, especially when they are on
the go. It is easy to carry and almost everywhere available.

It can be concluded that part of these driving factors are strongly psychologically determined.
Since there are no explicit results yet about the nature of bottled and tap water, it seems to
be in the mind of people that bottled water is better than tap water.

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As seen in the previous section, psychological factors is one group of factors which generally
influence the consumer buying behavior.
This research focuses on two psychological factors which influence consumers: beliefs and
perception. Furthermore, this research looks into the possible relationships between
demographic factors (personal factors) and consumers buying behavior of bottled water.
Due to Kotler et al. (2008), a belief is a descriptive thought that someone holds about
something. These, in turn, influence the buying behavior. Perception is the process by which
people select, organize and interpret information to form a meaningful picture of the world.
The concept of this research argues that there may be a relationship between these factors
and the consumers buying behavior of bottled water.

2.5

Summary

Bottled water has become a phenomenon over the last decade. The increasing trend in the
consumption and market value explains that consumers are willing to pay a premium for it.
And this, while it is a product which they can get in most cases- at minimal costs. Moreover,
the quality of bottled water is still being disputed by researchers. This indicates that
consumers beliefs and perception probably play an essential role in their buying behavior
toward bottled water. These psychological factors are one of the four groups of factors which
influence consumers buying behavior: cultural, social, personal and psychological factors.
The personal and psychological factors are subjects of this research. This research
investigates to what extent consumers beliefs and perception do influence their buying
behavior of bottled water. The relationship between the demographic factors of consumers
and their buying behavior of bottled water is also being investigated.

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CHAPTER 3 Research Methodology

3.1 Introduction
This chapter details the methodology which is used for this research to collect the data
needed. There are several steps to follow in order to gather the right data. Before explaining
these steps, the next section will firstly explain why this methodology is chosen. The next
figure shows an outline of this chapter with section numbers and inter-relationships.

Introduction
(Section 3.1.)

Justification of survey methodology


(Section 3.2)

Questionnaire

Sampling strategy

Data analysis

design and

(Section 3.4)

strategy

administration

(Section 3.5)

Summary
(Section 3.6)
Figure 3.1 Outline of Chapter 3 with section numbers and inter-relationships
Source: developed for this research

The chapter begins with an outline of the methodology (Section 3.1) and an explanation for
selecting this research design (Section 3.2). The justification is followed by procedures of
how the survey is planned, conducted and administered, including the questionnaire design
and administration (Section 3.3) and the sampling strategy (Section 3.4). The data analysis
strategy will then be explained (Section 3.5), followed by a summary (Section 3.6) of all
sections.

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3.2

Justification of survey methodology

This background section first describes the strategy used for this research and then the
design to gather data.

3.2.1

Research strategy

The strategy for this research can be classified as positivism because of some main
reasons. 13 First, it deals with reality which is governed by natural laws. This research is
focused on the factors which influence consumers buying behavior. This can literally be
described as reality, influenced by laws derived from nature- apart from laws established by
human authorities. Second, the reality is explored by empirical research and a survey study.
These types of research enable it to collect a relatively high amount of reliable data against
relatively low costs. Third, the research consists of hypotheses that can be regarded as
facts. As seen in chapter one, this research consists of several hypotheses to be tested by a
survey study (quantitative data), to discover relationships among variables. Finally, the
researcher is objective and independent from the subject.
Furthermore, this research is being approached in a deductive way. The main characteristic
of a deductive approach is that the researcher develops a theory and one or more
hypothesis/ hypotheses. The researcher starts from the hypothesis/hypotheses that is/are
developed on the basis of general principles. 14 These hypotheses are expressed in
operational terms to test them by the collection of quantitative data.

3.2.2 Research design

A research design is a plan which outlines how information is to be gathered for an


assessment. It includes identifying the data gathering method(s), the instruments to be

13

A. Voce (2004). Introduction to research paradigms. Retrieved from


http://familymedicine.ukzn.ac.za/Uploads/131e81cf-f876-4e8d-9016-69ec7d6598b8/Introduction%20to%20research%20paradigms.doc

14

Wikipedia (2010). Social Research. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/

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used/created, how the instruments will be administered, and how the information will be
organized and analyzed. 15
This research uses a mixed approach of two research strategies; exploratory and descriptive
research. Each of these strategies plays a distinct but complementary role in order to get an
answer on the research problem. Exploratory research is conducted into an issue or problem
where there are few or no earlier studies to refer to. The focus is on gaining insights and
familiarity for later investigation. Descriptive research describes phenomena as they exist.
Here, data is often quantitative and statistics are applied. It is used to identify and obtain
information on a particular problem or issue.

16

Firstly, exploratory research is carried out to gain insights and background information about
the phenomenon of bottled water, both globally and locally. By doing this, little academic
research and literature is discovered. This helped to identify various variables of consumers
perception and buying behavior.
Thereafter, descriptive research is used to test and to answer the research hypotheses. This
is carried out by a survey design and therefore consists of designing and administrating the
questionnaire, constructing the sampling strategy and analyzing the results.
The survey design is being considered as the most appropriate technique for descriptive
research since the aim is to obtain primary data. Questionnaires (primary data) enable the
researcher more easily to identify and describe the opinion of the respondents. Moreover, it
is simple to administrate, provides relatively reliable data and is time limited. Because of the
fact that every respondent is asked to answer the same set of structured and predetermined
questions, coding, data treatment and interpretation is relatively easy.

3.3

Questionnaire design and administration

Firstly, all questions and formats are standardized so that all respondents face the same
questionnaire. Second, the questionnaire is designed comprehensively, in order to motivate
respondents to cooperate and accurately complete it.
15

Wikipedia (2007). Instructional Assessment Resources (IAR): Glossary. Retrieved from


http://www.utexas.edu/academic/diia/assessment/iar/glossary.php

16

WikiAnswers (2010). What is exploratory research? Retrieved from http://wiki.answers.com/


Q/What_is_exploratory_research

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The questionnaire used for this research is included in appendix B. Malhotra (1999) provides
a set of seven steps of questionnaire design which is used for this research.

3.3.1 Step 1: specifying the data required

The first step in questionnaire design is to accurately determine the required information to
achieve the research objectives. Based on the research questions, hypotheses and the
exploratory research, the independent and dependent variables are identified as shown in
table 2.1.

Research Questions

Independent variables

1. How do demographic

Gender

factors affect bottled water

Age

buying behavior?

Education
Income

2. How do psychological

Beliefs

factors affect bottled water

Perception

Dependent variables

Consumer buying behavior

buying behavior?
Table 2.1 Research questions with independent and dependent variables
Source: developed for this research

In order to test the hypotheses, the questionnaire used for this research is divided into two
parts: one to measure the correlation between demographic factors and buying behavior
(Q1-Q4), and one to measure the correlation between psychological factors and buying
behavior (Q5-Q25).
Q1 till Q4 is a set of close-ended questions. Q5 till Q25 partly exist of statements with a four
point scale from strongly agree to strongly disagree and partly of questions with three or
four options to choose from. This is purposely developed to determine the relationship
between buying behavior and psychological factors.

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3.3.2

Step 2: specifying the survey method

The next step of the questionnaire design is to specify the survey method. The survey
method is the research technique which gathers information from people through the use of
surveys or questionnaires. 17 Primary data can be collected in a number of ways. However,
every type of survey method has its advantages and disadvantages.
The choice of the most appropriate method depends on both the research objectives and
constraints. Factors such as required accuracy level, time and costs are considered, as well
as the advantages and disadvantages of the survey methods as summarized in table 2.2.
Hence, the choice of a self-administered survey for this research is based on the research
objectives and an assessment of the advantages and disadvantages of survey methods.

A self-administered survey is a survey in which respondents answer questions directly on a


questionnaire without an interviewers interaction. 18 The respondent completes the survey
on his or her own and can choose his or her own pace and time to complete the survey.
This type of method is considered as the most appropriate method for this research because
of several reasons. It can not only be cost-efficient, but it can also improve the reliability of
the results since respondents are not rushed to fill it out. However, the possible
disadvantages of a self-administered survey are also taken into consideration carefully. For
example, it is important that the respondents understand the questions right and answer it in
an understandable way. Therefore the questions are formulated as clear as possible for
everyone. There is also a chance that respondents will not complete the questionnaire or will
not respond in a timely manner. These factors are taken into consideration as errors (see
section 3.4).

3.3.3

Step 3: developing measurement scales

Closely related to the design of the questionnaire is selecting the format of response for
measurement. There are four types of scales: nominal, ordinal, ratio and interval.
The three types of measurement scales in the questionnaire of this research are nominal,
ordinal and interval. For example question one (Gender) has a nominal scale, since there is

17

McGraw-Hill (2004). Glencoe Marketing Essentials. Retrieved from www.glencoe.com

18

McGraw-Hill. (2004). Glencoe Marketing Essentials. Retrieved from www.glencoe.com

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no magnitude, no equal interval and no absolute zero in the possible answers. Question
three (Education) is ordinal because of possible ranking but no magnitude and absolute zero
point. The questions five till twenty can be treated as questions with interval scales, as it is
communicated and produced in an interval-scaled way.

3.3.4 Step 4: reliability and validity test

Any questionnaire should be reliable and valid in order to use the right results for further
actions. Reliability is the consistency of your measurement. It is the degree to which an
instrument measures the same way each time it is used under the same condition with the
same subjects. In short, it is the repeatability of your measurement. A measure is considered
to be reliable if a person's score on the same test given twice is similar. 19
In order to test the reliability of this questionnaire, a pilot test is carried out prior to the field
survey within a relatively small sample of 10 respondents to identify and eliminate possible
problems.
Validity is concerned with the strength of our conclusions, inferences or propositions. More
formally, Cook and Campbell (1979) define it as the "best available approximation to the
truth or falsity of a given inference, proposition or conclusion." In short, were we right? How
well did we measure what we claim to measure by a specific research method?

20

Regarding this research, the validity is verified by the supervisor of this research, who looks
into the appropriateness of questions and the scales of measurement.

3.3.5

Step 5: preparing draft questionnaire

To design a good questionnaire, principles are applied to the content, wording and structure
of the questions. Double-barreled and sensitive questions are avoided. As well for wording,
care is taken to ensure that words have only one meaning and there are no biased words,
phrases, abbreviations, double negatives and incomplete sentences. In relation to the
structure, all questions have a clear structure and the questionnaire is divided into three
19

Reliability and Validity: whats the difference? (n.d.). Retrieved from


http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/tutorial/Colosi/lcolosi2.htm

20

Reliability and Validity: whats the difference? (n.d.). Retrieved from


http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/tutorial/Colosi/lcolosi2.htm

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parts. They are ordered from the most easy ones (personal information) to the more timeconsuming and topic-related ones. Furthermore, questions with similar structure are grouped
together.

3.3.6

Step 6: testing, revising and distributing the questionnaire

As mentioned in section 3.3.4, the validity and reliability of the questionnaire are assessed in
the testing phase. Revision takes place on the basis of the feedback from the respondents.
The distribution of the questionnaires takes place through the network of the researcher and
a team of two persons. This team is located at several locations within the centre of
Paramaribo to distribute and collect the questionnaires. This team is also responsible,
together with the researcher, to ensure that all questionnaires are completely answered and
valid for data analysis.

3.3.7

Step 7: questionnaire administration

As required, this questionnaire is designed to encourage responses as much as possible.


Hence, it is designed to appear quick and easy to answer, mostly by the close-ended
questions. The average time required to complete the questionnaire is confined to be 5- 8
minutes. Furthermore, a pen is provided to every respondent who completes a questionnaire
to stimulate the response rate. Finally, some aspects are taken into consideration and given
out with every questionnaire to establish trust and make the respondent feel comfortable.
These aspects are: an introduction with the identity of the researcher, the nature and
importance of the research and principles to ensure anonymity.

3.4 Sampling strategy


Another crucial step in conducting the survey is to determine which subjects shall be
surveyed to obtain the appropriate information for the research objectives. To decide which
type of sampling will be the most appropriate one for this survey, the characteristics of both
probability and non-probability sampling are considered.
Probability sampling is one in which every unit in the population has a chance (greater than
zero) of being selected in the sample. At Non-probability sampling some elements of the

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population have no chance of selection, or the probability of selection cannot be accurately


determined. It involves the selection of elements based on assumptions regarding the
population of interest which forms the criteria for selection. 21
The sampling process of this research comprises several stages: 22
Defining the population of concern;
Specifying a sampling frame, a set of items or events possible to measure;
Specifying a sampling method for selecting items or events from the frame;
Determining the sample size;
Implementing the sampling plan;
Sampling and data collection;
Reviewing the sampling process
In this research, the population of concern consists of all Surinamese people who live in the
capital Paramaribo, have at least a foundation education and are sixteen years or older.
The sampling frame is in this case the same as the population of concern. The sample frame
is a set of items from which the sample is drawn. Since it is hardly impossible to list all the
people with above mentioned characteristics, the sample frame is the same as the
population of concern.
The most appropriate sampling method for this research is quota sampling, a form of nonprobability sampling. In quota sampling the population is first segmented into mutually
exclusive sub-groups. Then judgment is used to select the subjects or units from each
segment based on a specified proportion. This type of sampling is considered as the most
appropriate one for this research because of two main reasons. Firstly, it enables the
researcher to list relevant control characteristics and secondly it determines the distribution
of these characteristics in the targeted population. Demographic data, such as age and sex,
can more easily be explored by quota sampling.
Determining the sample size for probability samples involves financial, statistical and
objective considerations. Due to the limited time for this research, the sample size of this
study is 200. In addition, a sample size of 20 is taken into consideration for errors.

21

Wikipedia.(2010, February). Sampling (Statistics). Retrieved from


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sampling_(statistics)

22

Wikipedia.(2010, February). Sampling (Statistics). Retrieved from


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sampling_(statistics)

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Thereafter the implementation of the sampling plan takes place after all necessary
preparations. During two full weeks questionnaires are distributed via several locations
within Paramaribo. Sampling and data collection are carried out directly after the distribution,
since the questionnaires are collected within two days maximum.

Finally the sampling process is reviewed in order to guarantee reliability, validity and
readiness for analysis.

3.5 Data analysis strategy


The data collected from the questionnaires is completely summarized and analyzed by using
Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 17.0. SPSS enables accuracy and
makes it relatively easy to interpret data. The following analysis statistics were undertaken in
SPSS for further analysis:

Descriptive:
1. Frequencies;
2. Descriptives

Associative:
1. Reliability;
2. T- test;
3. One way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA);
4. Correlations

Firstly, frequencies and descriptive statistics summarize some main data of respondents to
get an overview and to provide guidance for conducting further analysis. Secondly, t-test,
ANOVA and correlations amongst dependent and independent variables are carried out to
identify the possible relationships.

3.6 Summary
The choice of approach for this research is made on the basis of the nature of the research
and the advantages and disadvantages of all possibilities. The positivism-deductive

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approach is considered to be the most appropriate method for this research. This approach
enables the researcher to gather the data needed in a relatively simple, cost-efficient and yet
structured and reliable way. This, by exploratory and descriptive research. The approach
consists of three main stages: questionnaire design & administration, sampling strategy and
the data analysis. This last stage takes place by using Statistical Package for Social Science
(SPSS); a program to easily interpret data.

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CHAPTER 4 Findings

4.1

Introduction

This chapter illustrates the results of the data collected. Section 4.1 is the introduction to the
chapter, while section 4.2 describes how the data is prepared for analysis. Section 4.3
illustrates a general profile of the collected data, where after section 4.4 and 4.5 outlines this
data profile by respectively descriptive and inferential statistical results. These results are
obtained after transfer and edit of the data in SPSS. Section 4.6 summarizes this chapter.

4.2

Data preparation

In order to make all the collected data suitable for the analysis, all questionnaires are
screened to be complete. All returned incomplete questionnaires are therefore considered as
errors and removed from the survey data. Out of the 220 distributed questionnaires, 18 are
incomplete. As mentioned in section 3.4, 20 questionnaires are taken into consideration as
errors. Hence, in total 200 of the 202 complete questionnaires are being used for this
research.
Each question and possible answer of the questionnaire has a code, since coding of data is
necessary for transferring and editing data in SPSS. The questions and possible answers
are corresponded in the order of the actual questionnaire.
The answer possibilities are recoded before the analysis. This, to make it possible that a
higher score of the respondents corresponds with a higher correlation between the variables.
Since the questions of the actual questionnaire are coded negatively (a high score
corresponds with a low correlation), the questions are recoded for the ease of analysis.

4.3

Data profile

The profile of the data gathered through questionnaires is summarized in table 4.1

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

No.of

Cumulative

respondents*

28.7
23.8
22.8
23.8

29
53
76
100

20
113
41
26

10
56.5
20.5
13

10
66.5
87
100

57
74
49
20

28.5
37
24.5
10

28.5
65.5
90
100

140
34
20
6

70
17
10
3

70
87
97
100

168
10
0

86.6
5.2
0

86.6
91.8

16

8.2

100

10
72
45
67

5.2
37.1
23.2
34.5

5.2
42.3
65.5
100

Main purchase location


At supermarkets
At bars/restaurants/cafs
At service stations/other 24 hour open
shops
Other

58
48
46
48

Bottled water usage


Once a week or more
Less than once a week (till once a month)
Less than once a month
Never

42
100

Income (in SRD)


< 1000
1000 to 1999
2000 to 3999
4000 +

41.6
57.4

Education
Primary
Secondary/ High-school
Bachelor
Master +

84
116

Age
16 to 25
26 to 34
35 to 44
45+

Gender
Male
Female

Main reason to use bottled water

Tastes better than other drinks


Healthier/safer than other drinks
It is thirst-quenching
It is convenient and easy to consume
*Note: N=200 (sample size)
Table 4.1: Frequency table of respondents profile
Source : developed from survey data

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4.4

Descriptive statistics

This section shows the results from the independent variables beliefs and perception of the
consumers. The results of the factors which possibly influence the buying behavior, are also
part of this section. Question one till ten of the questionnaire are related to the variable
beliefs. Table 4.2 shows the results of the respondents beliefs about bottled and tap water.

Statement

Minimum
(Strongly
disagree)

Maximum
(Strongly
agree)

Mean

Mode

200

3.05

2. Bottled water is safer than


tap water in Suriname

200

2.94

3. Bottled water is healthier


than tap water in Suriname

200

2.77

4. Bottled water is healthier


than fruit juices

200

2.52

200

3.43

6. The quality of bottled water


in Suriname is reliable

200

2.87

7. The quality of tap water in


Suriname is reliable

200

2.62

8. Tap water in Suriname is


safe

200

2.59

9. I am satisfied with the taste


of tap water in Suriname

200

2.85

200

2.34

1. Bottled water has higher


quality standards than tap
water

5. Bottled water is healthier


than carbonated drinks (soft
drinks)

10. There is no considerable


difference between bottled
and tap water in Suriname

Table 4.2: Descriptive results of respondents beliefs of bottled and tap water
Source: developed from survey data

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

The mean indicates to what extent the sample group averagely agrees or does not agree
with the different statement. The lower the mean, the more the respondents disagree with
the statement. The higher the mean, the more the respondents agree with the statement.
The mode indicates which answer possibility is given mostly by the sample group.
The questions 15 till 25 of the questionnaire are based on the variable perception of bottled
water of consumers. Table 4.3 shows the results of the respondents regarding this variable.

Statement

Minimum
(Strongly
disagree)

Maximum
(Strongly
agree)

Mean

Mode

1. Bottled water is convenient


and easy to consume

194

3.34

2. Bottled water is good


available in Suriname

194

3.49

3. Bottled water has a better


taste than tap water in
Suriname

194

2.82

194

3.07

194

2.12

6. Drinking bottled water suits


my lifestyle

194

2.74

7. Drinking tap water suits my


lifestyle

194

2.69

8. Drinking bottled water suits


my diet

194

2.46

9. Bottled water is a good


alternative to other drinks

194

3.07

10. Bottled water is relatively


cheap in Suriname

194

2.96

194

3.13

4. Drinking bottled water is


refreshing
5. Drinking bottled water is
socially accepted in
Suriname

11. Bottled water is a


commercial business in
Suriname

Table 4.3: Descriptive results of respondents perception of bottled water


Source: developed from survey data

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

Question 11 concerns the buying behavior of consumers. The next tables summarizes the
results.

Question

Minimum
(Never)

Maximum
(Once a week
or more)

Mean

Mode

How often do you drink

200

3.54

bottled water?
Table 4.4: Consumption frequency of bottled water
Source: developed from survey data

Question 12 and 13 also concern the buying behavior of bottled water, but with nominal
scales. Therefore the results of these questions (main purchase location of and main reason
to buy bottled water) can be seen in table 4.1.

Question 14 of the questionnaire deals with factors which possibly influence the buying
behavior of consumers. Table 4.5 shows the results.

Factor

Minimum
(No
influence)

Maximum
(High
influence)

Mean

Mode

Quality

194

2.49

Brand

194

2.11

Price

194

2.10

Package

194

1.96

Promotion

194

1.59

Availability

194

2.10

Table 4.5: Statistics of the extent to which factors influence bottled water buying behavior
Source: developed from survey data

The next standard is assumed regarding the means of table 4.5:

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1.00 1.49 Low influence


1.50 2.49 Moderate influence
2.50 3.00 High influence

Appendix C shows the reliability of the variables of table 4.2, 4.3 & 4.5. Furthermore,
appendix D shows the statistics from both the dependent variable (buying behavior) and the
independent variables (beliefs & perception).

4.5

Inferential statistics

This section tests the relationships between the different dependent and independent
variable(s) in order to get an answer to the research questions. The hypotheses of the
research (section 1.2) form the basis. In order to know to what extent there is a relationship
between the different variables, the correlation coefficient is examined. This coefficient is a
measure which indicates the strength and direction of a linear relationship between two
random variables. It can vary from -1 (perfect negative correlation) through 0 (no correlation)
to +1 (perfect positive correlation) and is also known as the Pearson Correlation Coefficient
(r-value). 23 In other words, if the correlation coefficient value is close to either -1.0 or 1.0, it
means that there is a strong negative or a strong positive relationship between the two
variables. Generally the strengths of the correlations are determined on the basis of the
following standard:

Correlation range

Size of correlation

.10 - .29

Small

.30 - .49

Medium

.50 1.0

Large

Table 4.6: Correlation size on the basis of the range


Source: J. Pallant (2007). SPSS Survival Manual (3rd ed.). England: Open University Press.

23

Wiktionary (2009). Correlation Coefficient. Retrieved from http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/correlation_coefficient

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

The Sig. (1-tailed/ 2-tailed) value expresses a value to accept or reject the (nul) hypotheses.
It is also called the p-value. The p-value is the probability that the correlation is one just by
chance. Therefore the smaller the p-value, the better. Generally the rule is: reject H0 if p
.05 and accept H0 if p .05. 24
Since the variable gender consists of only two groups, the t-test is carried out at this
variable. At the variables age, education and income the ANOVA is carried out, since
there are more than two groups to analyze there. The descriptive of these 3 variables are
shown in appendix E. The variables beliefs and perception are carried out through
correlations to identify the relationships. These results, and therefore the results of the
hypotheses, can be found in (the tables of) appendix F.

The t-test shows that there is no relationship between gender and bottled water buying
behavior (table F1). The p-value (Sig. 2-tailed) of .688 indicates this. Therefore H0 1.1 is
accepted.

Table F2 concerns the relationship between age and bottled water buying behavior. The pvalue (Sig.) of .402 of the ANOVA indicates that there is no relationship between these 2
variables. H0 1.2 is accepted.

Thereafter the relationship between education and bottled water buying behavior is tested
(table F3). The p-value here is .241 and therefore H0 1.3 is accepted. There is no
relationship between education and buying behavior.

The relationship between income and bottled water buying behavior is tested in table F4.
The p-value here is .009, which indicates that there is a relationship between these
variables. H0 1.4 is rejected.

Finally both variables beliefs and perception are tested on a relationship with bottled water
buying behavior (table F5). The p-value of beliefs is .498 and of perception is .011.
Therefore there is no relationship between beliefs and bottled water buying behavior, but
there is a relationship between perception and bottled water buying behavior.

24

J. Pallant (2007). SPSS Survival Manual (3rd ed.). England: Open University Press.

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H0 2.1 is accepted and H0 2.2 is rejected. Based on the correlation size (see table 4.6), the
relationship between perception and the bottled water buying behavior can be described
as small.

4.6

Summary

This chapter begins with a profile (expressed in numbers and percentages) of the collected
data to gain some insights. The profile shows the demographic factors and the bottled water
buying behavior of the sample size. The distribution of the sample size is also shown by the
profile, as it must adequately represent all parts of the sample. By showing the descriptive
results, insights are gained of both the dependent and the independent variables. The
inferential statistics thereafter show the possible relationships between these variables by ttest, ANOVA and correlations. By doing this, the hypotheses of the research are
accepted/rejected.

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CHAPTER 5 Analysis

5.1 Introduction
This chapter analyses the findings to gain more insights and get the answers on the
research problem and research questions. Section 5.1 is the introduction of the chapter.
Section 5.2 focuses it on the descriptive results, while section 5.3 analyses the inferential
results. Finally this chapter is being summarized in section 5.4.

5.2 Descriptive analysis


Firstly the demographics are analyzed. Hereby the following statistics are taken into
consideration:

Frequencies

Sig. (2-tailed)/ Sig. value (see section 5.3)

The frequency table of the respondents profile (table 4.1) shows that the sample size is
fairly equally distributed. In terms of gender and age the differences between the groups are
acceptable for analysis. In terms of education and income the distribution is not very equally
distributed. A total of 66.5% has received a primary, secondary or high school education,
while 65.5% earns less than SRD 2,000. However, these differences form a correct
representation of the population. A great part of the population is namely not highly educated
and therefore probably does not earn more than SRD 2,000. It can also partly be explained
by the biggest age group of 16 to 25 years (28,7%). The major part of this group has
received its primary, secondary or high-school education and does not earn an income (yet)
or does not earn relatively much.
Second, when analyzing the respondents beliefs, perception and buying behavior of bottled
and tap water, the following has been examined:
Frequencies
Pearson correlation (see section 5.3)
Sig. (1-tailed) value (see section 5.3)

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

Table 5.1 summarizes the frequency results of the different statements regarding the beliefs
of the respondents.

Strongly
disagree

Disagree

Agree

Strongly
agree

Bottled water has higher quality


standards than tap water

4 (2%)

34 (17%)

110 (55%)

52 (26%)

Bottled water is safer than tap


water in Suriname

8 (4%)

38 (19%)

112 (56%)

42 (21%)

Bottled water is healthier than tap


water in Suriname

11 (5,5%)

58 (29%)

98 (49%)

33 (16,5%)

Bottled water is healthier than fruit


juices

21 (10,5%)

82 (41%)

70 (35%)

27 (13,5%)

Bottled water is healthier than


carbonated drinks (soft drinks)

5 (2,5%)

3 (1,5%)

94 (47%)

98 (49%)

The quality of bottled water in


Suriname is reliable

2 (1%)

42 (21%)

136 (68%)

20 (10%)

The quality of tap water in


Suriname is reliable

13 (6,5%)

66 (33%)

106 (53%)

15 (7,5%)

13 (6,5%)

70 (35%)

103 (51,5%)

14 (7%)

11 (5,5%)

43 (21,5%)

112 (56%)

34 (17%)

23 (11,5%)

96 (48%)

72 (36%)

9 (4,5%)

Tap water in Suriname is safe

I am satisfied with the taste of tap


water in Suriname
There is no considerable difference
between bottled and tap water in
Suriname

Table 5.1: Frequency results of the respondents beliefs of bottled and tap water
Source: developed of survey data

On the basis of the highest frequency per category (yellow highlighted), it can be concluded
that a major part of the respondents disagrees with the next statements:
-

Bottled water is healthier than fruit juices;

There is no considerable difference between bottled and tap water in Suriname

On the other hand most respondents agree that:


-

Tap water in Suriname is safe;

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

The quality of tap water in Suriname is reliable;

Bottled water is healthier than tap water in Suriname;

I am satisfied with the taste of tap water in Suriname;

The quality of bottled water in Suriname is reliable;

Bottled water is safer than tap water in Suriname;

Bottled water has higher quality standards than tap water

A major part even strongly agrees that:


-

Bottled water is healthier than carbonated drinks (soft drinks)

It can be concluded that consumers generally believe that bottled water is a better product
than tap water. They do not only believe that the quality of bottled water is higher than tap
waters quality (81%), but they also (strongly) agree that bottled water is safer than tap water
(77%). Moreover, 65% believes that bottled water is healthier than tap water and even fruit
juices (48,5%).
In comparison to carbonated drinks, consumers believe bottled water to be healthier (96%).
This is the result of the general unhealthy perception which people have from carbonated
drinks. Furthermore, 78% thinks the quality of bottled water in Suriname is reliable. However,
60,5% also relies on the quality of tap water, while 58,5% perceive tap water in Suriname as
safe. Moreover, 73% of the respondents is satisfied with the taste of tap water in Suriname.

Despite the better image most consumers have of bottled water in comparison to tap water,
tap water is still safe and reliable to most of them. This indicates that consumers of bottled
water may be satisfied with the quality and safety of tap water, but overall bottled water is
believed to be a better product.
Table 5.2 is a summary of the frequency results concerning the perception of consumers of
bottled and tap water.

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

Strongly
agree

Agree

Strongly
agree

6 (3%)

111 (57,5%)

75 (38,5%)

2 (1%)

94 (48,5%)

98 (50,5%)

7 (3,6%)

62 (32%)

84 (43,4%)

41 (21%)

1 (0,5%)

30 (15,5%)

118 (60%)

45 (24%)

Drinking bottled water is socially


accepted in Suriname

1 (0,5%)

20 (10%)

127 (65,5%)

46 (24%)

Drinking bottled water suits my


lifestyle

17 (8,8%)

48 (24,7%)

97 (50%)

32 (16,5%)

11 (6%)

60 (31%)

102 (52%)

21 (11%)

32 (16,5%)

60 (31%)

83 (42%)

19 (10,5%)

Bottled water is a good alternative to


other drinks

9 (4,6%)

20 (10,4%)

113 (58,2%)

52 (26,8%)

Bottled water is relatively cheap in


Suriname

5 (2,6%)

30 (15,5%)

127 (65,5%)

32 (16,4%)

Bottled water is a commercial


business in Suriname

1 (0,5%)

22 (11,3%)

122 (63%)

49 (25,2%)

Bottled water is convenient and easy


to consume

2 (1%)

Bottled water is good available in


Suriname
Bottled water has a better taste than
tap water in Suriname

Disagree

Drinking bottled water is refreshing

Drinking tap water suits my lifestyle

Drinking bottled water suits my diet

Table 5.2: Frequency results of the respondents perception of bottled and tap water
Source: developed from survey data

The major part of respondents agrees with all statements of the variable perception. Except
for the positive beliefs which the consumers have about bottled water (higher quality
standards, safer, healthier and more reliable than tap water), these results show even more.

It can be concluded that despite the higher perception most consumers have of bottled
water, both bottled and tap water are highly consumed. This is noticed in the fact that the
consumption of both types of water suit the lifestyle of many consumers. The difference in
the outcome of these two types of cases is not essential:
Drinking bottled water suits my lifestyle

: 66,5%

Drinking tap water suits my lifestyle

: 63,0%

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

Table 4.1 points out that the major part (70%) uses bottled water fairly often: at least once a
week. A great part of these users mainly buy it at the supermarket, since this location is the
main purchase location of almost 87% of the respondents. The other purchase locations are
bars/restaurants/cafs (5%) and others such as school and work (8%). The main reason to
use bottled water varies, but two reasons are dominant: health/safety concerns (37,1%) and
convenience (34,5%). The third biggest category (23,2%) uses bottled water because it is
thirst-quenching.

A total of 27% uses bottled water infrequently: less than once a week or less than once a
month. There is a little 3% who never uses bottled water.

It may carefully be concluded that the demographic factors of the respondents seem to have
no (high) influence on their bottled water buying behavior. Although the demographics
contain different categories of gender, age, education and income, the results of the buying
behavior seem to be centered at one or more categories. The inferential analysis (section
5.3) goes more detailed into this.
Furthermore, the main reasons of using bottled water (partly) correspond with the theories of
Doria (2006), Rodwan (2009) & Phend (2009). These authors have all come with drivers of
bottled water consumption. Health/safety concerns and convenience are drivers which are
pointed out by these authors after research. In short, their theories are partly valid to the
Surinamese market.

The main factors which possibly influence consumers buying behavior of bottled water,
seem to be quality and brand with their highest means of respectively 2.49 and 2.11.
When the standard for means is taken into consideration, not one factor has a high
influence on the buying behavior. Only quality is very near to the standard of high influence
(2.50-3.00). All factors have therefore a moderate influence on the bottled water buying
behavior. The factors promotion and package seem to have (the) low(est) influence on
consumers buying behavior of bottled water.

5.3 Inferential analysis


This section summarizes and analyses the results of the hypotheses and other notable
findings. The findings of the hypotheses form the basis of this analysis. Firstly, all
hypotheses are analyzed separately.

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H 1.1 : There is a relationship between gender and bottled water buying behavior.
H0 1.1 : There is no relationship between gender and bottled water buying behavior.

As mentioned in section 4.8, the t-test (table F1, Appendix F) points out that there is no
relationship between gender and bottled water buying behavior. This can be recognized in
the buying behavior results. Despite the fairly equal distribution of the respondents gender
(42% male, 58% female), the buying behavior of both genders shows a similar trend. For
example, in total 70% uses bottled water relatively often and nearly 87% mainly buys bottled
water at the supermarket. Therefore bottled water is assumed to be no gender-related
product. Both males and females are (frequent) consumers of bottled water.

H 1.2 : There is a relationship between age and bottled water buying behavior.
H0 1.2 : There is no relationship between age and bottled water buying behavior

Regarding the relationship between age and bottled water buying behavior, there is no
relationship ascertained by the ANOVA (table F2). The different age categories are also
fairly equally distributed. Only the youngest age category (16-25 years) is represented some
more than the other ones, but the difference is not very significant (see table 4.1).
Since the buying behavior shows a dominant trend, these age categories seem to have no
influence on the buying behavior. Hence, bottled water is assumed to be no age-related
product. Consumers of bottled water have different ages.

H1 .3 : There is a relationship between education and bottled water buying behavior.


H0 1.3 : There is no relationship between education and bottled water buying behavior.

Table 4.1 shows that the education category secondary/high-school is dominating with
nearly 57%. This is recognizable in the dominating age category of 16-25 years and the fact
that the major part of the Surinamese population is not highly educated. However, there is
no relationship found between education and bottled water buying behavior (table F3).
Consumers of all education levels are using bottled water.

H 1.4 : There is a relationship between income and bottled water buying behavior.
H0 1.4 : There is no relationship between income and bottled water buying behavior.

The ANOVA between income and bottled water buying behavior (table F4) shows that
there is a relationship between these two variables. Since a significance is shown, a multi

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comparison test and ANOVA is conducted for the variable income. This test identifies which
income levels show a significance in buying behavior. Appendix G shows the results of
SPSS. The next table summarizes the results.

Income level

Mean

Significant mean difference

< 1000

2.15

1000 1999

2.00

2000-3999

2000 3999

2.26

1000-1999

4000 +

2.09

Table 5.4: Summary of multi comparison and ANOVA of variable income


Source: developed from survey data

When taking the mean difference into consideration, there is a significant difference between
the income levels 1000- 1999 and 2000- 3999. This indicates that there is a significant
difference in the means and therefore the buying behavior of bottled water of these income
levels. The group with an income level of 2000- 3999 shows the highest mean, while
income level 1000 -1999 has the lowest mean. Furthermore the income level of < 1000
has a mean of 2.15, while income level > 4000 has an average of 2.09.
The income level group of < 1000 probably consist mainly of students. This can be
concluded on the basis of the respondents profile (table 4.1). The biggest group of age is
16-25 years, while the biggest group of education is primary and secondary/high-school.
These demographics do correspond with a relatively low income. This indicates that
students/other young people from 16-25 years and people with a relatively high income
(2000-3999 and > 4000) are the most frequent users of bottled water.
Despite the fact that students/other young people have a relatively low income, they are
frequent users of bottled water. This cannot only be explained by the main reasons for using
bottled water (health/safety concerns and convenience), but also by other factors. It is
assumed that young people are not only more sensitive and affective to advertising, but also
to socially accepted and luxurious products.
The relatively low mean of the income group of 1000-1999, indicates that they do not use
bottled water frequently. In short, students and other people with a relatively high income
seem to be the potential target group of bottled water producers.

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H 2.1 : There is a relationship between beliefs and bottled water buying behavior.
H0 2.1 : There is no relationship between beliefs and bottled water buying behavior.

H 2.2 : There is a relationship between perception and bottled water buying behavior.
H0 2.2 : There is no relationship between perception and bottled water buying behavior

The two variables beliefs and perception are explored by the Pearson correlation analysis
(table F5).
The r-value (Pearson correlation) of .000 of the variable beliefs indicates that there is no
relationship between beliefs and buying behavior. This can be explained by the overall
positive beliefs of both bottled and tap water. Although most consumers believe that bottled
water is healthier, safer and a product of higher quality standards, they also believe that tap
water in Suriname is safe and reliable. Hence, the beliefs of bottled water have no influence
on the buying behavior.

The r-value of .165 between the variable perception and buying behavior indicates that
there is a small relationship between perception and buying behavior. This can be found
again in the fact that respondents react positively on all statements regarding their
perception of bottled water. Hence, besides all positive beliefs they have of bottled water, a
dominating part of 96% perceives bottled water as convenient and easy to consume. The
major part (64,4%) perceives the taste of bottled water to be better than the taste of tap
water, while 84% agrees that drinking bottled water is refreshing. The consumption of it gets
only stimulated by the statements which are endorsed by most consumers:
Bottled water is good available (99%);
Bottled water is socially accepted (89,5%);
Bottled water is a good alternative to other drinks (85%);
Bottled water is relatively cheap in Suriname (81,9%)

However, 88,2% agrees that bottled water is a commercial business in Suriname. Probably
this business is not just a commercial business, but one which meets a great demand since
the business keeps growing.

Although it has never been proven that bottled water is better in any aspect(s) than tap
water, consumers perceive the product as relatively high. This can partly be explained by the
-misleading- advertising of bottled water producers/marketers. Through advertising, they

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create a positive image of bottled water. By promoting the product as one with higher health/
safety standards and a better taste, they create a certain image of bottled water for
(potential) consumers.

The next table summarizes the results of the hypotheses.

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

Variable

Gender

Age

Education

Income

Beliefs

Perception

Hypothesis
H 1.1: There is a relationship
between gender and buying
behavior.
H0
1.1:
There
is
no
relationship between gender
and buying behavior.

H1.2: There is a relationship


between age and buying
behavior.
H0
1.2:
There
is
no
relationship between age and
buying behavior.

H 1.3: There is a relationship


between education and buying
behavior.
H0
1.3:
There
is
no
relationship
between
education
and
buying
behavior.

H 1.4: There is a relationship


between income and buying
behavior.
H0 1.4:There is no relationship
between income and buying
behavior.
H 2.1: There is a relationship
between beliefs and buying
behavior.
H0 2.1: There is no
relationship between beliefs
and buying behavior.

H 2.2: There is a relationship


between perception and
buying behavior.
H0 2.2: There is no
relationship between
perception and buying
behavior.

Test

Result

Sig. value

T-test

Reject H 1.1

t = -.402
p = .688/ p > .05

Accept H0 1.1.

ANOVA

Reject H 1.2

F = .982
P = .402/ p > .05

Accept H0 1.2

ANOVA

Reject H 1.3

F = 1.412
P = .241/ p >.05

Accept H0 1.3

ANOVA

Accept H 1.4

F = 3.964
P = .009/ p < .05

Reject H0 1.4

Pearson

Reject H 2.1

r = .000
P = .498/ p > .05

Reject H0 2.1

Pearson

Accept H 2.2

r = .165
P = .011/ p < .05

Reject H0 2.2

Significance level p <.05


Table 5.3: Summary of results of hypotheses
Source: developed by survey data

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5.4 Summary
Consumers generally seem to have a high perception of bottled water in comparison to tap
water. This is partly the result of heavy marketing which presents the product as one with
many benefits (in comparison to tap water). Despite the fact that most consumers rely on tap
water, they are frequent users of bottled water because of two main reasons: health/safety
concerns and convenience. Consumers are becoming more aware of these factors
concerning their lifestyle. And bottled water producers are therefore meeting the need. The
main purchase location is the supermarket.
It is furthermore shown that there is a relationship between income and bottled water buying
behavior and perception and bottled water buying behavior. People with a relatively high
income and students/other young people (under 25) seem to be the most frequent users of
bottled water. Furthermore, a high perception of the product also leads to a (more) frequent
buying behavior. According to the results of gender, age, education and beliefs of
consumers, there is no relationship with consumers buying behavior of bottled water.

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CHAPTER 6 Conclusions & recommendations


This research is designed and carried out in order to investigate the research problem: Are
demographic factors as well as psychological factors related to the buying behavior of
bottled water? This final chapter reports the outcomes of this research problem, the
corresponding research questions and other findings.

Conclusion: The bottled water market has shown a huge increase over the last years,
locally and globally. More specific, the global market has grown with 44% and the local
market with 62% over the last five years. Although much research is carried out, there is
(still) no absolute explanation if bottled water is better in any aspect than tap water.
However, the current stable market indicates that the product meets a great demand. This
research is therefore carried out to investigate which factors are related to the buying
behavior of bottled water.
Conclusion: The model consumer buying decision process with influencing factors of Kotler
e.a. represents a number of factors which are related to the buying behavior of consumers.
Due to relevance, time and administrative constraints, only some factors are partly tested by
this research: demographic (personal) and psychological factors.
Recommendation: Further research to the other influencing factors of Kotler e.a., such as
lifestyle and culture, in relation with bottled water buying behavior, is recommended. Since
this research is focused on a relatively small part of the factors, it is recommended to carry
out a research which takes into consideration all factors of the model. This may show more
useful details in consumer buying behavior of bottled water and can therefore be a better
guideline for producers/marketers of bottled water.

Conclusion: In terms of the four demographic factors which are investigated by this
research, there is a relationship between income and buying behavior of bottled water.
People with a relatively high income, together with students/other young people in the age
category of 16-25 years, seem to be the most frequent users of bottled water. The more
people earn, the more they are willing to buy bottled water. Therefore bottled water can be
seen as a luxury product. Despite the fact that young people in the age category of 16-25
years earn a relatively low income, they are also frequent users. It is assumed that they are
not only more sensitive to the heavy marketing of bottled water marketers, but also to
socially accepted and luxury products.

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

The other demographic variables (gender, age and education) do not show a relationship
with the buying behavior of bottled water. It can therefore be stated that there is a
relationship to a small extent between demographics and bottled water buying behavior.
Recommendation: Since consumers with a relatively high income and students/other young
people show a significance in buying behavior, producers/marketers of bottled water should
focus (more) on these groups. By focusing on the right target groups, needless marketing
efforts can be prevented.

Conclusion: From the two psychological factors which are investigated, one shows a
relationship with the buying behavior of bottled water: perception. It is assumed that the
more positive perception someone has about something, the bigger the motivation to use the
product. Consumers describe bottled water as safe, healthy, reliable, convenient, good
available, refreshing, socially accepted and a good alternative to other drinks. In comparison
to tap water, they perceive bottled water as healthier, safer and most of all: higher qualified.
Since there is no absolute proof (yet) that bottled water is better than tap water in any
aspect(s), this perception of bottled water is the result of heavy - and even misleading advertising. Marketers promote bottled water as a product of high(er) quality standards (in
comparison to tap water). Therefore, it is attractive for consumers to use. As consumers are
sensitive to this information, the bottled water business keeps growing.
The other factor, beliefs, does not show a relationship with the buying behavior. Although the
overall beliefs of bottled water are relatively good, this factor is not related to the buying
behavior. It can be stated that that there is a relationship to a small extent between
psychological factors and bottled water buying behavior.
Recommendation: There should be control on bottled water producers. The control has to
be carried out by a separate institute, which controls and monitors all actions of this
business. By doing so, the quality, safety and reliability of bottled water can be guaranteed.
Hence, marketers of bottled water will also be controlled on what they claim. Misleading
advertising must be prevented in this way.

Conclusion: Some parts of the theories of Rodwan (2009) are not valid for the Surinamese
market. According to Rodwan, a main driver of bottled water consumption in developing
countries is that these countries often have unsafe tap water. Bottled water is therefore a
good alternative, Rodwan argues.

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

In the case of Suriname as a developing country, tap water quality is assumed by the public
to be relatively high and therefore reliable. Moreover, the country does not often have
problems with its municipal water systems and quality. And yet, the consumption of bottled
water has been increasing for the last five years. Bottled water producers and marketers
have been able to capture their market despite the reliability of tap water.

Conclusion: There are many theories about the drivers of bottled water consumption.
Especially in the developed countries as the United States and England, much research is
carried out. The outcomes vary; they show both similarities and differences. However,
despite the difference in country and part of the world, health/safety concerns and
convenience seem to be the global similar drivers of this growing business.
In the case of Suriname, these two drivers are also the main reasons for using bottled water.
People are becoming more aware of their health and lifestyle and therefore the need for
healthy products. Bottled water is not only healthy to them, but also convenient since it is
easy to carry, thirst-quenching, and good available.

Conclusion: Two factors which influence people mostly when purchasing bottled water, are
quality and brand. The other factors price, package, availability and promotion do not
influence their buying behavior (highly). Hence, the theory of Doria (2006) is not completely
valid for the Surinamese market: package does not influence consumers buying behavior of
bottled water.
Recommendation: Marketers should focus (more) on proving and maintaining their quality
and building their brand. Consistency in quality and brand awareness should be goals in
order to meet and exceed the needs and wants of the target group.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
Books

Finlayson, D. (2005). Market development of bottled waters. In D. Senior and N. Dege (2nd
ed.), Technology of bottled water (p.6). UK: Blackwell Publishing.
Kotler, P., Armstrong, G., Wong,V. & Saunders, J. (2008). Principles of Marketing (5th ed.).
England: Pearson Education Limited.
Pallant, J. (2007). SPSS Survival Manual (3rd ed.). England: Open University Press.

Articles

Doria, M. F. (2006). Bottled water versus Tap water: understanding consumers' preferences.
Journal of Water and Health, 271-276.

Websites
Beverage Marketing Corporation (2009). The Global Bottled Water Market. Retrieved
February 13, 2010,from
http://www.beveragemarketing.com/?service=publications&section=globalbottledwatergr
Datamonitor (2009). Bottled Water: Global Industry Guide. Retrieved February 13, 2010,
from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/53589
Department of Health, New York State (2006). Bottled water frequently-asked questions.
Retrieved January 28, 2010, from
http://www.health.state.ny.us/environmental/water/drinking/bulk_bottle/bottled_faqs.htm
Drake, I. (2010). Asia boosts global bottled water market. Retrieved February 15, 2010, from
http://www.ausfoodnews.com.au/2010/01/15/asia-boosts-global-bottled-water-market.html

53
FHR Lim A Po Institute for Social Studies MBA 5 - 2010

Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

Ferre (2009). Bottled water industry under pressure but drinks growth to be robust. Retrieved
January 28, 2010, from http://www.ausfoodnews.com.au/2009/03/19/bottled-water-industryunder-pressure-but-drinks-growth-to-be-robust.html
Ferrier, C. (2001). Bottled water: understanding a social phenomenon. Retrieved February 9,
2010 from http://assets.panda.org/downloads/bottled_water.pdf
Gleick, P.H. (2004). The myth and reality of bottled water. Retrieved February 3, 2010, from
http://www.pacinst.org/

McGraw-Hill. (2004). Glencoe Marketing Essentials. Retrieved March 29, 1010 from
http://www.glencoe.com/
National Resources Defense Council (2008). Bottled water. Retrieved February 4, 2010 from
http://www.nrdc.org/Water/Drinking/qbw.asp
Palmer, D. (2009). Bottled water industry gets boost from developing economies. Retrieved
February 7, 2010, from http://www.ausfoodnews.com.au/2009/09/03/global-bottled-waterindustry-gets-boost-from- developing-economies.html
Phend, C. (2009). Health not a driving factor in bottled water consumption. Retrieved March
9, 2010 from http://www.medpagetoday.com/PrimaryCare/DietNutrition/14768
Reliability and Validity: whats the difference? (n.d.) Retrieved March 30, 2010, from
http://www.socialresearchmethods.net/tutorial/Colosi/lcolosi2.htm
Rodwan, J. (2009). Confronting Challenges; U.S. and International Bottled Water
Developments

and

Statistics

for

2008.

Retrieved

March

7,

2010,

from

http://www.bottledwater.org/public/2008%20Market%20Report%20Findings%20reported%2
0in%20April%202009.pdf
Shandling, K. (2008). Global bottled water consumption on the rise. Retrieved March 11,
2010

from

http://www.maximsnews.com/news20080926bottledwatershandling-

10809260801.htm
Thirsty People (n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2010, from http://www.thirstypeople.co.uk/

54
FHR Lim A Po Institute for Social Studies MBA 5 - 2010

Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

Voce, A. (2004). Introduction to research paradigms. Retrieved March 22, 2010, from
http://familymedicine.ukzn.ac.za/Uploads/131e81cf-f876-4e8d-901669ec7d6598b8/Introduction%-20to%20research%20paradigms.doc
WikiAnswers (2010). What is exploratory research? Retrieved March 24, 2010, from
http://wiki.answers.com/Q/ What_is_exploratory_research

Wikipedia

(2010).

Bottled

water.

Retrieved

January

14,

2010,

from

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bottled_water

Wikipedia. (2007). Instructional Assessment Resources (IAR): Glossary. Retrieved March


22, 2010, from http://www.utexas.edu/academic/diia/assessment/iar/glossary.php

Wikipedia

(2010).

Sampling

(Statistics).

Retrieved

March

19,

2010,

from

http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/ Sampling_(statistics)


Wikipedia (2010). Social Research. Retrieved March 22, 2010 from http://en.wikipedia.org/
Wiktionary

(2009).

Correlation

Coefficient.

Retrieved

May

12,

2010,

from

http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/correlation_coefficient

Database
Ministry of Trade & Industry. (2010, February). Datamonitor: Bottled Water Industry Statistics
2005-2009, 17-22. Retrieved from HIinfo2010 database.

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

APPENDICES

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APPENDIX A:

Main differences between mineral, spring, well, distilled, purified

and tap and other drink water

Mineral
Water

Spring Well water Distilled


Water
Water

every time
Safe to drink

Tap water &


other drink water

Source specified

Purified
Water

Must be bottled at
source in its natural
state
Must specify content
May not be treated
Consistent content

Table 2.1: Differences between Mineral, Spring, Well, Distilled, Purified and Tap & other drink water.
Sources: M. Pollick (2002). What is the difference between distilled, purified, mineral, well and spring
water? Retrieved from http://www.essortment.com/family/typesofwaterd_syul.htm and
Thirsty People. Retrieved February 23, 2010 from http://www.thirstypeople.co.uk/

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

APPENDIX B: Questionnaire developed for this research


Paramaribo, april 2010

Dear participant,
I am Manisha Durga, a student at the FHR Lim A Po Institute for Social Studies at Paramaribo. In
order to finish my study Master of Business Administration (MBA) in Corporate Strategy & Economic
Policy, I need to carry out a research. The title of my research is:

Consumers buying behavior of bottled water in Suriname


A study on the relation between demographic & psychological factors and bottled water buying
behavior

Bottled water can be defined as any product, including natural spring or well water, taken from
municipal or private utility systems or other water, distilled water or any of the foregoing to which
chemicals may be added, which are put into sealed bottles, packages or other containers, to be sold
for domestic consumption or culinary use.

This questionnaire is developed to gather information for the purpose of this research. It will take an
average time of 5-8 minutes to fill it out. Your answers will be handled strictly confidential and will
exclusively be used for the purpose of this research. Therefore I request you to answer the questions
as honest and objective as possible, in order to contribute to the success of this research.

Please email on durgamanisha@yahoo.com if there are any questions, uncertainties and/or remarks
concerning the questionnaire.

Many thanks for your time and support!

Manisha Durga BEc.

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

Gender

Male

Female

Age

16- 25 year

26-34 year

Highest education
received

Primary
education

Monthly income in
SRD (including pocket
money from parents)

< 1000

Secondary
education
1000 1999

35-44 year
Bachelor

45+
Master/Post-
graduate

2000- 3999 4000 or more

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Please tick the answer which MOSTLY matches your opinion at the following statements.
Note: there is only one (1) answer possible.

Strongly
Statement

agree

1. Bottled water has higher quality standards


than tap water
2. Bottled water is safer than tap water in
Suriname
3. Bottled water is healthier than tap water in
Suriname
4. Bottled water is healthier than fruit juices
5. Bottled water is healthier than carbonated
drinks (soft drinks)
6. The quality of bottled water in Suriname is
reliable
7. The quality of tap water in Suriname is
reliable
8. Tap water in Suriname is safe
9. I am satisfied with the taste of tap water
in Suriname
10. There is no considerable difference
between bottled and tap water in Suriname

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FHR Lim A Po Institute for Social Studies MBA 5 - 2010

Agree

Disagree

Strongly
disagree

Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

Once a
week or
more

Less than
once a
week
(up to once
a month)

Less than
once a
month

Never

11. How often do you drink bottled water?

If you have filled out Never at above mentioned question (question 11), this is the end of the
questionnaire for you. Once again many thanks for your support!

At the
supermarket

At restaurants,
bars, cafs

At service
stations/
24 hour
open
shops

Other:

12. Where do you buy bottled water mostly?

It tastes
better
than other
drinks

It is
healthier/sa
fer than
other
drinks

It is thirstquenching

It is
convenient
and easy to
consume

13. What is your main reason to use


bottled water?

14. To what extent do the following factors


influence your buying behavior of bottled
water?

High
influence

Quality
Brand
Price
Package
Promotion
Availability

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FHR Lim A Po Institute for Social Studies MBA 5 - 2010

Any
influence

No
influence

Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

Please tick the answer which MOSTLY matches your opinion at the following statements.
Note: there is only one (1) answer possible.

Statement

Strongly
agree

15. Bottled water is convenient and easy


to consume
16. Bottled water is good available in
Suriname
17. Bottled water has a better taste than
tap water in Suriname
18. Drinking bottled water is refreshing
19. Drinking bottled water is socially
accepted in Suriname
20.Drinking bottled water suits my
lifestyle
21. Drinking tap water suits my lifestyle
22. Drinking bottled water suits my diet
23. Bottled water is a good alternative to
other drinks
24. Bottled water is relatively cheap in
Suriname
25. Bottled water is a commercial
business in Suriname

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FHR Lim A Po Institute for Social Studies MBA 5 - 2010

Agree

Disagree

Strongly
disagree

Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

APPENDIX C: Reliability tests


Reliability Statistics variable Beliefs
(Q1- 10)

Cronbach's Alpha

N of Items

.583

10

Table 1: Reliability test of variable Beliefs


Source: developed from survey data by SPSS

Reliability Statistics variable Buying behavior (Q 14)

Cronbach's Alpha

N of Items

.668

Table 2: Reliability test of variable Buying behavior


Source: developed from survey data by SPSS

Reliability

Statistics

variable

Perception (Q15-25)

Cronbach's Alpha
.697

N of Items
11

Table 3: Reliability test of variable Buying behavior


Source: developed from survey data by SPSS

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APPENDIX D: Statistics

Statistics variable Beliefs (Q1 -10)

Q1
N

Valid

Q2

Q3

Q4

Q5

Q6

Q7

Q8

Q9

Q10

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

Mean

3.05

2.94

2.77

2.52

3.43

2.87

2.62

2.59

2.85

2.34

Median

3.00

3.00

3.00

2.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

2.00

Std. Deviation

.714

.748

.789

.856

.653

.579

.721

.717

.764

.739

Variance

.510

.559

.623

.733

.427

.335

.519

.514

.584

.546

Minimum

Maximum

Missing

Mode

Table D1: Statistics from variable Beliefs


Source: developed from survey data

Statistics variable Buying behavior (1)


Frequency bottled water consumption (Q11)

Valid
Missing

200
0

Mean

3.54

Median

4.00

Mode

Std. Deviation

.795

Variance

.632

Minimum

Maximum

Table D2: Statistics from variable Buying behavior (1)


Source: developed from survey data

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

Statistics variable Buying behavior (2)


Main purchase location bottled water consumption (Q 12)

Valid
Missing

194
6

Mean

1.30

Mode

Minimum

Maximum

Table D3: Statistics from variable Buying behavior (2)


Source: developed from survey data

Statistics variable Buying behavior (3)


Main reason of bottled water consumption (Q 13)

Valid
Missing

194
6

Mean

2.87

Mode

Minimum

Maximum

Table D4: Statistics from variable Buying behavior (3)


Source: developed from survey data

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

Statistics variable Buying behavior (4)


Possible influencing factors of bottled water buying behavior (Q14)

Q14A
N

Valid

Q14B

Q14C

Q14D

Q14E

Q14F

194

194

194

194

193

194

Mean

2.49

2.11

2.10

1.96

1.59

2.10

Median

3.00

2.00

2.00

2.00

1.00

2.00

Std. Deviation

.677

.732

.727

.711

.656

.772

Variance

.459

.536

.528

.506

.431

.597

Minimum

Maximum

Missing

Mode

Table D5: Statistics from variable Buying behavior (4)


Source: developed from survey data by SPSS

Statistics variable Perception (Q15-25)


Statistics
Q15
N

Valid

Q16

Q17

Q18

Q19

Q20

Q21

Q22

Q23

Q24

Q25

194

194

194

194

194

194

194

194

194

194

194

Mean

3.34

3.49

2.82

3.07

3.12

2.74

2.69

2.46

3.07

2.96

3.13

Median

3.00

4.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

3.00

Std. Deviation

.590

.522

.804

.636

.589

.837

.740

.882

.745

.651

.610

Variance

.348

.272

.646

.405

.347

.700

.548

.778

.554

.423

.372

Minimum

Maximum

Missing

Mode

Table D6: Statistics from variable Perception


Source: developed from survey data by SPSS

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

APPENDIX E:

Descriptives of demographics

95% Confidence
Interval for Mean
Std.
N

Mean

Deviation

Std. Error

Lower

Upper

Bound

Bound

Minimum Maximum

16-25

58

2.1010

.39872

.05235

1.9961

2.2058

1.00

2.71

26-34

48

2.0744

.46220

.06671

1.9402

2.2086

1.00

2.86

35-44

46

2.2138

.38354

.05655

2.0999

2.3277

1.00

3.00

48

2.0982

.47805

.06900

1.9594

2.2370

1.14

3.00

200

2.1199

.43126

.03049

2.0597

2.1800

1.00

3.00

45

or

older
Total

Table E1: Descriptives of variable age


Source: developed from survey data

95% Confidence
Interval for Mean
Std.
N
Primary

Mean

Deviation

Std. Error

Lower

Upper

Bound

Bound

Minimum Maximum

20

2.0643

.37504

.08386

1.8888

2.2398

1.29

2.71

113

2.1679

.41325

.03888

2.0909

2.2450

1.00

3.00

Bachelor

41

2.0139

.49570

.07742

1.8575

2.1704

1.00

2.86

Master +

26

2.1209

.42894

.08412

1.9476

2.2941

1.14

3.00

200

2.1199

.43126

.03049

2.0597

2.1800

1.00

3.00

Secondar
y/Highschool

Total

Table E2: Descriptives of variable education


Source: developed from survey data

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

95% Confidence
Interval for Mean
Std.
N

Mean

Deviation

Std. Error

Lower

Upper

Bound

Bound

Minimum Maximum

< 1000

57

2.1550

.40554

.05372

2.0474

2.2626

1.00

3.00

1000-

74

2.0039

.45666

.05309

1.8981

2.1097

1.00

3.00

49

2.2653

.38576

.05511

2.1545

2.3761

1.43

3.00

20

2.0929

.41785

.09343

1.8973

2.2884

1.14

2.86

200

2.1199

.43126

.03049

2.0597

2.1800

1.00

3.00

1999
20003999
4000 +
Total

Table E3: Descriptives of variable income


Source: developed from survey data

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Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

APPENDIX F:

Relationships between variables

H 1.1 : There is a relationship between gender and bottled water buying behavior.
H0 1.1 : There is no relationship between gender and bottled water buying behavior.

Levene's
Test for
Equality of
Variances

t-test for Equality of Means


95% Confidence
Interval of the
Difference
Sig.
(2-

F
BUYING

Equal
variances
BEHAVIOR
assumed

1.035

Sig.

.310 -.402

Equal
variances
not
assumed

df

Std.

tailed) Mean Diff Error Diff Lower

Upper

198

.688

-.02489

.06192 -.14699

.09720

-.395 166.805

.693

-.02489

.06302 -.14931

.09952

Table F1: T-test of gender and bottled water buying behavior


Source: developed from survey data

H 1.2 : There is a relationship between age and bottled water buying behavior.
H0 1.2 : There is no relationship between age and bottled water buying behavior

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Sum of
Squares
Between Groups

df

Mean Square

.548

.183

Within Groups

36.463

196

.186

Total

37.011

199

Sig.
.982

.402

Table F2: ANOVA of age and bottled water buying behavior


Source: developed from survey data

H1 .3 : There is a relationship between education and bottled water buying behavior.


H0 1.3 : There is no relationship between education and bottled water buying behavior.

Sum of
Squares
Between Groups

df

Mean Square

.783

.261

Within Groups

36.228

196

.185

Total

37.011

199

F
1.412

Sig.
.241

Table F3: ANOVA of education and bottled water buying behavior


Source: developed from survey data

H 1.4 : There is a relationship between income and bottled water buying behavior.
H0 1.4 : There is no relationship between income and bottled water buying behavior.

Sum of
Squares
Between Groups

df

Mean Square

2.117

.706

Within Groups

34.893

196

.178

Total

37.011

199

Table F4: ANOVA of income and bottled water buying behavior


Source: developed from survey data

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FHR Lim A Po Institute for Social Studies MBA 5 - 2010

F
3.964

Sig.
.009

Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

H 2.1 : There is a relationship between beliefs and bottled water buying behavior.
H0 2.1 : There is no relationship between beliefs and bottled water buying behavior.

H 2.2 : There is a relationship between perception and bottled water buying behavior.
H0 2.2 : There is no relationship between perception and bottled water buying behavior

BUYING_BEHAVIO
BELIEFS PERCEPTION
BELIEFS

.279**

.000

.000

.498

200

194

200

.279**

.165*

Pearson Correlation

Sig. (1-tailed)
N
PERCEPTION

Pearson Correlation

Sig. (1-tailed)

.000

194

194

194

.000

.165

Sig. (1-tailed)

.498

.011

200

194

BUYING_BEHAVIOR Pearson Correlation

.011

**. Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (1-tailed).


*. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (1-tailed).
Table F5: Correlations between beliefs/perception and bottled water buying behavior
Source: developed from survey data

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FHR Lim A Po Institute for Social Studies MBA 5 - 2010

200

Consumers buying behavior of bottled water Manisha Durga

APPENDIX G:

Multi comparison test and ANOVA of variable income

95% Confidence Interval

Mean
(I) income

(J) income Difference (I-J) Std. Error

< 1000

1000-1999

.15111

.07436

.261

-.0471

.3493

2000-3999

-.11034

.08220

1.000

-.3294

.1087

4000 +

.06211

.10966

1.000

-.2302

.3544

< 1000

-.15111

.07436

.261

-.3493

.0471

2000-3999

-.26145*

.07771

.006

-.4686

-.0543

4000 +

-.08900

.10634

1.000

-.3724

.1944

< 1000

.11034

.08220

1.000

-.1087

.3294

1000-1999

.26145*

.07771

.006

.0543

.4686

4000 +

.17245

.11196

.751

-.1260

.4709

< 1000

-.06211

.10966

1.000

-.3544

.2302

1000-1999

.08900

.10634

1.000

-.1944

.3724

2000-3999

-.17245

.11196

.751

-.4709

.1260

1000-1999

2000-3999

4000 +

Sig.

Lower Bound

Upper Bound

*. The mean difference is significant at the 0.05 level.


Table G1: Multiple comparison test between income levels
Source: developed from survey data

Std.
N

Mean

Deviation

Minimum

Maximum

< 1000

57

2.1550

.40554

1.00

3.00

1000-1999

74

2.0039

.45666

1.00

3.00

2000-3999

49

2.2653

.38576

1.43

3.00

4000 +

20

2.0929

.41785

1.14

2.86

200

2.1199

.43126

1.00

3.00

Total

Table G2: ANOVA of income levels


Source: developed from survey data

71
FHR Lim A Po Institute for Social Studies MBA 5 - 2010