This is my final thesis about acceleration!

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This is my final thesis about acceleration!

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 6

Our aim is to illustrate acceleration using fluid as a variable, specifically

water, Activate

Objectives:

The researcher aims to:gggn

1.) find new design for increasing the acceleration of water coming from a hose.

2.) know the significant difference between the normal shower head and the improvised

shower head.

3.) explain how fluids accelerate.

4.) measure the limit of fluids acceleration depending on the cross-sectional area of its

shower head.

5.) measure the maximum distance that water can achieve using the improvised hose

head

In this study, the researchers aim to produce a new design of hose head that has the

capacity of covering wider area than that of the usual ones. With this device, the need of water

sprinkler would be lesser since a single sprinkler could cover wider area. Making such device

would be economical especially on gardens, or in showers that are in the second floors.

Introduction:

In everyday English, the word acceleration is often used to describe a state of increasing

speed. For many Americans, their only experience with acceleration comes from car ads. When a

commercial shouts "zero to sixty in six point seven seconds" what they're saying here is that this

particular car takes 6.7 s to reach a speed of 60 mph starting from a complete stop. This example

illustrates acceleration as it is commonly understood, but acceleration in physics is much more

than just increasing speed.

Any change in the velocity of an object results in an acceleration: increasing speed (what

people usually mean when they say acceleration), decreasing speed (also called deceleration or

retardation), or changing direction. Yes, that's right, a change in the direction of motion results in

an acceleration even if the moving object neither sped up nor slowed down. That's because

acceleration depends on the change in velocity and velocity is a vector quantity one with both

magnitude and direction. Thus, a falling apple accelerates, a car stopping at a traffic light

accelerates, and an orbiting planet accelerates. Acceleration occurs anytime an object's speed

increases or decreases, or it changes direction.

Much like velocity, there are two kinds of acceleration: average and instantaneous.

Average acceleration is determined over a "long" time interval. The word long in this context

means finite something with a beginning and an end. The velocity at the beginning of this

interval is called the initial velocity, represented by the symbol v0 (vee nought), and the velocity

at the end is called the final velocity, represented by the symbol v (vee). Average acceleration is a

quantity calculated from two velocity measurements. (G. Elert, 2009)

Fluids tend to flow easily, which results in a net motion of molecules from one point in

space to another point as a function of time. Using the continuum hypothesis, fluids are broken

down into fluid particles, which are composed of numerous fluid molecules. These particles

interact with one another and with their surroundings. Thus the motion of a fluid, using a

Eulerian model (continuum hypothesis), can be described in terms of the acceleration or velocity

of fluid particles and not in terms of molecular motion

The use of shower head is to sprinkle the water throughout the body with just a small

amount of water. Basically, it helps people lessen water consumption. The reason why the

researchers chose this topic is to find a way to increase the force of water being scattered by the

use of the principles of hydraulics

References:

http://www.boomerangs.com/coandaeffect.html

F. Stern, 2013 Fluid Mechanics

A. Shapiro, 2002 Pressure Fields and Fluid Acceleration

F. M. White, 1999. Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill.

B. R. Munson, D.F Young and T. H. Okiisshi, 1998. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, John

Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Y. Nakayama and R.F. Boucher, 1999.Intoduction to Fluid Mechanics, Butterworth Heinemann.

Our intension here is generalized the one-dimensional Bernoulli equation for viscous flow. When

2

V

P

the viscosity of the fluid is taken into account total energy head H 2 g + pg +z is no longer

constant along the pipe. In direction of flow, due to friction cause by viscosity of the fluid we

have

V 12 P

V 22 P 2

+ + z 1>

+

+ z 2 So to restore the equality we must add some scalar quantity to

2 g pg

2 g pg

the right side of this inequality

This scalar quantity Dls is called as hydraulic loss. The hydraulic loss between two different

cross

section along the pipe is equal to the difference of total energy for this cross section:

We must remember that always H1>H2. In horizontal pipe when z1 = z2 and diameter of pipe is

constant v1 = v2 hydraulic loss is equal to the head of pressure drop or head loss.

Figure 1: Pipe friction loss. For horizontal pipe, with constant diameter this loss may be

measured by height of the pressure drop: Dp/rg = h.

Part of the pressure change is due to elevation change and part is due to head loss

associated with frictional effects, which are given in terms of the friction factor f that depends on

Reynolds number and relative roughness f =j(Re,e /D). It is not easy to determine the functional

dependence of the friction factor on the Reynolds number and relative roughness (e /D). Much of

this information is a result of experiments conducted by J. Nikuradse in 1933 and amplified by

many others since then. One difficulty lies in the determination of the roughness of the pipe.

Nikuradse used artificially roughened pipes producedby gluing sand grains of known size onto

pipe walls to produce pipes with sandpaper-type surfaces. In commercially available pipes the

roughness is not as uniform and well defined as in the artificially roughened pipes used by

Nikuradse. However, it is possible to obtain a measure of the effective relative roughness of

typical pipes and thus to obtain the friction factor. Figure (3)) shows the functional dependence

of f on Re and and is called the Moody chart in honor of L. F. Moody, who, along with C. F.

Colebrook, correlated the original data of Nikuradse in terms of the relative roughness of

commercially available pipe materials.

(F. M. White, 1999).

Fluid kinematics is the study on fluid motion in space and time without considering the

force which causes the fluid motion. According to the continuum hypothesis the local velocity of

fluid is the velocity of an infinitesimally small fluid particle/element at a given instant t. It is

generally a continuous function in space and time. Continuity Equation of a Steady Flow For a

steady flow the stream-tube formed by a closed curved fixed in space is also fixed in space, and

no fluid can penetrate through the stream-tube surface, like a duct wall.

perpendicular to the cross sections A1 and A2 and densities p1 and p2 at the respective cross

sections A1 and A2 and assuming the velocities and densities are constant across the whole

cross section A1 and A2 a fluid mass closed between cross section 1 and 2 at an instant t will be

moved after a time interval dt by u1dt and u2dt to the cross section 1 and 2 respectively.

Because the closed mass between 1 and 2 must be the same between 1 and 2, and the mass

between 1 and 2 for a steady flow cannot change from t and t+dt, the mass between 1 and 1

moved in dt, p1A1u1dt must be the same as the mass between 2 and 2 moved in the same time dt,

p2A2u2dt. (C. Cimbala, 2006).

Since water is nearly incompressible, the volume flow entering the contraction must

equal the volume flow leaving. But the volume flow Q is equal to AV, where V is the average

velocity and A is the cross sectional area; hence the area decrease should produce a velocity

increase. (A. Shapiro, 2002).

If a stream of water is flowing along a solid surface which is curved slightly away from

the stream, the water will tend to follow the surface. This is an example of the Coanda effect and

is easily demonstrated by holding the back of a spoon vertically under a thin stream of water

from a faucet. If you hold the spoon so that it can swing, you will feel it being pulled toward the

stream of water. The effect has limits: if you use a sphere instead of a spoon, you will find that

the water will only follow a part of the way around. Further, if the surface is too sharply curved,

the water will not follow but will just bend a bit and break away from the surface.The Coanda

effect works with any of our usual fluids, such as air at usual temperatures, pressures, and

speeds. I make these qualifications because (to give a few examples) liquid helium, gasses at

extremes of low or high pressure or temperature, and fluids at supersonic speeds often behave

rather differently. (J. Rakin, 2004)

References:

http://www.boomerangs.com/coandaeffect.html

F. Stern, 2013 Fluid Mechanics

A. Shapiro, 2002 Pressure Fields and Fluid Acceleration

F. M. White, 1999. Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill.

B. R. Munson, D.F Young and T. H. Okiisshi, 1998. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, John

Wiley and Sons, Inc.

Y. Nakayama and R.F. Boucher, 1999.Intoduction to Fluid Mechanics, Butterworth Heinemann.

Accurate: (True Value - Average Observed Values) / True Value x 100 *Dapat below 5.00% yun makukuha

niyo para maging accurate

Precision: (Average Observed Values - Single Obsered Value) / Average Observed Values x 100 *Tapos

aaverage mo yung mga results at dapat below 0.5% yung % difference para maging precise

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