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TOPIC: ACCELERATION

Title: Illustrate, Activate, Accelerate


Our aim is to illustrate acceleration using fluid as a variable, specifically
water, Activate
Objectives:
The researcher aims to:gggn
1.) find new design for increasing the acceleration of water coming from a hose.
2.) know the significant difference between the normal shower head and the improvised
shower head.
3.) explain how fluids accelerate.
4.) measure the limit of fluids acceleration depending on the cross-sectional area of its
shower head.
5.) measure the maximum distance that water can achieve using the improvised hose
head

Statement of the Problem:


In this study, the researchers aim to produce a new design of hose head that has the
capacity of covering wider area than that of the usual ones. With this device, the need of water
sprinkler would be lesser since a single sprinkler could cover wider area. Making such device
would be economical especially on gardens, or in showers that are in the second floors.
Introduction:
In everyday English, the word acceleration is often used to describe a state of increasing
speed. For many Americans, their only experience with acceleration comes from car ads. When a
commercial shouts "zero to sixty in six point seven seconds" what they're saying here is that this
particular car takes 6.7 s to reach a speed of 60 mph starting from a complete stop. This example
illustrates acceleration as it is commonly understood, but acceleration in physics is much more
than just increasing speed.
Any change in the velocity of an object results in an acceleration: increasing speed (what
people usually mean when they say acceleration), decreasing speed (also called deceleration or
retardation), or changing direction. Yes, that's right, a change in the direction of motion results in
an acceleration even if the moving object neither sped up nor slowed down. That's because
acceleration depends on the change in velocity and velocity is a vector quantity one with both
magnitude and direction. Thus, a falling apple accelerates, a car stopping at a traffic light
accelerates, and an orbiting planet accelerates. Acceleration occurs anytime an object's speed
increases or decreases, or it changes direction.
Much like velocity, there are two kinds of acceleration: average and instantaneous.
Average acceleration is determined over a "long" time interval. The word long in this context

means finite something with a beginning and an end. The velocity at the beginning of this
interval is called the initial velocity, represented by the symbol v0 (vee nought), and the velocity
at the end is called the final velocity, represented by the symbol v (vee). Average acceleration is a
quantity calculated from two velocity measurements. (G. Elert, 2009)
Fluids tend to flow easily, which results in a net motion of molecules from one point in
space to another point as a function of time. Using the continuum hypothesis, fluids are broken
down into fluid particles, which are composed of numerous fluid molecules. These particles
interact with one another and with their surroundings. Thus the motion of a fluid, using a
Eulerian model (continuum hypothesis), can be described in terms of the acceleration or velocity
of fluid particles and not in terms of molecular motion
The use of shower head is to sprinkle the water throughout the body with just a small
amount of water. Basically, it helps people lessen water consumption. The reason why the
researchers chose this topic is to find a way to increase the force of water being scattered by the
use of the principles of hydraulics

References:
http://www.boomerangs.com/coandaeffect.html
F. Stern, 2013 Fluid Mechanics
A. Shapiro, 2002 Pressure Fields and Fluid Acceleration
F. M. White, 1999. Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill.
B. R. Munson, D.F Young and T. H. Okiisshi, 1998. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, John
Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Y. Nakayama and R.F. Boucher, 1999.Intoduction to Fluid Mechanics, Butterworth Heinemann.

Review of Related Literature


Our intension here is generalized the one-dimensional Bernoulli equation for viscous flow. When
2
V
P

the viscosity of the fluid is taken into account total energy head H 2 g + pg +z is no longer
constant along the pipe. In direction of flow, due to friction cause by viscosity of the fluid we
have
V 12 P
V 22 P 2
+ + z 1>
+
+ z 2 So to restore the equality we must add some scalar quantity to
2 g pg
2 g pg
the right side of this inequality
This scalar quantity Dls is called as hydraulic loss. The hydraulic loss between two different
cross
section along the pipe is equal to the difference of total energy for this cross section:

We must remember that always H1>H2. In horizontal pipe when z1 = z2 and diameter of pipe is
constant v1 = v2 hydraulic loss is equal to the head of pressure drop or head loss.

Head loss is express by Darcy -Weisbach equation:

Figure 1: Pipe friction loss. For horizontal pipe, with constant diameter this loss may be
measured by height of the pressure drop: Dp/rg = h.
Part of the pressure change is due to elevation change and part is due to head loss
associated with frictional effects, which are given in terms of the friction factor f that depends on
Reynolds number and relative roughness f =j(Re,e /D). It is not easy to determine the functional
dependence of the friction factor on the Reynolds number and relative roughness (e /D). Much of
this information is a result of experiments conducted by J. Nikuradse in 1933 and amplified by
many others since then. One difficulty lies in the determination of the roughness of the pipe.
Nikuradse used artificially roughened pipes producedby gluing sand grains of known size onto
pipe walls to produce pipes with sandpaper-type surfaces. In commercially available pipes the
roughness is not as uniform and well defined as in the artificially roughened pipes used by
Nikuradse. However, it is possible to obtain a measure of the effective relative roughness of
typical pipes and thus to obtain the friction factor. Figure (3)) shows the functional dependence
of f on Re and and is called the Moody chart in honor of L. F. Moody, who, along with C. F.

Colebrook, correlated the original data of Nikuradse in terms of the relative roughness of
commercially available pipe materials.
(F. M. White, 1999).
Fluid kinematics is the study on fluid motion in space and time without considering the
force which causes the fluid motion. According to the continuum hypothesis the local velocity of
fluid is the velocity of an infinitesimally small fluid particle/element at a given instant t. It is
generally a continuous function in space and time. Continuity Equation of a Steady Flow For a
steady flow the stream-tube formed by a closed curved fixed in space is also fixed in space, and
no fluid can penetrate through the stream-tube surface, like a duct wall.

Considering a stream-tube of cylindrical cross sections A1 and A2 with velocities u1 and u2


perpendicular to the cross sections A1 and A2 and densities p1 and p2 at the respective cross
sections A1 and A2 and assuming the velocities and densities are constant across the whole
cross section A1 and A2 a fluid mass closed between cross section 1 and 2 at an instant t will be
moved after a time interval dt by u1dt and u2dt to the cross section 1 and 2 respectively.
Because the closed mass between 1 and 2 must be the same between 1 and 2, and the mass
between 1 and 2 for a steady flow cannot change from t and t+dt, the mass between 1 and 1
moved in dt, p1A1u1dt must be the same as the mass between 2 and 2 moved in the same time dt,
p2A2u2dt. (C. Cimbala, 2006).
Since water is nearly incompressible, the volume flow entering the contraction must
equal the volume flow leaving. But the volume flow Q is equal to AV, where V is the average
velocity and A is the cross sectional area; hence the area decrease should produce a velocity
increase. (A. Shapiro, 2002).
If a stream of water is flowing along a solid surface which is curved slightly away from
the stream, the water will tend to follow the surface. This is an example of the Coanda effect and
is easily demonstrated by holding the back of a spoon vertically under a thin stream of water
from a faucet. If you hold the spoon so that it can swing, you will feel it being pulled toward the
stream of water. The effect has limits: if you use a sphere instead of a spoon, you will find that
the water will only follow a part of the way around. Further, if the surface is too sharply curved,
the water will not follow but will just bend a bit and break away from the surface.The Coanda
effect works with any of our usual fluids, such as air at usual temperatures, pressures, and
speeds. I make these qualifications because (to give a few examples) liquid helium, gasses at
extremes of low or high pressure or temperature, and fluids at supersonic speeds often behave
rather differently. (J. Rakin, 2004)

References:
http://www.boomerangs.com/coandaeffect.html
F. Stern, 2013 Fluid Mechanics
A. Shapiro, 2002 Pressure Fields and Fluid Acceleration
F. M. White, 1999. Fluid Mechanics, McGraw-Hill.
B. R. Munson, D.F Young and T. H. Okiisshi, 1998. Fundamentals of Fluid Mechanics, John
Wiley and Sons, Inc.
Y. Nakayama and R.F. Boucher, 1999.Intoduction to Fluid Mechanics, Butterworth Heinemann.

Accurate: (True Value - Average Observed Values) / True Value x 100 *Dapat below 5.00% yun makukuha
niyo para maging accurate
Precision: (Average Observed Values - Single Obsered Value) / Average Observed Values x 100 *Tapos
aaverage mo yung mga results at dapat below 0.5% yung % difference para maging precise