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**0 Introduction to Structural Element – beams
**

Beams Horizontal members carrying roof and floor loads. They resist loads in bending, shear and bond and may be simply supported or continuous. For in-situ construction beam are often flanged, of T or L shape where part of the floor slab acts with the beam.

**2.0 General Terms in Limit state design (BS 8110(1995))
**

Characteristics loads:- the working or service loads, classified into dead, imposed and wind loads. They have a low probability of being exceed during the life of the structure. Characteristics strengths:- the strength of materials below which not more than 5% of test results fall. For concrete this is the cube strength at 28days and for reinforcement, the yield stress. Design load:- the characteristics loads multiplied by the partial factors of safety for the load Design strength:- the characteristics strengths divided by partial factors of safety for materials Limit state:- States where the structure has become unfit for use. The main limit state are: (1) ultimate limit state: to satisfy this the strength must be adequate to carry the loads. Account must also be taken of stability (2) serviceability limit state: to satisfy these both deflection and cracking must not be excessive. Limit State Design The condition of a structure when it becomes unserviceable is called a “Limit State” Loads and partial factor of safety Characteristics dead load, GK This is the weight of the structure complete with finishes, fixtures and partitions.

-Page 1November 2006 (rev.a)

Characteristics imposed load, QK This load depends on the use of the Buildings, Characteristics wind load, WK This is defined and calculated in accordance with code of practice, Ch.V, Part 2. (it is out of scope in this course) The design load = characteristics Load x Partial factor of safety for loads = FK ⋅ γ K Where γ K takes account of (1) possible overloads (2) inaccurate assessment of the effects of loading and unknown stress distribution within the structure. Materials and partial factors of safety The characteristics strength is defined as the cube strength of concrete f CU at 28 days, and the yield of reinforcement f y , below which not more than 5% of the test results fall. The resistance of sections is based on the design strength Design strength = characteristics strength / partial factors of safety for materials =

fK

γM

Table 1 Design Load

-Page 2November 2006 (rev.a)

Table 2 Design Strengths

The maximum design stress in the concrete is given by f CU / 1.5 = 0.67 f CU where the factor 0.67 takes account of the ratio between the characteristics cube strength and the bending strength in a flexural member. Assumption takes in single reinforced rectangular beams The ultimate moment of resistance of a section is based on the assumption given in the BS8110. (1) The strains in the materials derived assuming that plane sections remain plane. (2) The stresses in the concrete are derived using either (a) the design stress-strain curve given in BS8110 with γ m = 1.5 , or (b) a uniform compressive stress of 0.45 fCU over the whole compressive zone. (3) Depth of the stress block = 0.9 x depth of the neutral axis = 0.9 ⋅ x (4) The tensile strength of the concrete is ignored (5) The stresses in the reinforcement are derived from the stress-strain curve given in BS8110 where γ m = 1.15. On the basis of the above assumptions, the strain and stress diagrams for a beam section are shown below:-

-Page 3November 2006 (rev.a)

h d b x AS

=overall depth of the section =effective depth = depth of centre line of the steel =breath of the beam =depth to the neutral axis =area of steel in tension =strain in concrete =strain in steel =stress in the steel in tension

εC εT f st

The term ‘balance’ design refers to a beam with the maximum ultimate moment of resistance, for example, with sufficient steel to causes the neutral axis to be at its maximum depth of 1/2d.

-Page 4November 2006 (rev.a)

Considering the rectangular stress diagram, The concrete stress = 0.45 f CU The steel stress = 0.87 f y

C (force in the concrete in compression) = 0.45 f CU ⋅ b ⋅ 0.5d ⋅ 0.9 = 0.20bdfCU T (force in the steel in tension) = 0.87 f y As Z = level arm = d − d

( 4 )0.9 = 0.775d

**M RC (moment of resistance with respect of the concrete) = C ⋅ Z = 0.45 f CU ⋅ b ⋅ 0.5d ⋅ 0.9 ⋅ 0.775d = 0.156bd 2 f CU = kbd 2
**

where k = 0.156 f CU M RS (moment of resistance with respect of the steel) = TZ = 0.87 f y As Z Let M RC = M RS

0.156 f CU bd 2 = 0.87 f y As Z

Percentage of steel in the tension

p=

23 f CU As ⋅100 100 ⋅ 0.156 f CU ⋅ bd 2 = = (0.87 f y ⋅ 0.775d )⋅ bd f y % bd

Point to notes (1) the nominal cover should always be at least equal to the size of the bar and in the case of bundles of 3 or more bars should be equal to the size of a single bar of equivalent areas (2) further recommendations regarding cover are given in BS8110. These depend on conditions of exposure and concrete grade. For example, for grade 25 concrete for mild exposure, for example, completely protected against the weather except during construction, the cover given is 20mm. The cover is lower with higher grades of concrete and greater when condition of exposure become more severe.

-Page 5November 2006 (rev.a)

Doubly reinforced beams If the concrete alone cannot resist the applied moment, reinforcement can be added to

strengthen the beam section in compression. Design formulae for doubly reinforced beams are given in BS8110. These are based on the followings:(1) rectangular stress block with the depth to the neutral axis, x = 1 d 2 (2) stress in concrete in compression = 0.45 f CU (3) stress in reinforcement in compression = 0.87 f y (4) stress in reinforcement in tension = 0.87 f y

Note: C S = force in steel in compression T = force in steel in tension BS 8110 states that the formulae should not be used when d ' is >0.2. If this d requirement is not met, the stress in the compression steel will not reach 0.87 f y . The moment of resistant of the concrete M RC = 0.156 f CU bd 2

-Page 6November 2006 (rev.a)

**However, if this is less than M (ultimate moment), the compression steel resists (M − M RC )
**

∴ The force in steel in compression (M − M RC ) Cs = (d − d ')

Area of compression steel = As' =

Cs 0.87 f y

For equilibrium, T = CC + C S

' = (0.45 f CU ⋅ 0.5bd ) + (0.87 f y AS ) ' = 0.225 f CU bd + 0.87 f y AS

Area of Tension Steel = As = Force / Stress =

T 0.87 f y

Example 1:A simply support rectangular beam of 7m span carried a uniformly distributed load

which includes a self-weight of 4kN/m and imposed load of 3kN/m. the breath of the beam is 300mm. Find the depth of the beam and the steel area required for balanced using Grade 30 concrete and mild steel reinforcement (yield stress,

f y = 250 N / mm 2 )

Solution: Design Load = 1.4G K + 1.6Q K = 1.4(4) + 1.6(3) = 10.4kN / m

Ultimate Moment, M U = wL

2

8

= 10.4(7)

2

8

= 63.7kN / m

Considering the rectangular stress diagram, The stress of concrete = 0.45 f CU The stress of steel = 0.87 f y

-Page 7November 2006 (rev.a)

C (force in the concrete in compression) = 0.45 f CU (b)(0.5d )(0.9) = 0.20bdf CU

T = Force in the steel in tension = 0.87 f y As Z = d − 0.9

( 2 )⋅ d 2 = 0.775d

**MRC (Moment of resistance with respect to concrete) = c⋅z
**

= 0.45 f CU b(0.5)(0.9)(d )(0.775d ) = 0.156 f cu bd 2 = kbd 2

where

k = 0.156 f CU .

**MRS (moment of resistance with respect to steel) M RS = TZ = 0.87 f y As z But M RC = M RS
**

0.87 f y As z = 0.156 f CU bd 2

**Percentage of steel in the tension
**

p= As ⋅100 100 ⋅ 0.156 f CU ⋅ bd 2 23 f CU = = (0.87 f y ⋅ 0.775d )⋅ bd f y % bd

For balance design, (when the depth ‘x’ to the neutral axis is x = 0.5d , Moment of resistance of concrete, M RC = 0.45 f CU b(0.5d )(0.9)(0.775d ) = 0.156 f CU bd 2 Moment of resistance of concrete M RC ≥ Ultimate moment (Mu) 0.156 f CU bd 2 ≥ 63.7 × 10 6 0.156(30)(300)d 2 ≥ 63.7 × 10 6. → d ≥ 212mm Moment of resistance of steel M RS ≥ Ultimate moment (Mu)

-Page 8November 2006 (rev.a)

AS (0.87 f y ) ≥ 63.7 × 10 6 As (0.87)(250)(0.775)(212) ≥ 63.7 × 10 6 → As = 1783mm 2

From steel area table, Combination 4 nos. bar 25 dia. 6 nos. bar 20 dia. 9 nos. bar 16 dia. 1 nos. bar 50 dia Steel Area (mm2) 1960 1890 1801 1960 Comment ok ok economical, but need to put in several positions. Min 2 nos. of steel bar for shear stress

Then from steel area table, 6 nos. 20mm dia. Steel bar given As = 1890mm 2 > 1783mm 2 (O.K.)

Alternatives n x area of one bar > 1783mm2 nπ

( 4 )D

2

> 1783 where D = Diameter of bar (in mm)

If the diameter of the bar is choose, say 20mm diameter, then the nos. of the bar required can be easily calculated as follows:nπ

( 4 )20

2

> 1783

n > 5.67 n=6

Example 2:A rectangular beam is simply supported over a span of 6m and carries a dead load including self-weight of 9kN/m and an imposed load of 6kn/m. the beam is 210mm wide and 310mm effective depth and the inset of the compression steel is 40mm.

Design the steel for mid span of the beam for grade 25 concrete and high yield stress reinforcement ( f y = 250 N / mm 2 ) and mild steel links or stirrups ( f y = 250 N / mm 2 ) .

-Page 9November 2006 (rev.a)

Solution: Design Load = 1.4G K + 1.6Q K = 1.4(9) + 1.6(6) = 22.2kN / m

M U = wL

2

8

= 22.2(6)

2

8

= 99.9kNm

Design of reinforcement for bending moment

-Page 10November 2006 (rev.a)

For balance design, (when the depth ‘x’ to the neutral axis is 0.5d), M RC = 0.45 f CU b(0.5d )(0.9)(0.775d ) = 0.156 f CU bd 2 = 78.7(10 6 ) = 78.7kNm Since M U > M RC , compression reinforcement is required. Thus, doubly reinforced design is required. Cs= Force in steel in compression

=

(M U

− M RC )

(d − d ') =

(99.9 − 78.7 )

(310 − 40) ⋅ 10 −3 = 89.6kN

Area of steel in compression, AS = CS 0.87 f y = 89.6(10 3 ) / 0.87(250) = 412mm 2

For equilibrium, Tensile force = Compressive Force T = C C + C S = 0.45 f CU (0.5bd )0.9 + 0.87 f y (412) = 450kN

Area of tension steel, AS = T / 0.87 f y = 450(10) 3 / 0.87(250) = 1863mm 2

Proposed number of Tension Steel

6 No. 20mm dia. Steel bars given AS = 1890mm 2

Proposed Number of Compression Steel

2 No. 20mm dia. Steel bars given AS = 628mm 2

-END-

-Page 11November 2006 (rev.a)

Appendix: Steel Area Table

-Page 12November 2006 (rev.a)

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