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1.0 Introductions

In this lecture, a revision to structural mechanics will be given. It includes: (a) Force and vectors (b) Resolution of forces (c) Structure and Loads (d) Newton’s law of mechanics (e) Moment (f) Strength of Materials: Stress, Strain and Elasticity

**2.0 Nature of Force – Force are vectors
**

If an objected is moved from one place to another place, a force must be applied. However, how the object moves will depend on how hard and which direction the force is pull.

Two things about a force are important: the size of the force and the direction of the force. Quantities, which consist of both size and direction, are called a vector quantity.

→

To indicate that the force is a vector quantity, we usually use a symbol F .

Forces can also be represented graphically by arrow The direction and size fo the force can be shown by the length of the arrow drawn to a chosen scale respectively.

→

For example, a force F of 2N pointing in the southwest direction can be represented by the arrow in Figure 1.

Figure 1:- Force is represented graphically by arrows Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 1

- Compressive force and Tensile force (Figure 2)

Figure 2 :-Axial compression and Axial tension

Adding forces

Surely it is known that scalar quantities* can be added algebraically, e.g. 2 + 2 = 4. But for vector quantities, like forces, 2 and 2 is not always equal to 4!

*Remarks: scalar means that the quantity without direction implication, for example, weigh and length.

For example: 1. Forces of 2N and 2N acting in opposite directions cancel out to give no resultant force at all. (Figure 3)

Figure 3:- Adding of force

The resultant force is (-2N) + (2N) = 0N (Take right direction as positive) 2. What would be the resultant force of 5N opposed by 2N (Figure 4) The 2N force cancels out part of the 5-N force. How much is left?

Take right as positive, the resultant force is (+5N)+(-2N) = +3N

Figure 4:- Adding of force When two forces are not in the same straight line, their sum can be found graphically. Two forces can be

→

**added by drawing a parallelogram of the forces. In Figure 5, the resultant force of the two forces
**

→

F1

and

**F 2 is represented by the diagonal of the parallelogram. This method is called the method of
**

Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 2

parallelogram of forces.

Figure 5:-Adding two forces by the method of parallelogram of forces

Example: What is the resultant force as shown in Figure 6?

Figure 6

Solution: The resultant force = (-3N) + (4N) = +1N Remarks: we always take right direction as positive side.

3.0 Resolution of forces

Sometimes it is useful to use parallelogram method of adding vectors. The parallelogram method is used to resolve a force into two perpendicular components.

Figure 7:-Resolving a force into two perpendicular components Remarks: the parallelogram method is commonly used in analysis of framing structure.

Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 3

Example: Using the method of parallelogram of vectors, find the horizontal and vertical component of the resultant force 5kN in Figure 8?

Figure 8

Solution: The force in the horizontal direction should be

**Fx = 5 ⋅ cos 68 = 1.87kN (→)
**

The force in the vertical direction should be

F y = 5 ⋅ sin 68 = 4.635kN (↑)

Example: Replace the force F shown in Figure 9 by two forces, one vertical and one horizontal, which together will have the same effect as F.

Figure 9

Solution: The force in the horizontal direction should be

Fx = 20 ⋅ cos 40 = 15.3kN (→)

The force in the vertical direction should be F y = 20 ⋅ sin 40 = −12.9kN (↓)

Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 4

3.1

Resultant of concurrent forces

The resultant force of a group of concurrent forces may be determined using the following equation

R x = ∑ Fix

R y = ∑ Fiy

where

R x , R y are x and y component of resultant force R Fix , Fiy are x and y component of force Fi Fi is the ith force of the concurrent forces

n is the number of forces in the concurrent system

**The magnitude and direction of the resultant is then determined using the following equations:
**

2 R = R x2 + R y

θ = tan −1

where

Ry Rx

R is the magnitude of the resultant force and,

θ

is the angle of the force measured from x axis

Example: Calculate the resultant force of the force shown in the Figure 10.

Figure 10

Solution: For F1 = 250 N , For F2 = 500 N ,

Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 5

F1 X = 250 ⋅ cos(45) = 177 N (→) F1 y = 250 ⋅ sin( 45) = 177 N (↓)

F2 X = 500 ⋅ cos(60) = 250 N (←) F2 y = 500 ⋅ sin(60) = 433 N (↓)

Let x component pointing to right is positive and y component pointing to up is positive.

R x = ∑ Fix = 177 − 250 = −70 N R y = ∑ Fiy = −177 − 433 = −610 N

Magnitude of resultant force R =

70 2 + 610 2 = 615 N

The angle of the resultant to x axis is

θ = tan −1

610 = 83° 70

Figure 11 Remarks: the angle of the resultant can be determined using above equation but the direction of the resultant force should be judged by its component. In this example, therefore pointing to lower left direction.

R x is to the left and R y is to downward, then R is

Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 6

**4.0 Structure and Load
**

During the development of a building’s program of space, the architect should obtain from the client written data listing the intended occupancy of each floor area as well as its loads, anticipated load and possible future renovations. Moreover, the architect should obtain from all mechanical, electrical written data listing the weight and sizes and any adverse structural anomalies of every mechanical element to be installed in the building. Finally, the architect should include in the plans a schedule of loads listing total services loads (for example, live load, dead load).

The various types of loadings that can act on a building in Hong Kong are as follows:a. dead load b. live load c. wind load

d. water and earth load

4.1 Dead load The dead loads that act on the structure arise from the weight of the structure itself and from the weight of all nonstructural materials attached to it to form the building. These nonstructural items include the roofing, permanent internal partition, cladding walls, finishing, etc. These nonstructural loads can be estimated with a fair degree of accuracy, for they involve mainly material weight and thickness.

The dead load that arises from the weight of the structure itself is considerably more difficult to estimate, however, because the size of the structural members can be accurately known only after the design has been carried out. Both architect and engineer must take intuitive guesses regarding the sizes of the members and, after the design has been completed quickly verify that their guesses were reasonable.

4.2 Live load Live loads are the superimposed user or occupancy loads that the structure must carry to perform its function satisfactorily- the reason was built in the first place. It includes all moving weights that a structure may carry: occupants, furnishing, machinery (building services installation), movable partitions, rain, wind, lateral subsoil and hydrostatic pressure, and any temporary loads applied during construction or maintenance.

The estimation of the live load can never be either fully accurate or complete, because even the user can change with time, thereby altering the user or occupancy load during the life of the building.

The problem of estimating the live users or occupancy load is not really all that complex. However, the Uniform Building Code and other codes provide a value for the load that should be used in different locations. For instance, in a residential, high-rise building, the codes suggest a value of 1.92kN/m2 of plan area in the living areas. As an other example, the load suggested by the codes for libraries is 2.87 kN/m2 in reading room. Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 7

4.3 Wind Load The actual manner in which the wind load affects the structure is very complex, for it depend on, among other factors, the shape of the building, surface quality, its elevation above ground, the amount of shelter afforded by surrounding buildings, and openings in walls. (Figure 12.)

The basic wind pressure qs may then be determined from the wind velocity V by using the formula,

qs = 0.00256V 2

Figure 12:- Variable wind pressure around buildings

4.4 Water and Earth Load Water and earth loads have to be accounted for in designing those structures that are below groundm such as retaining walls, beasement walls, floor slabs, some foundations, among others. These load are really form of live load for such structures. If the structure is entirely below water, the hydrostatic pressure is 2.99kN/m2 per foot of depth. The pressure distribution is linear and is shown in Figure. A load that is caused by earth pressure is not as serve as one caused by water, because soil is generally capable of maintaining itself unaided on a small slope, which is the angle of repose. This naturally depends on the types of the soil. Sand, for instance, has a lower angle of repose than stiff clay. If however, water enters the clay, the material then be a greater tendency to flow and hence exerts greater earth pressure. In the absence of water, soil pressure may be assumed 1.20-1.68 per foot of depth. This is shown in Figure 13.

Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 8

Figure 13: Pressure Distribution from underground water and earth movement

4.5 Combination of the Load For rational design, it is essential to tale combinations of loadings that can realistically occur together and to design the structural element for the worst case of these realistic combinations. Regarding wind action, most building codes permit, in working stress design, a 44 percent overstress, or increase in the permissible stress that the material can take. In strength design in concrete, the ultimate load U (will be discussed in the next section) for which the structural element has to be designed is given by

U = 0.75(1.4 DL + 1.7 LL + 1.7WL )

The factor 1.4 is a factor of safety to the dead load, and the factors 1.7 are the factors of safety for the live load and the wind load. The factor 0.75 is in fact a method of reducing the total ultimate load for which the design is being carried out.

Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 9

**5.0 Newton’s law of mechanics
**

5.1 Newton’s first Law

A body remains a rest or in motion with a constant velocity unless a force is applied on it. Everybody has a tendency to maintain its state of rest or of uniform motion. The tendency is called inertia. Mass is a measure of inertia of an object, i.e. greater the mass of an object, then greater the inertia. Force is something, which changes the state of rest or uniform motion of an object.

Daily example The inertia of an object tends to keep it moving. The greater the inertia, the larger force is needed to stop it.

If a car stops suddenly, the passengers inside will tend to keep on moving (through the windscreen) because of their inertia. So they need seat belts, which exert forces to stop them.

Similarly, the passengers in a car are thrown back if the car suddenly starts moving. The headrests fitted on car seats can reduce neck injuries when the car is bumped from behind suddenly.

5.2 Newton’s second law The relation between force, mass and acceleration can be expressed as an equation, F = kma where k is a proportional constant. ……………….(1)

**Equation (1) may be rewritten as:
**

Re sult

∑

F = m

↑

Force ( N )

↓

mass ( kg )

↓

a

↑

acceleration ( ms − 2 )

Both force and acceleration are vectors. This equation implies that the direction of a is in the direction of F.

This is Newton’s second law of motion: “The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to and in the same direction as the resultant force acting on it, and inversely proportional to the mass of the object.”

Note: F is the resultant (or unbalanced) force on the mass m, it must be measured in Newtons. Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 10

Example When a force of 6N is applied to a block of mass 2kg, it moves along a horizontal table at constant velocity. (Figure 14) (a) (b) What is the frictional force? What is the acceleration if the applied force is increased to 10N?

Figure 14 Solution: (a) When the block is moving at constant velocity (no acceleration), there is no resultant force on it (Newton’s first law).

This means that the forces are balanced.

**∴ From Figure 7, the frictional force = 6N.
**

(b) When the applied force = 10N, the frictional force is still 6N

Resultant (unbalance) force = (10 – 6) N = 4N (Figure 15(a))

Figure 15(a) and (b)

Formula first: From Figure 15(b),

F = ma 4N = 2kg x a

a=

4N = 2ms − 2 2kg

Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 11

5.3 Newton’s third law Newton noticed that forces were always in pairs and that the two forces were always equal in size but opposite in direction. The two forces is called action and reaction respectively.

Newton’s third law of motion is: “For every force, there is an equal but opposite reaction force.”

Note that while the action acts on one body, reaction must act on a different body.

Example: Now consider a wooden block resting on a table (Figure 16). Write down the equation for the two pairs of forces.

Figure 16 Solution There are four forces here, in two pairs!

First pair (red) The force of the block on the table (downwards) = The force of the table on the block (upwards)

These forces act where the block touches the table.

Second pair (blue)

The force of gravity of the Earth pulling down =

The force of gravity of the block pulling up Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 12

on the block (this weight in effect acts at the centre of the block)

on the Earth (this force in effect acts at the centre of the Earth)

When the block is on the table, these four forces are equal. But if the block is allowed to fall to the floor, only the second pair of forces exists and as the block moves downwards, the Earth moves slightly upwards!

6.0 Moment

A force (the weight) acting at a distance away from the fixed point P produces a turning effect. You can feel the turning effect on your hand when you are holding the rod, The turning effect of a force is called a moment or a torque. (Figure 17)

Figure 17- The turning effect of a force

The moment of a force depends on the size of the force and the distance of the force from the turning centre or pivot. It is defined by Where

τ = Fd

τ

= moment of a force, F= force, d= perpendicular distance (from the force to the pivot).

The distance used is always the shortest (perpendicular) distance (Figure 18). Moments are measured in newton metres (often written N m).

Figure 18:- The distance used in defining moment is the shortest distance

Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 13

Example: In Figure 19, what is the moment of the force, about the nut at point P?

Figure 19 Solution Perpendicular distance from the force to P = 20cm = 0.20 m

Formula first: Then numbers:

τ = Fd

= 10N x 0.20m = 2Nm (turning clockwise)

Remarks: For clarity, the direction of the moment should always be stated.

Example: A uniform rod of weight 100 N is supported by two pages P and Q as shown in the following Figure 20. A force of 30 N acts vertically downwards at R. Calculate the reactions at P and Q.

(Hints: a weight 100N of rod is supported by point P and Q, that mean there is point load of 100N acting on the centre of the rod)

Figure 20

Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 14

Solution: Take moment about point P,

100(50) + 30(100) = RQ ⋅ (80)

RQ = 100 N

By Newton’s Third Law,

RQ + RP = 100 + 30

⇔ RP = 30 N

7.0 Strength of materials

A structural system is not only effected by external conditions, but also by the properties and behavior of the materials which comprise it. These also determine the nature of the system's reaction(s) to external forces. The study of Strength of Materials is concerned specifically with the following issues: 1. the internal forces of a member caused by the external forces acting on that member or system. 2. the changes in dimension of a member caused by these forces. 3. the physical properties of the material in the member. Statics is the study of the behavior of rigid bodies at rest as they are acted upon by external forces. Although most of these bodies are not absolutely rigid, the assumption of rigidity is valid for the purpose of determining the reactions of the system. Actually, every material will deform under a load. Even a concrete slab deforms microscopicly when a person walks on it. Some deformations in a structure can be detrimental to the overall system's performance, while others might only be an issue of comfort. The recognition of the relative importance of these deformations will be an important part of the study of structures. External loads on a structural system create resisting forces within all of the members that form the load path from the point of the application of the load to the ground beneath the foundation. This internal resistance exists within every member and joint included in the load path and are known simply as the internal forces acting on a member. Some of these forces have already been examined: the connection between a beam and its support, and the connection of a two-force member to a three-force member in a pin-connected frame. The internal forces within a beam were demonstrated by cutting a beam. These internal forces were required at the cut section to put the beam back into equilibrium. The forces and moments that were examined were applied externally to the end of that cut section; they were exactly equal to the internal forces and moments. The distribution of the internal forces on the cross-sectional area of a member may or may not be uniformly distributed; it is dependent on the loading condition, the type of member, and how it is supported. Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 15

**8.0 Stress and Strain relationship, Modulus of Elasticity
**

8.1 Definition of stress The internal forces of each member of a structural system are distributed in a particular way across that member's cross-sectional area. Stress is a measure of the intensity of this force on a single unit of area. Common units of measure of stress are KN/m2, N/mm2. The distribution of the stress may be constant across a cross-sectional area, or it may be variable. It can vary due to the loading conditions, the material or geometry of the structural member.

Two common types of stress 1. Normal to a section 2. Parallel to a section

Figure 21:- Different kinds of stress

8.2 Definition of strain Strain,

ε

is the fractional change per unit of original dimension.

ε

= (Change in dimension of body) / (original dimension of body)

The common types of strain is (a) Normal strain – change in length per unit length (b) Shear strain – distortion, measured by the angle of the distortion, Remarks: shear strain will be discussed in the advanced course Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 16

γ

.

Figure 22:- Strain

Example: Determine the stress in section a and b in Figure 23.

Figure 23

Solution Let tensile stress be positive sign, and compressive stress be negative sign

Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 17

Tensile stress for section a-a is

σ1 =

240000 = +96 N / mm 2 2500 − 51000 = −204 N / mm 2 2500

Compressive stress for section b-b

σ2 =

8.3 Stress-Strain Curve – Modulus of Elasticity The relationship between the stress and strain that a material displays is known as a Stress-Strain curve. It is unique for each material and is found by recording the amount of deformation (strain) at distinct intervals of tensile or compressive loading. These curves reveal many of the properties of a material (including data to establish the Modulus of Elasticity, E). What does a comparison of the curves for mild steel, cast iron and concrete illustrate about their respective properties? In Figure 24, It can be seen that the concrete curve is almost a straight line. There is an abrupt end to the curve. This, and the fact that it is a very steep line, indicate that it is a brittle material. The curve for cast iron has a slight curve to it. It is also a brittle material. Both of these materials will fail with little warning once their limits are surpassed. Notice that the curve for mild steel seems to have a long gently curving "tail". This indicates a behavior that is distinctly different than either concrete or cast iron. The graph shows that after a certain point mild steel will continue to strain (in the case of tension, to stretch) as the stress (the loading) remains more or less constant. The steel will actually stretch like taffy. This is a material property which indicates a high ductility. There are a number of significant points on a stress-strain curve that help one understand and predict the way every building material will behave.

Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 18

Figure 24:- Stress-strain curve for different kind of materials

Figure 25:- stress against strain for two grades of steels An example plot of a test on two grades of steel is illustrated in Figure 25. If one begins at the origin and follows the graph a number of points are indicated. Point A is known as the proportional limit. Up to this point the relationship between stress and strain is exactly proportional. The number, which describes the relationship between the two, is the Modulus of Elasticity. Strain increases faster than stress at all points on the curve beyond point A. Up to this point, any steel specimen that is loaded and unloaded would return to its original length. This is known as elastic behavior. Point B is the point after which any continued stress results in permanent, or inelastic, deformation. Thus, point B is known as the elastic limit. Since the stress resistance of the material decreases after the peak of the curve, this is also known as the yield point. The line between points C and D indicates the behavior of the steel specimen if it experienced continued loading to stress indicated as point C. Notice that the dashed line is parallel to the elastic zone of the curve Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 19

(between the origin and point A). When the specimen is unloaded the magnitude of the inelastic deformation would be determined. If the same specimen was to be loaded again, the stress-strain plot would climb back up the line from D to C and continue along the initial curve. Point E indicates the location of the value of the ultimate stress. Note that this is quite different from the yield stress. The yield stress and ultimate stress are the two values that are most often used to determine the allowable loads for building materials and should never be confused. A material is considered to have completely failed once it reaches the ultimate stress. The point of rupture, or the actual tearing of the material, does not occur until point F. It is interesting to note the curve that indicates the actual stress experienced by the specimen. This curve is different from the apparent stress since the cross sectional area is actually decreasing. There is quite a bit to be learned from both the study of the ideal and actual behavior of all building materials. * within the elastic range, the ratio of stress to strain for materials is a constant. This constant is referred the modulus of elasticity, E.

To determine the constant, the following formula should be used. E = Tensile stress / tensile strain =

σ

ε

=

Fl F ⋅l A = = l1 − l (l1 − l ) A ∆L ⋅ A l

F

where

F is the applied force A is the cross-sectional area of the object l is the original length of the object, l1 is length of object after a force is applied. ( ∆L = l1 − l ) is the change in the length of the object

Remarks: E is the slope of the stress-strain curve (within elastic range) E measure the stiffness of the materials, for example: resistance to deformation due to stress. The higher the E, the smaller the strain under a given stress.

Example: Determine E from the following stress-strain curve (steel) in Figure 26.

Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 20

Figure 26

Solution: When stress is

150 N / mm 2 , corresponding strain is 0.001

E=

σ 150 N / mm 2 = = 150000 N / mm 2 ε 0.001

Example: Determine the deformation of the member in Figure 27.

Figure 27

Solution: Cross section area , A = 150 x 150 = 22500mm2 Internal force in all sections between A and B, F = −90kN

Stress in sections between A and B,

σ=

F − 90kN = = −4 N / mm 2 2 A 22500mm

Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 21

Strain in sections between A and B,

− 4 N / mm 2 ε= = = −6.67 x10 − 4 2 E 6000 N / mm

Deformation of the member = compressive force 90kN .

σ

**(− 6.67 x10 ) ⋅ 4000mm = −2.67mm (the member is shortened under the
**

−4

Example: Determine the deflection of the steel road shown in Figure 28 under the given load (

A = 500mm 2 ;

E = 3x10 5 N / mm 2 )

Figure 28:-Steel rod under the force

Solution (1) Firstly, calculate the internal force of rod in each section

Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 22

Internal Force , In portion C-D, P1 = 20kN (Tensile Force) In portion B-D, P2 = −50 + 20 = −30kN (Compressive force) In portion A-D,

P3 = −50 + 50 + 20 = 20kN (Tensile force)

(2) Calculation the change of dimensions Change of dimension in portion A-B,

∆L AB =

FAB ⋅ L AB 20 ⋅ 10 3 ⋅ 400 = = 0.053mm (extension) A⋅ E 500 ⋅ 3 ⋅ 10 5 FBC ⋅ LBC − 30 ⋅10 3 ⋅ 400 = = −0.08mm (shortening) A⋅ E 500 ⋅ 3 ⋅10 5 FCD ⋅ LCD 20 ⋅10 3 ⋅ 400 = = 0.053mm (extension) A⋅ E 500 ⋅ 3 ⋅10 5

Change of dimension in portion B-C,

∆LBC = ∆LCD =

Change of dimension in portion C-D,

(3) The deflection of the rod = 0.053 + (-0.08) + 0.053 = 0.026mm (extension)

-END-

Prepared by Dr. Thomas Tong October 2006 (rev.a) -Page 23

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