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Initial Sizing of Structural Members

The following guidance is only for an approximate


first step in member design.
Steel
Restrained Universal Beams (UB)
Overall depth D = Span/20

Choose a section depth at least equal to D from


the middle of the serial size weight range.

Deflection:

Limit to Span/360 with W (live) unfactored

Ixx = 2.3WL2 cm4


Ixx = 3.7WL2 cm4
Ixx = 1.8WL2 cm4

Simply supported UDL


Simply supported PL
Continuous UDL

Bending (Elastic theory):

Assume py = 275 N/mm2

Simply supported UDL


WL

Zxx = 0.45WL cm3

Continuous UDL
WL

10

Zxx = 0.36WL cm3

Cantilever UDL

Zxx = 1.82WL cm3

W factored

Note:

W in kN
L in m.

WL

2
Bending (Plastic theory):

Assume py = 275 N/mm2

Simply supported UDL


WL

Sxx = 0.45WL cm3

Continuous UDL

Sxx = 0.23WL cm3

WL

16

W factored

Universal Columns (UC)


This guidance applies to braced buildings where column ends have positional
restraint but not directional restraint.
Effective Length:

Dependant upon the degree of directional restraint.


Assume pinned LE = 1.0 L

Slenderness:

Classification:

Use only class 3 sections, ie

Axial load:

Keep axial stress to about 0.6pc : A g =

LE
r

Max. allowed = 180, initially try 100

D
39 ,
t
Do not use UBs where axial loads predominate.

Fc
mm 2
0.6p c

Restrained Castellated Beams


Most commonly used in simply supported spans carrying a UDL.
Elastic theory is used.
Deflection:

Limit to Span/360 with W (live) unfactored

Ixx = 3WL2 cm4

Simply supported UDL

Allows for shear deflection of up to 30% of simple


elastic deflection.
Bending (Elastic theory):

Assume py = 275 N/mm2

Zxxnet = 0.48WL cm3

Simply supported UDL


WL

D/t < 19,

b/T < 13,

W factored
Note:

W in kN
L in m.

ie. section must be at least class 3

Plate Girders

Used for spans >18m. where UBs are uneconomic or have insufficient capacity.
Post-buckled web strength may be used to resist bending and shear.
Typically

Span/depth = 10 to 12

Bending and Shear:


)
M
mm
Af =
D .p y

Assume flanges resist all bending:

b/T < 8.5,

Web takes all shear and may be slender, d/t = 150 say:

ie. class 2
Aw =

Fv
mm 2
q cr

d/t < 250 if no stiffeners provided


Deflection:

Check Ixx required from UB formulae and compare with Ixx provided by initial
proportions.

Reinforced Concrete
Beams
b

Overall depth (h) from basic Span/effective depth (d) ratios:

Simply supported
Continuous
Cantilever

Span/d = 20
Span/d = 26
Span/d = 7

Breadth (b) typically 0.5 0.8h


b=

1000V
2d

- limiting shear stress to 2.0 N/mm2 and assuming fcu > 30 N/mm2

Columns
Use stocky sections where:

Effective height
15
smaller lateral dim ension (b or h)

Ensure that b and h 200 mm

Initial guide to gross cross sectional area Ag =

Applied Factored Load


0.35fcu

A more refined estimate of the column capacity N, may include the reinforcement
area :
N = 0.35fcu A c + 0.67fy A sc

(0.67fy 0.35fcu )
N = A g 0.35fcu +
100

Note: Ag = Asc + Ac

and

A sc
.100
Ag

The following tables are based on the above expression.

Ultimate Loads for Stocky Columns


kN
fcu
30

Column Size
h mm b mm
300
300
300
350
350
350
400
350
400
400
400
450
450
450
450
500
500
500
600
600

fy
460

Cross Sectional Area


mm2
90000
105000
122500
140000
160000
180000
202500
225000
250000
360000

Reinforcement Percentage (')


1%
2%
3%
4%
1212
1480
1748
2016
1415
1727
2040
2352
1650
2015
2380
2744
1886
2303
2720
3137
2156
2632
3108
3585
2425
2961
3497
4033
2729
3331
3934
4537
3032
3702
4371
5041
3369
4113
4857
5602
4851
5923
6995
8066

fcu

fy

40

460

Column Size
h mm b mm
300
300
300
350
350
350
400
350
400
400
400
450
450
450
450
500
500
500
600
600

Cross Sectional Area


mm2
90000
105000
122500
140000
160000
180000
202500
225000
250000
360000

Reinforcement Percentage (')


1%
2%
3%
4%
1524
1789
2054
2319
1778
2087
2396
2705
2075
2435
2796
3156
2371
2783
3195
3607
2710
3181
3652
4122
3049
3579
4108
4638
3430
4026
4622
5218
3811
4473
5135
5797
4235
4971
5706
6442
6099
7158
8217
9276

Any cross sectional shape that provides the minimum cross sectional area, may be
used instead of the rectangular examples shown in the table.

Slabs
Solid Slabs:

Treat these in the same way as rectangular


beams, using the same Span/d ratios.

Ribbed and Waffle Slabs:

Treat these in the same way as rectangular


beams, using the same Span/d ratios.
Typically treated as simply supported.
rib width bw =
-

Precast Prestressed Slabs:

1000V
0.6d

limiting shear stress to 0.6 N/mm2 and


assuming fcu > 30 N/mm2

Typical Span/d ratios 30 to 40


Treat as simply supported, one-way units.

Walls

Treated as columns:
Use stocky sections where:
Effective height
15
thickness
Minimum practical thickness 200mm. although
you will see less! Never < 150mm.
Shear walls will need to be designed as vertical
cantilevers to resist horizontal forces, in addition to
carrying vertical loads.

Piled Foundations
Bored Cast in Place Piles in clay:
d
1

Shaft capacity Q s = 0.45c n . d . L


n

= 0.45c ave . d . L

or
L

d 2
End bearing Q b = 9c b .
4
Ult. capacity Qult = Qb + Q s
Working capacity =

Qb Q s
+
3 1.5

or =

Qb + Q s
2.5

Pile Caps

Centre line pile spacing = 3 x pile diameter


Cap depth = 2.5 x pile diameter
Cap projection beyond piles = 150mm

Retaining Walls

t=

H
12
M=

2
H
3

k a . . H3
6