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**1.0 Block Masonry designed by calculations
**

1.1 Introductions This lecture will give general guidance for the structural design of unreinforced Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (ACC) masonry wall by calculation that used in Hong Kong. It gives a broad outline and indicates the principles of design when using any national or international standard such British Standard and Codes of Practice. Limit state philosophy has been used. 1.2 Basis of Design The design of loadbearing masonry is undertaken primarily to ensure an adequate margin of safety against the ultimate limit state being reached. This is generally achieved by ensuring that the design strength of the member is greater than or equal to the design load. The factor γ m (partial safety factor for materials) makes allowance for the variation in the quality of the materials and for the possible difference between the strength of masonry constructed under sit conditions and that of specimens built in the laboratory for the purpose of establishing its physical properties. A partial safety factor for actions ( γ f ) is introduced to take account of: Possible unusual increase in load beyond those considered in deriving the characteristic load; Inaccurate assessment of effects of loading, and unforeseen stress redistribution within the structure; The variation in dimensional accuracy achieved in construction. According to Clause 6.1.6 and 6.1.8 of British Standard 5628 Part I, the partial safety factors will be taken for the following considerations. (a) Wind load

γ f = 1.2

(b)

Dead load

γ f = 0.9 γ m = 2.5

(c)

Materials

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The design should also ensure that there is an adequate margin of safety against a serviceability limit being reached. In many codes, an adequate margin may be assumed to exist when the design satisfies the ultimate limit state. The risk of adverse effects on the structure, including non-loadbearing elements such as partitions, arising from expansion, or contraction due to thermal and moisture movements, creep, settlement, etc., should be assessed. When necessary, suitable details should be employed to maintain an adequate margin of safety against a limit state being reached.

1.3 Stability The overall stability of the structure should be considered together with the compatibility of the design and detail of parts and components. There should be no doubt about who is responsible for the overall design when some or all of the design and details are not made by same designers. Consideration should be given to the interaction between the masonry wall and the other parts of the structure and adequate connections should be provided. In many design codes other general stability considerations are given. 1.4 Loads Loads should be taken from or calculated in accordance with the relevant standard such as British Standard. 1.5 Design Load The design load may be taken as the sum of the products of the component characteristic loads

multiplied by the appropriate partial safety factor, γ f , taken from the relevant international standard. Where, in the design code, alternative values are shown, that producing the most severe condition should be selected.

1.6 Characteristic Compressive, Flexural and Shear Strength of masonry wall The characteristic compressive, flexural and shear strength will normally have been determined by test on masonry specimen. The characteristic compressive strength of the masonry should be normally determined by tests, or from a suitable relationship between the characteristics strength of unreinforced masonry and mortar strength. Moreover, most design codes will contain values for compressive strength ( f k ) , flexural strength ( f kx ) and shear strength ( f vk ) . The characteristics flexural strength ( f kx ) should be used only in the design of masonry in

bending. In general, no direct tension should be allowed.

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**2.0 Design of unreinforced masonry – Walls subjected to lateral load
**

2.1 General Masonry wall subjected to mainly lateral loads should be verified to have a design strength greater than the design load, but are not capable of precise design. However, an approximate method for assessing the strength of the wall is to consider the wall panel to be supported on a number of sides. This method is outlined below:-

A step-by-step approach is given in Figure 6.1

Figure 6.1 Principles for the design of masonry wall for lateral loading 2.2 Support conditions and continuity In assessing the lateral resistance of masonry panels, it is essential that support conditions and

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continuity over supports are taken in account. The reaction along an edge of a wall due to design load may normally be assumed to be uniformly distributed when designing the means of support. The connection to the support may be in the form of ties or by the shear resistance of the masonry taking into account the damp-proof course, if any. Simple supports may be provided by metal ties after ensuring their adequacy to transmit forces.

2.3 Limiting dimensions (BS5628 clause 36.3) In a lateral loaded panel the dimensions should be limited as follows:(1) Panel supported on three edges:

2 (a) two or more sides continuous: height x length equal to 1500 tef or less.

2 (b) all other cases: height x length equal to 1350 tef or less.

**(2) Panel supported on four edges:
**

2 (a) three or more sides continuous: height x length equal to 2250 tef or less.

2 (b) all other cases: height x length equal to 2025 tef or less.

(3) Panel simply supported at top and bottom: height equal to 40 tef or less. (4) Free standing wall: height equal to 12 tef or less. where tef is effective thickness of the masonry wall. In case (1) and (2), no dimension should exceed 500 times the effective thickness, tef .

2.4 Calculation of design moment in panels Masonry wall are not isotropic and have an orthogonal strength ratio, µ , depending on the block

and mortar used, as may be found from the characteristic flexural strengths. The calculation of the design moment per unit height of to take into account the masonry properties referred to above, and may be taken as either αWk γ f L2 ....Eq(1) when the mode of failure is perpendicular to the bed joints, or µαWk γ f L2 ....Eq(2) when the plane of bending is parallel to bed joints. where

α is the bending moment coefficient

**γ f is the partial safety factor for loads
**

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**µ is the orthogonal ratio of the flexural strengths =
**

(modified flexural strength parallel to bed joints/ flexural strength perpendicular to bed joints)….Eq(3)

L is the length of the panel between supports W k is the characteristics wind load per unit area

When a vertical load acts so as to increase the flexural strength in the parallel direction, the orthogonal strength ratio may be modified by using a flexural strength in the parallel direction, the orthogonal strength ratio may be modified by using a flexural strength in the parallel direction of

f kx + γ m g d ….Eq(4)

where f kx is the flexural strength of the parallel direction, γ m is the appropriate partial safety factor for material, and g d is the design vertical dead load per unit area. For walls spanning vertically, the design moment per unit length of wall at mid-height of the panel may be taken as:

Wk γ f h 2

8

….Eq(5)

Unless the end conditions justify treating the panel as partially fixed. In this expression, h is the distance between supports.

The details are referred to clause 36.4.2 of BS5628: Part I: 1992 (see appendix).

2.5 Calculation of design moment of resistance of panel The design moment of resistance of masonry is f kx Z ….Eq(6)

γm

where

**Z is the section modulus and calculated by
**

t ef is the effective thickness

1 × 1000 × (t ef ) 2 ….Eq(7) 6

f kx is the characteristics flexural strength appropriate to the plane of bending γ m is the partial safety factor for materials.

EXAMPLE

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An internal partition wall of 3m x 5m is to be constructed with Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (ACC) blocks of density 700kg/m3. The panel wall is simply supported on three sides as shown in Figure 6.2. Given that: Partial Safety Factor Horizontal imposed load: Dead Load: Material Factor:

γ f = 1.2 γ f = 0.9 γ m = 2.5

Characteristic flexural strength Plane of failure parallel to bed joints Plane of failure perpendicular to bed joints Take g = 9.8m2/s

=0.18N/mm2 =0.31N/mm2

The wall thickness should be designed to withstand a crow pressure of 0.38kN/m2

Figure 6.2 Solution:

**Basic Assumption Wall = 200mm thick AAC blockwork (700kg/m3)
**

Step 1: Determine the edge constraints The ACC blockwall is supported by three simply support (given) Step 2:Checking Limiting dimensions (BS5628 Clause 36.3)

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2 height × length ≤ 1500t ef

∴ min imum

t ef =

HeightxLength = 100mm 1500

Actual t ef =200mm, thus dimension satisfactory.

**On the other hand, no dimension to exceed 50 × t ef =10m, it is also satisfactory.
**

Step 3: Determine the partial safety factors Horizontal imposed load: γ f = 1.2

(Given) (Given) (Given)

Dead Load: Material Factor:

γ f = 0.9 γ m = 2.5

Step 4 Determine characteristic flexural strength Plane of failure parallel to bed joints Plane of failure perpendicular to bed joints

=0.18N/mm2 =0.31N/mm2

(Given) (Given)

Step (5): Calculate the design dead loads Self weight = 700kg / m 3 × 0.2 × 0.9 × 9.8 × 10 −3 = 1.23kN / m 2 Step (6): increase flexural strength in the plan of failure parallet to bed joints In parallel direction, By Eq(7),

Modified f kx + γ m g d = 0.18 + 1.23kN / m 2 × 3 × 2.5 × 10 −3 / 0.2 = 0.20 N / mm 2 2 Remarks: g d = (self weight x material partial safety factor x overall thickness x half of the height)/ effective thickness.

Step (7): Orthogonal ratio,

(

)

By Eq(3), µ =

0.20 N / mm 2 = 0.65 0.31N / mm 2

**Step (8): Calculating bending moment coefficients
**

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µ = 0.65

H 3.0 = = 0.6 L 5.0

Taking these values for µ and H/L and referring to British Standard BS5628:Part 1, table 9, the bending moment coefficient α of 0.059 can be derived.

Step 9: Calculate section moulds

By Eq.(7)…. Z =

1 × 1000 × (200) 2 = 6.67 × 10 6 mm 3 / m 6

Step 10: Calculate moment of resistance

By Eq(1)….Design moment = αW k γ f L2 = 0.059 × W k × γ f × 5.0 2 ….(2) 0.31× 6.67 × 10 6 × 10 − 6 = 0.83kNm / m 2.5

By Eq(7)….Design moment =

f kx

γm

Z=

Step 11: Calculate the design wind load capacity

**Equating moment of resistance to design moment, By (1) = (2), 0.83 = 0.059 × 5.0 2 × wind load capacity ∴ wind load capacity = 0.56kN/m2
**

Step 12: Characteristic Wind Load

**Characteristic wind load = 0.38kN/m2
**

Step 13: Design Wind Load

**Required wind load capacity = 0.38kN/m2 x 1.2 = 4.6kN/m2
**

Step 14: Check that whether the design load is less than capacity Compared to required design wind load capacity of 0.46 kN/m2 the panel is, therefore, satisfactory for wind load.

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Exercise

An internal partition wall of 2.5m x 5m is to be constructed with autoclaved aerated concrete (ACC) block of density 700kg/m3. The panel wall is simply supported three sides as shown in Figure 6.3. Given that Partial Safety Factor Horizontal imposed load: γ f = 1.2 Dead Load: Material Factor:

γ f = 0.9 γ m = 2.5

Characteristic flexural strength Plane of failure parallel to bed joints Plane of failure perpendicular to bed joints Take g = 9.8m2/s

=0.16N/mm2 =0.30N/mm2

The wall thickness should be designed to withstand a crow pressure of 0.22kN/m2

Figure 6.3 -END OF LECTURE 6-

-Page 9November 2006

Appendix BS5628: PART I: 1992

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