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Geometric Dimensioning and

Tolerancing
Applications, Analysis & Measurement
[per ASME Y14.5-2009]

James D. Meadows

James D. Meadows & Associates. Inc.

ASME Press

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2009 James D. Meadows


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reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means--graphic,
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otherwise--without written permission of the publisher.
Some illustrations in this book are copyrighted by and are the property of SolidWorks
Corporation.
Published and distributed by:
James D. Meadows & Associates, Inc.
170 E. Main, D-137
Hendersonville, TN 37075
Phone: (615) 824-8644
FAX: (615) 824-5262
www.geotolmeadows.com
Co-Published and co-distributed by:
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1-800-THE-ASME (1-800-843-2763)
www asme.org
ISBN: 978-0-9714401-6-6

ASME Order No. 802166


Library of Congress Number: PRE000002062
Printed in the United States of America
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No liability is assumed by the publisher James D. Meadows & Associates, Inc., nor its author with respect to the use of the
information contained herein. Information contained in this work has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable.
While every precaution has been taken in the preparation of this book, neither James D. Meadows & Associates, Inc., nor
its author guarantee the accuracy or completeness of any information published herein and neither James D. Meadows &
Associates, Inc., nor its author shall be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of use of this
information. This work is published with the understanding that James D. Meadows & Associates, Inc., and its author are
supplying information but are not attempting to render engineering or other professional services. The publisher and its
author shall not be liable for any special, consequential, or exemplary damages resulting in whole or part, from the readers
use of, or reliance upon, this material.

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Foreword
This textbook has been written for anyone whose work requires them to communicate, interpret or
manufacture products through the use of engineering drawings and/or CAD models that use Geometric
Dimensioning and Tolerancing. Readers will specifically learn the new ASME Y14.5-2009 standard
on Dimensioning and Tolerancing. It teaches the new Y14.5 symbology, rules and basic principle
revisions that took the Y14.5 committee 15 years to complete. The result of attaining this knowledge is
that: product representations are able to be more specific in conveying tolerancing needs, products can be
more easily manufactured, and appropriate inspection techniques are clarified. Product designers,
manufacturing engineers, quality engineers, inspectors, product engineers and process engineers are just a
few of the job categories that can benefit from the material. Even those who have been trained in GD&T
will need to be trained in these vast and sweeping changes that have been instituted into this latest Y14.5
revision. This book covers all of the basics on how to interpret, apply and measure GD&T per ASME
Y14.5-2009.
Books, such as this one, are evolutions of explanations given hundreds of times by teachers and
consultants trying to find the optimal way of giving our knowledge to others. The topics to be covered
are refined, and our ways of conveying them to our students and readers get better over time. Ive been
teaching and consulting on this material for about 25 years now. This is my twelfth technical book on the
subject of dimensioning and tolerancing. At first, I believed that knowing a thing and being able to
explain a thing were synonymous. But after more than a few blank stares, and a ton of questions, one
realizes that just isnt true. So, you try to think like a student again and anticipate the questions they
would have and then answer them before it becomes necessary for them to be asked.
I used to believe that the most difficult topics were the ones that the most time should be spent on. Then I
learned that the topics that were most beneficial to allowing professionals to do their jobs more efficiently
were those that were most worthy of study and explanation. Writers and teachers learn over time.
Ive learned short, simple books sell better than long, comprehensive books. But Ive also learned that the
reader of a short book is cheated with just a little bit of knowledge and lulled into a false sense of security
about their ability to apply what they have learned. So, I write long books. I want the readers to have all
of the information they might need in one book. I want to give them all of the basic information, but also
to provide them with the more complex information for them to use when they realize that a little bit of
knowledge is simply not enough to do a good job.
This book combines basic and advanced information about the principles and applications of plus and
minus tolerancing, geometric tolerancing, tolerance stack-up analysis, statistical tolerancing, inspection,
gage and fixture design and how to read geometric controls as though the symbology was a group of
sentences trying to describe how a part functions. It is the most comprehensive book I could have written
within the shortest number of pages. Given the fact that Ive trained tens-of-thousands of people and
consulted on thousands of projects, I believe it anticipates the questions students most often worry over
and wonder about and gives them clear answers to those questions.
I would like to thank my trusted colleagues Michael Gay, Patty Hastie and Jeannie Winchell for their help
in putting this book into its present form. Michael takes my crude drawings and turns them into fine
illustrations. He puts up with countless changes, many so minor few would notice the difference. But
each change makes the illustration a little better and the explanation clearer. I would like to thank
Michael for his great work, but also for his great patience. Patty Hastie is a subject matter expert and a
friend. When she proof reads a book, she saves me from a lot of embarrassment. Her critiques span a
wide variety of ills from bad grammar to illustrations pasted into the wrong places. She also improves the

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text and the illustrations with her knowledgeable suggestions. She constantly proves to me that no one
should ever count solely on themselves to proof their own work. This book has been greatly improved by
her, and if there are still things that could be better, its probably because she told me to change
something and I chose not to. Jeannie Winchell is the one who takes my hand-scribbled pages and turns
them into a book. She coordinates the entire project and works closely with Michael and Patty to merge
illustrations and text.
I sincerely hope the information contained in this book helps you.
James D. Meadows

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Geometric Dimensioning and


Tolerancing
Applications, Analysis & Measurement
[per ASME Y14.5-2009]

James D. Meadows

James D. Meadows & Associates. Inc.

ASME Press

Downloaded From: http://ebooks.asmedigitalcollection.asme.org/ on 07/30/2014 Terms of Use: http://asme.org/terms

Table of Contents

5 Major Concepts of Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing


--Converting from Plus and Minus Tolerance to Geometric Tolerance
-Position
-Profile
-Selecting Datum Features

-Size Tolerance Controls Form Tolerance (Rule #1), GO Gages
-Flatness
-Perpendicularity
-Mating Part Tolerancing
-Reading the Feature Control Frames as a Language
-Functional Gages
-Calculating Inner and Outer Boundaries
-Virtual Condition
-Resultant Condition
-Practical Absolute Gage Tolerancing
-Bonus Tolerancing Formulas
-Allowed vs. Actual Deviation from True Position Calculations
-Conversion Chart Inches
-Conversion Chart Millimeters
-Tolerance Zone vs. Boundary Verification
-Another Difference between Bonus Tolerance (Growth) and Datum Shift
(Movement) of Tolerance Zones

58
58
63
64
64
66
67
68
71
74
74
75
75
75
76
78
82
84
85
88
89

6 Form
-Flatness
-Straightness
-Cylindricity
-Circularity (Roundness)
-Spherical Diameters Controlled with Circularity
-Average Dimensions

93
95
100
109
113
118
119

7 Orientation
-Parallelism
-Parallelism of a Tangent Plane
-Perpendicularity
-Angularity
-Angularity of a Tangent Plane
-Angularity as a Refinement of Position
-Shifting vs. Growing Tolerance Zones

120
122
128
129
136
138
140
142

8 Profile
-Profile of a Surface
-New Symbol for Unequal or Unilateral Profile Tolerancing
-Profile of a Line
-The Power and Versatility of Profile (Mating Parts)

146
147
151
160
163

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Table of Contents

-Tolerancing Mating Part Profiles


-Composite Profile
-Composite vs. Two Single Segment Profile Controls
-Profiling Patterns of Features Using 3 Levels of Profile Tolerances
-Coplanarity
-Continuous Feature of Size Symbol

-Dimension Origin Symbol
-Locating Offset Surface with Profile of a Surface
-Conicity

163
168
173
176
177
177
180
184
187

9 Runout
-Circular Runout
-Total Runout
-Comparison of Perpendicularity and Total Runout on a Planar Surface

191
192
195
203

10 Concentricity and Symmetry


-Concentricity
-Comparison of Coaxiality Controls
-Symmetry

207
208
210
215

11 Datums
-How They are Selected and What They Mean
-Specifying Degrees of Freedom

-Datum Feature Simulation
-Designating Degrees of Freedom on the Part Drawing
-Establishing a Valid Datum Plane
-Effects of Differing Datum Precedence on Part Acceptance
-Curved Surface as a Datum Feature

-Conical Datum Features
-Datum Feature Pattern Referenced Regardless of Material Boundary
-Inclined Datum Feature
-Constant Cross-Sections and Complex Datum Features
-Specifying Degrees of Freedom in the Feature Control Frame
-Multiple Datum Reference Frame Identification
-Correct Material Boundary Size Specified Next to the Datum Feature
-Correct Material Boundary Calculations
-Using the Translation Modifier
-Basic or BSC Spelled Out in a Feature Control Frame
-Planar Datum Feature Simulated at Regardless of Material Boundary (RMB)
-Planar Datum Feature Simulated at Maximum Material Boundary (MMB)
-Offset Datum Features of Size Simulated at RMB and MMB
-Profiled Datum Features Simulated at RMB and MMB
-Irregular Datum Features of Size

217
219
223
224
227
232
237
238
239
240
241
242
243
245
246
247
248
250
252
253
255
256
263

264
265

12 Centerplane Datums
-An Overview

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Table of Contents

-Centerplane Datums on Mating Parts in a Fixed Fastener Assembly

267

13Position with Fixed Fastener Assemblies and Projected Tolerance Zones


-Tolerancing Mating Parts in a Fixed Fastener Assembly
-Projected Tolerance Zones and How they are Measured
-Datum Feature Shift/Pattern Shift
-Alternate Method Using Chain Lines to Show Projected Tolerance Zones
-Calculating Clearance Hole Sizes Needed Without Projected Tolerance Zones

279
280
286
289
292
293

14Tolerancing Mating Parts in a Floating Fastener Assembly


-Floating Fastener Assembly Condition (Radial Hole Patterns)
-Assigning Datum Features to Mating Parts with Radial Hole Patterns
-Calculating Position Tolerance
-Two Single Segment Position Tolerancing
-Calculating Minimum Wall Thicknesses
-Accumulative Datum Shift on Mating Parts in an Assembly
-Tolerance Zones and Their Movement with Two Single Segment Position

294
295
296
298
300
301
303
304

15Direct vs. Indirect Relationships


-Overview
-Tolerancing Mating Parts Holding Function Directly and Indirectly
-Switching Datums in Mid-Stream
-Unique Effects of Utilizing the LMC and LMB Concepts
-Wall Thickness Calculations

305
306
308
311
311
314

16Datum Targets
-Flexible Parts, Datum Targets and Partial Datum Features
-Sheet Metal Panels and GD&T Sheets
-Equalizing Datums
-Moveable Targets, Finding the Datum Planes and Fixturing
-Datum Target Symbols for Spherical Diameters
-Centerplane Datums
-Spherical Tolerance Zones

321
322
327
329
333
335
336
337

17Datum Feature Scheme Choices


-Datum Feature Patterns and Profile
-Simultaneous Requirements
-Compound Datum Features of Size
-Secondary and Tertiary Datum Features of Size
-Finished Machining Requirements for a Cast Part

338
339
342
345
347
350

18 Flexible Parts
-Flexible Parts and Inspecting Them in the Way They Work
-Temporary Datum Features
-Common Misconceptions
-Free State Variation in Sheet Metal Parts

352
353
354
355
356

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Table of Contents

-Specifying Restrained State Inspection


-Fixturing Sheet Metal Parts
-Profile ALL OVER Controls and What They Mean

358
359
363

19Position Boundary Concept


-Position Boundary
-Elongated Holes
-Functional Gages and Virtual Condition Boundaries
-Tolerancing Hoses, Pipes and Tubing with Positional Boundary
-Tolerancing Oddly Configured Features with Positional Boundary
-Oddly Configured Datum Features and How to Represent them in Gages
-Tolerance Zones vs. Boundary Concept Explanation
-Rectangular Tolerance Zones for Round Holes
-Bi-directional Position Tolerancing, Polar Coordinate Method

366
367
367
370
371
373
374
376
378
379

20Why Use GD&T


-Multiple Interpretations of Simple Plus and Minus Tolerances
-Converting from Plus and Minus to Composite Position Tolerancing
-Calculating the Position Tolerance for a Composite Position Control
-Minimum Wall Thickness Calculation for Composite Position Tolerances
-Composite Tolerancing for Coaxial Hole Patterns
-Minimum Wall Thickness Calculations for Coaxial Hole Patterns
-Composite Position Tolerancing with 3 Levels of Control
-Differentiating Between Features of Similar Size and Shape

381
383
386
387
391
393
393
396
397

21Composite vs. Two Single Segment Positional Tolerancing


-Composite vs. Two Single Segment Positional Tolerancing
-Similarities
-Differences
-One Level Tolerancing vs. Composite Tol. and Simultaneous Requirements
-Two Single Segment Position Controls
-Refining Geometric Controls to be More Cost Effective

398
399
401
402
405
411
414

22Dimensioning and Tolerancing of Gages


-Dimensioning and Tolerancing of Gages per ASME Y14.43-2003
-GO Gages
-NOGO Gages
-Functional Gages
-Calculating to Determine Good Parts Rejected or Bad Parts Accepted
-Steps in the Development of a Dimensional Inspection Plan

423
424
424
426
427
430
436

23Tolerance Stack-Up Analysis


-Tolerance Stack-Up Analysis for a Fixed Fastener Assembly
-Rules
-Calculating Gaps; Working the Route
-Calculating Inner and Outer Boundary Means and Their Tolerances

442
443
444
445
448

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Table of Contents

-Calculating Statistical Toleranclng


-Root Sum Squares
-Bender Factor
-Reintegrating the Statistical Tolerancing into the Assembly
-A Simpler Way to Reintegrate the Statistical Tolerance
-More Statistical Formulas and Symbols
-Glossary of Statistical Terms
24How to be Specific in Calculating and Specifying Statistical Requirements
for Size and Geometric Tolerancing
-Some Useful Definitions When Geometric Tolerances are Used
-Symbology for SPC Formulas
-Arithmetic Mean; Normal Distribution of Tolerance and the Standard
Deviation; Statistical Probability for Tolerance Stack-Up Analysis for
Positional Geometric Tolerances
-Calculating a Standard Deviation

-Predicting the Amount of Tolerance to be Consumed by Manufacturing
-Charts and Tables

451
451
457
458
461
462
464

466
469
471
474
476
477
478

25Tolerance Stack-Up Analysis in a 5-Part Assembly


-Determining a MIN GAP in a Rotating Assembly
-Factors vs. Non-factors
-Alignment
-Dealing with Threaded Features
-Calculating the Pertinent Numbers
-Simplifying the Assembly Drawing
-Creating a Line Graph with Numbers to Calculate the Minimum Clearance
-Adding the Negative and Positive Designations
-Wall Thickness Calculations and Choosing the Pertinent Tolerances
-Single Part Analysis
-Using Profile Tol. and Separate Requirements for Accumulated Error

481
482
483
485
486
490
491
492
492
493
496
499

26Tolerance Stack-Up Created during Manufacture due to Changing Set Ups


-Where the Tolerance Accumulation Comes From
-Proportions and Trigonometry

502
503
504

27GD&T as a Language
-To Properly Read a Drawing
-Reading the Feature Control Frames as Sentences
-Profile
-Tolerance Zones and Pattern Shift Zones
-Reading Two Single Segment Controls
-Using Gages to Visualize a Geometric Tolerances Meaning
-Reading a GD&T Sheet
-Optional Tolerancing Approaches for Similar Results
-Gears

507
508
512
513
513
514
517
526
529
530

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Table of Contents

-Pattern Shift, Where it Comes From and How it Effects the Workpiece
-Bonus Tolerance, Virtual Condition and Zero Positional Tolerances
-Threads, Gears and Splines
-Sequential Tolerancing Using the Simultaneous Requirement Rule

28 Definitions

532
535
536
537
539

Index

568

Bibliography

573

Other GD&T Course Materials Written by James D. Meadows

574

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