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CIVIL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

SEM 1

Chain Surveying

Group: 1

Roll No.
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08

Name
Master.Mansi.H
Kalavadwala.Sebina.M
Gupta.Dhwani.V
Punjabi.Deepak.D
Patel.Aashna.M
Kanthariya.Nikita.N
Randeriya.Vishal.K
Gavit.Shivam.C

GUIDED BY:

Prof. Ratna Jadwani

Names of the instruments used in


Chain Surveying

Chains
Tapes
Arrows
Ranging Rods
Offset Rods
Pegs
Plumb bob
Open cross staff

Chains
Various types of chains
are : Metric chain
Gunters chain
Engineers chain
Revenue chain
Steel chain or band
chain

Chains
Metric chain:- Chains consist of galvanised mild steel
of 4mm diameter known as link. They are available in
20m and 30m. There are tallies at 5m,10,15m from
each end. Length of 1 link is 20cm.
Gunters chain:- 66 feet long chain consisting of 100
links.
Engineers chain:- 100 feet long chain consisting of
100 links.Used to measure length in feet and area in
sq.yards.
Revenue chain:- It is 33 feet long chain of 16 links.
Band chain:- They are more accurate,20-30m long and
12-16mm wide, 0.3-0.6mm thick.

Tapes
Various types of tapes are:-

Cloth or linen
Fibre
Metallic
Steel
Invar
They are used for more
accurate measurements.

Tapes
Cloth or linen:- They are closely woven linen and
varnished to resist moisture available in
10,20,25,30m long.
Fibre:-This are made of glass fibre,flexible ,strong
and non-conductors.they do not stretch or shrink
due to change in moisture or temperature.
Metallic tape:- this are linen tape reinforced with
brass or copper wires to avoid stretching or
twisting of fibres.

Tapes
Steel tapes:- This is made of steel ribbon of
width varying from 6 to 16mm. This are
graduated in m ,dm, cm.
Invar tape:- made of an alloy of nickle 36%
and steel 64%, having very low coefficient of
thermal expansion , Not affected by change in
temperature.

Arrows
They are made of tempered steel wire of
diameter 4mm.
One end is bent into a ring of diameter 50mm
and other end is pointed.
Overall length is 400mm.
These are used for counting number of chains
while measuring a chain line.

Arrows
Picture of arrow

Ranging Rod
Ranging rods are used for ranging some
intermediate points on the survey line.
Ranging rods are generally 2to3 m in length and
are painted with alternate bands of black and
white or red and white colors with length of each
equal to 20 cm.
The location of any survey station can be known
from long distance only by use of ranging rod, if
distance is too long , a rod of length 4 to 6 m is
used and is called ranging pole.

Ranging Rod
Image of Ranging Rod

Offset Rod
The offset rod is similar
to ranging rod with the
exception that instead
of the flag, a hook is
provided at the top for
pushing and pulling the
chain or the tape.It is
also used for measuring
small offset.

Pegs
Pegs are made of
timber or steel and they
are used to mark the
position of the stations
or terminal points of a
survey line.
Wooden pegs are 15cm
long and are driven into
the ground with help of
hammer.

Plumb Bob
Plumb bob is used to
transfer points on the
ground.
It is used for fixing the
instrument exactly over
the station point
marked on the ground
by checking the center
of instrument
coinciding with the
center of pegs or
station.

Open cross staff


This instrument is the
simplest form among all
and consists of 4 metal
arms with vertical slits
for sighting through at
right angles to each
other as shown in the
adjacent figure.
Two persons are
required for using this
instrument.