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# Experimental Rock Deformation

(651-4050-00 G)
Spring Semester; 2012

Laboratory note – 3
Uniaxial Deformation of Cylindrical Rock Sample

E=slope *Elastic curve +0. HOW 1) Apply a uniaxial load (increasing with time) on the specimen.ε (dl/L) Figure 1.2 .2% of ε A) Machine adjustment Strain . Eventually find the Poisson’s ratio.σ (Pa) Linear elastic limit Ultimate or failure strength Linear elastic part.D. 2) Record the load applied and longitudinal shortening across the sample 3) To obtain Poisson ratio: measure the increase of diameter during the test. C.Uniaxial Deformation of Cylindrical Rock Sample AIM • • • Quantitative measurement and analysis of experimental rock deformation at room pressure and temperature. . Stress/strain relation for a sandstone sample 1 inch diameter 60 mm length during an unconfined stress test. *Engineering definition for metals and plastics.E) Yield strength B) Stress . Yield strength and Ultimate strength for some rock samples. Obtain the values of: Young Modulus (E).

Preliminary phase A sensor is generally an instrument which produces or controls electric signal in function of a physical dimension applied on it. The dynamometric ring has to be placed in series with the load cell between the jaws of the hydraulic press (fig. D.3. Than with the hydraulic press apply some steps of force to the column and register the values of force read on the dynamometric ring and the voltage from the sensor. Figure 3. C) Starting of failure. load cell and dynamometric ring or load cell of calibration. 3) A sensor to measure the “barreling” of the sample => Strain gages glued on the sample attached perpendicularly to the axis of the cylindrical sample. B) Sample at the end of the elastic part. The standard sensor to employ is a dynamometric ring like in fig. E) Failure. 2) A sensor to measure the shortening across the sample => Strain sensor (LVDT). What tools we need 1) A sensor to measure the force applied on the sample => Load cell (strain gages bridge). Calibration of the load cell Following the “Calibration script” calibrate the load cell called “Francesca”. Hydraulic press. . A) Sample at the beginning of the test. The calibration is the function which relates the output (electric signal) with the input (physic dimension).3).A) B) C) D) E) Figure 2.

4 which pushes on the LVDT (fig.2).Calibration of the displacement sensor Following the “Calibration script” calibrate the displacement sensor (LVDT). Figure 4. They give an indication of deformation of the specimen in according with the positions of the strain gages and the direction of application of the stress. Micrometer head and LVDT In order to measure the Poisson ratio a strain gage can be placed normal to the axis of application of the force on the specimen (see fig. The deformation of the wire implies a change in length (L) and area (A) of the resistance wire and.1 (thick) mm) plastic layer in which an electric circuit is printed. a change in resistance of the strain gage. .4). Figure 5. The main law of the resistances says: 𝑅𝑅 = 𝜌𝜌 𝐿𝐿 𝐴𝐴 Where ρ is the resistivity of the material used to build the resistance. The standard sensor to use is a micrometric head like in fig. It is a small (10x5x0. The electric circuit is a resistance. rocks or plastics) which are tested. The red arrow shows the stretching The strain gages are applied to the materials (metals. as consequence. When the plastic foils is stretched the resistance wire is stretched as well. Strain gage A Strain Gage is used to measure strain. A is the area of the section of the resistance and L is the length of the resistance. Strain gage.

: 1 ppm/°C (0. 120 Ohms (check this value on the strain gage label).0103%/°C (-0.0% Thermal Properties: GF = ΔRg �Rg 𝜀𝜀 eq. solder dots (karma) Nominal Resistance: 350 Ohms Resistance Tolerance: 0.: -5 to 120°C (23 to 248°F) Tolerance of Temp Comp.000 μS Hysteresis: Negligible Fatigue (@ 1.: Static: -30 to 250°C (-22 to 482°F) Dynamic: -30 to 300°C (-22 to 572°F) Temperature Comp: (zero) Carbon Steel (ferritic): +11 ppm/°C Stainless Steel (austenitic): +17 ppm/°C Aluminum: +23 ppm/°C Compensated Temp.000.A non-stressed strain gage exhibit the nominal resistance(Rg) which could be. The change of resistance (∆Rg) in function of strain (ε) is expressed by the gage factor (GF): SPECIFICATIONS Foil Thickness: 5 μm Carrier Material: Polyimide Carrier Thickness: 50 μm Connections: Solder pads (constantan gages).1 Reference Temp.0 nominal (actual value printed on package) Gage Factor Tolerance: 1.0050%/°F) Karma (SS comp): 0.5 ppm/°F) Gage Factor Temp Coefficient: Constantan: 0. for instance.: 23°C (73°F) Service Temp.0090%/°C (+0.5% Gage Factor: 2.000 cycles Smallest Bending Radius: 3 mm .500 μS): >10.0057%/°F) Mechanical Properties: Maximum Strain: 3% or 30.

1) 𝜀𝜀 = ΔRg �Rg GF ε=0.2% eq.2 .Strain Gages are always inserted in a resistance circuit (Bridge). Strain gage (Rg) in a Wheastone bridge. The most common bridge is the Wheastone Bridge: R2 R1 Vin Vout I1 I2 Rg R4 (Strain gage) Figure 6.2) Rg*=120.01 Volts Rg*=Strain gage resistance under stress ε=? (from eq.48 Ohms (from eq. 𝑅𝑅1 = 𝑅𝑅2 = 𝑅𝑅4 = 𝑅𝑅 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 𝐼𝐼1 = (𝑅𝑅 + 𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅) 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 𝐼𝐼2 = (2𝑅𝑅) 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 = �(𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 − 𝑅𝑅 𝐼𝐼1) − 𝑅𝑅 𝐼𝐼2� 1 𝑅𝑅 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 = 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 �2 − 𝑅𝑅+𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅 � Example (under stress) R1=R2=R4=R=120 Ohms GF=2 Rg=120 Ohms (not under stress) Vin=10 Volts Vout=0.002 = 0.48 Ohms 𝑅𝑅𝑅𝑅 ∗= 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 𝑅𝑅 𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 −𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉𝑉 � 2 � − 𝑅𝑅 ∆Rg=0.

A primary coil is supplied with an alternate current (AC). The magnetic field generates by the primary is concatenated with a secondary circuit which is formed by 2 coils. Test Materials: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Uniaxial press (JENNY max load 200kN) Load cell (full scale 200kN) LVDT (full scale 5 mm) Strain gauges (120 Ohm) Analog to Digital converter (A/D) + Power supplier PC + Matlab script Excel or Matlab or Octave* to elaborate the data Cylindrical Rock samples (20 < diameter [mm] < 28) Force Load cell Sample Strain gages PC A/D Power supplier *http://www. LVDT scheme.gnu. The advantage of this sensor is that there is not friction between mechanical parts (e. The concatenation between primary and secondary is modulated by a ferromagnetic road (movable magnetic core fig. the brushes in a linear potentiometer) because the magnetic core is not touching the coils but it is just connected with the movable part.org/software/octave/ LVDT . LVDT with full scale of 1 mm can measure nanometric (10e-9 m) displacements. Figure 7.g. 7) which is the item that measures the displacement.LVDT Linear Variable Differential Transducer or LVDTs are common sensors used to measure displacement.

Example of result (without error evaluation) .

omega. Geotechnical Instrumentation for monitoring field performance.1993 http://www.html .References John Dunnicliff.com/literature/transactions/volume3/strain. Wiley Interscience .