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TEACHING of MATERIALS

Biological Diversity
FOR senior HIGH SCHOOL
Class X Semester I

By :
Sri Wahyuningsih
1114040199

DEPARTMENT OF BIOLOGY
FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCES
STATE UNIVERSITY OF MAKASSAR
2015

1. Biological Diversity
a. Different Levels of Biodiversity Biodiversity can occur at various levels of life,
ranging from low-level organisms to higher organisms. For example from being
unicellular to multicellular organisms; and the level of organization of life of the
individual up to the level of complex interactions, for example from species to
ecosystems. Broadly speaking, biodiversity is divided into three levels, namely: 1.
gene diversity
Every living organism nature is controlled by a pair of heredity (genes), one from the
male parent and another from the female parent. This level of diversity can
indicated by the variation in the types. for example:
- Variations in the type of oil: palm ivory, green coconuts
- Variations in type of dog: bulldog, German shepherd, mongrel
That makes the last variation is: Formula: F = G + L
F = phenotype
G = genotif
L = environment
If G changed for any reason (mutation etc.) or L changes will occur changes in F.
The change is what causes the variation earlier.

Figure. Morphological variation in the types of wheat due to the cross


2. Diversity of species (species)
This diversity is more noticeable than the diversity of genes. This level of biological
diversity can be demonstrated by the range both kinds of living beings who belong to a
group of animals, plants and microbes. for example:
- Variations in the family between cats and tigers. they include in one family (family /
family Felidae) although there are physical differences,
behavior and habitat.
3. Ecosystem diversity
This level of diversity can be demonstrated by the variety of ecosystems in the biosphere.
for example: moss ecosystems, tropical forest ecosystems, desert ecosystems, each
ecosystem have organisms that are typical for these ecosystems. for example again,
ecosystems in which there is a camel desert, cacti, and tropical forest ecosystems in
which there is tiger. These three kinds of diversity can not be separated one from other.
All three are seen as a whole or totality is as biodiversity.

Benefits of Studying Biological Diversity


1. By knowing the gene diversity is the basis for perform genetic engineering and
hybridization (interbreeding) to get the seeds winning is expected.
2. By knowing the biodiversity types can lead us to looking for an alternative of foodstuffs,
clothing and shelter, also can leads us choose superior animals that can be cultivated.
3. By knowing the diversity of our ecosystems can develop biological resources that match
a particular ecosystem so can improve agriculture and livestock, which in turn can
improve the welfare of the community.
Classification System
Divided into 3
1. Natural Classification System
- Created by Theophrastus (370SM - 285SM), one pupil Aristotle
- Is based on a form that can be seen with the naked eye (morphology)
- Plants were divided into 4 groups: trees, bushes, shrubs and herbaceous
2. Classification System Made
- Created by Carolus Linnaeus (1707-1778), Swedish scientist
- Known as the Father Classification
- The basis used is sexual reproduction, other base used is morphology.
- The classification of living things based changes Her on humans
- For example toxic or useful, pets or wild, weeds or vegetable.
3. Phylogenetic Classification System
- Coined by Charles Darwin in 1859, published a book about the theory of evolution.
- He stated that equality body structure shows closer kinship.
- Based on the order of living creatures development (phylogeny) and know the kinship
between one other.

Fig. phylogeny tree of bears and raccoon


How to Classification and Nomenclature

LEVEL Taxonomy
Also called grouping. Level is organized by groups (taxa). The most common to the most
special group, with order levels as follows:
1. Regnum / Kingdom (World / Kingdom)
2. Divisio / Phyllum (Plant / Animals)
3. Classis (Class)
4. Order (Nation)
5. Familia (Tribe)
6. Genus (Highways)
7. Species (type) oon
Nomenclature
In naming living things we know the name of the region (dog, dogs) and scientific name (ex:
canine). Area name can only be understood by the population in that area. Scientific name is
used as a means of scientific communication worldwide using the Latin / are dilatinkan. Each
organism has only one legitimate name.
HOW TO NAME OF GIVING
Nomenclature system used is called "binomial nomenclature" i.e. giving
name species / species by using two words. For example: rice> Oryza sativa.
How To:
Prepositions: surname (genus)
Said rear: User name of the species (species epithet). binomial system
nomenclature popularized its use by Carolus Linnaeus.
HOW TO GIVING NAME CLASS, NATION AND FAMILY
1. The class name is the genus name + nae. examples: Equisetum + nae, becoming class
Equisetinae.
2. The name of the order is the genus name + ales. example: Zingiber + ales, be of the order
Zingiberales.
3. The family name is the genus name + aceae. example: Canna + aceae, become family
Cannacea