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1.1 INTRODUCTION
Organizational Climate is a very popular subject for research in the domain
of industrial and organizational psychology. The origin and the use of the specific
term are found to be as old as the original concept of management itself.
Organizational climate (sometimes known as Corporate Climate) is the process of
quantifying the climate of an organization. It is a set of properties of the work
environment, perceived directly or indirectly by the employees, that is assumed to be
a major force in influencing employee behaviour.
Rigopoulos defined Organizational Climate as a normative structure of
attitudes and behavioural standards which provided a basis for interpreting the
situations and act as a source of pressure for directing activities.
Organizational climate is a term that was probably first used by Cornell in
1955. He used the term to denote a "delicate blending of interpretations or
perceptions by persons in the organization of their jobs or roles in relationship to
others and their interpretation of the roles of others in the organization". He
interpreted organization in the sense of a formal structure. The term organizational
climate has been defined in different ways by different writers. Argyris (1957) used
the term 'personality or organizational climate while some others referred the term as
'a general flow of behaviour and feeling' and felt the organizational climate to be the
interaction between environmental and personal variables of members of a group or
groups which operate in an organization
.
Organizational climate is created by the interaction, with one another, of the
organizational components, namely climate, structure, system, leadership behavior
and psychological needs of the members of the organization. Thus a climate may be
seen as hostile or supportive, as conducive to achievement or stifling Organizational
climate is an idea in the field of organizational studies and management which
describes the psychology, attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values (personal and
cultural values) of an organization. It has been defined as "the specific collection of
values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization that control
the way they interact with each other and with stakeholders outside the organization.

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According to Kotter and Hackett organizations with adaptive climates
perform much better than organizations with unadaptive climates. An adaptive
climate translates into organizational success; it is characterized by managers paying
close attention to all of their constituencies, especially customers, initiating change
when needed, and taking risks. An adaptive climate can significantly reduce a firm's
effectiveness, disabling the firm from pursuing all its competitive/operational options.
Ravish and Schultz state that organizational climate is a set of shared mental
assumptions that guide interpretation and action in organizations by defining
appropriate behavior for various situations. Although its difficult to get consensus
about the definition of organizational climate, several constructs are commonly
agreed upon that organizational climate is holistic, historically determined, related
to anthropological concepts, socially constructed, soft, and difficult to change.
In the past 25 years, the concept of organizational climate has gained wide
acceptance as a way to understand human systems. From an "open-systems"
perspective, each aspect of organizational climate can be seen as an important
environmental condition affecting the system and its subsystems. The examination of
organizational climate is also a valuable analytical tool in his own right. Gareth
Morgan describes climate as "an active living phenomenon through which people
jointly creates and recreates the worlds in which they
Organizational climate, on the other hand, is often defined as the recurring
patterns of behavior, attitudes and feelings that characterize life in the organization,
while an organization climate tends to be deep and stable. Although climate and
climate are related, climate often proves easier to assess and change. At an individual
level of analysis the concept is called individual psychological climate. These
individual perceptions are often aggregated or collected for analysis and
understanding at the team or group level, or the divisional, functional, or overall
organizational level.

1.2 INDUSTRY PROFILE

History of the Indian Airlines


At the time of Indias independence from the British in 1947, several small
airlines operated in the country. Soon, however, in 1953, the government of India decided
to guide the orderly growth and evolution of the industry by creating two state-owned
national carriers Air India (for international travel) and Indian Airlines (for domestic
travel). Existing carriers (many of which were making losses) were folded into these
airlines. In a country of Indias size and diverse topological features, air travel was
expected to be an important mode of travel.
The Emergence of New Indian Airlines
The steady growth of the Indian economy after liberalization at a compounded
annual growth rate exceeding 6% increased the size of the economy, and hence demands
for both business and leisure travel. The emergence of a new Indian middle class was a
well-documented and internationally recognized phenomenon. Besides, the number of air
travellers and per capita use of airline services in China were about eight times that of
India. Sensing opportunity, a new phase of development of the Indian airline industry
kicked off in 2003with the entry of new players into the airline industry. In spite of the
fact that several costs of operating an airline were fixed irrespective of business model
(one estimate put the proportion as high as 80%), most of the new entrants chose to use
low fares as their main competitive weapon and hoped to create low-cost operations to
make these low fares viable.
Air Deccan
Air Deccan was able to capture the imagination of the public and demand grew
rapidly for its services thanks to its throwaway fares, the airline itself was plagued by
operational problems as it sought to aggressively expand its network and fleet size. In the
process, it developed a reputation for delays, poor service and lack of reliability. While
the established players Indian Airlines, Jet and Sahara - initially ignored Air Deccan,
the obvious demand for air travel at lower fares and the urge to fill vacant seats prompted
them to start discounting fares as well. This took the form of a limited number of seats
sold at lower prices (apex fares) if purchased 7, 15 or 21 days in advance with
substantial penalties for cancellation. Later, as other low-cost carriers entered the

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airline industry, discounting without the pre-purchase requirements of the Apex fares
became the norm.
Other Low-cost Airlines
Air Deccans growth in the Indian aviation sector induced other players to enter as
well. Two of the new entrants Spice Jet and Indigo followed the classical low-cost
airline model of very competitive fares, a single type of aircraft and a single class of
service, point-to-point operations, quick turnarounds, no frills, and internet-based
ticketing. Launched in May 2005 by NRI investors and Indian entrepreneurs with
operating experience, SpiceJet built its operating model around the new generation
Boeing 737s, the workhorse of Southwest Airlines. SpiceJet was focused on twin pillars
of cost control and growing its ancillary revenue. It used partnerships with global leaders
in their respective fields to enhance safety and reliability. It also made significant
investments in information technology to provide a backbone for operational
effectiveness.
These approaches resulted in Spice Jet achieving the lowest costs in the industry
(Rs. 2.65/Available Seat Kilometer (ASKM) in 2008) and a flight dispatch reliability
exceeding 99.5%. Some analysts believed that SpiceJets efficiency was comparable to
that of the legendary low-cost airlines an ICICIDirect report in 2007 placed Spice Jets
operating cost (excluding lease rentals) per ASKM at Rs. 2.15 compared to Rs. 2.21 for
Southwest Airlines. Spice Jet had 5 aircraft in its fleet at the end of the first year of
operations, and had ramped up to 18 aircraft covering 17 destinations and 117 flights
daily by May 2008. SpiceJet had another 30 aircraft on order for delivery between 2008
and 2011.IndiGolaunched a year later than Spice Jet but followed similar business model
except that it was based on the A-320 aircraft. Indigo made the headlines when it
announced an order for 100 A-320 aircraft soon after its inception. Indigo was started by
NRI investors with significant airlines experience including Rakesh Gangwal, former
CEO of US Air. By April 2008, Indigo was operating 17 aircraft out of the 100 ordered
and flew to 17 destinations.
Restructuring of the Industry

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The rapid increase in costs combined with competitive pressures to keep fares low
threatened the survival of relatively less efficient airlines. At the same time, leadership in
terms of size (see Exhibit 10 for evolution of fleet size) and market share (see Exhibit 11
for changes in domestic airline market shares over time) emerged as a quest of some of
the industrys important personalities. These developments spurred consolidation
initiatives.The first of these was the takeover of Sahara by Jet Airways. This acquisition
gave Jet access to Saharas fleet of Boeing 737 and CRJ aircraft, and, more importantly,
Saharas parking slots in major Indian airports.
Though the deal was announced in early 2006, Jet completed acquisition of
Sahara in April 2007 and decided to run the airline as a value carrier subsidiary under the
brand name JetLite. Post-acquisition, Jet found that JetLites aircraft were in poor shape
and needed considerable attention and investment to be brought up to efficient
performance standards. (The process of restoring Saharas aircraft to operational
readiness was still going on as of April 2008). Over time, they hoped to bring about a
high degree of operational synergy between the two airlines.
Soon after the takeover, Saharas frequent flyer programme was closed and all its
members transferred to the Jet Privilege programme of Jet. Flights on JetLite were
eligible for mileage points on Jet Privilege. An even bigger acquisition was to follow in
mid-2007, Kingfisher acquired a controlling stake in Air Deccan.
Kingfisher justified the acquisition based on synergies in aircraft maintenance,
and spares since Air Deccan and Kingfisher both had fleets of the same types of aircraft
(A-320 jets and ATR turboprop). Other shared services would include sales and
marketing, ground handling, engineering services, customer service, and training. Over
time, Kingfisher hoped to mesh routes and frequencies through combined strengths of
network reach, connections, frequencies, and infrastructure.

1.3 COMPANY PROFILE


ORGANIZATION:

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Airports Authority of India (AAI) was constituted by an Act of Parliament and
came into being on 1st April 1995 by merging erstwhile National Airports Authority and
International Airports Authority of India. The merger brought into existence a single
Organization entrusted with the responsibility of creating, upgrading, maintaining and
managing civil aviation infrastructure both on the ground and air space in the country.
AAI manages 125 airports, which include 11 International Airport, 08 Customs
Airports, 81 Domestic Airports and 27 Civil Enclaves at Defense airfields. AAI provides
air navigation services over 2.8 million square nautical miles of air space. During the year
2008- 09, AAI handled aircraft movement of 1306532 Nos. [International 270345 &
Domestic 1036187], Passengers handled 44262137 Nos. [International 1047614 &
Domestic 33785990] and the cargo handled 499418 tons [International 318242 &
Domestic 181176].
Passenger Facilities
The main functions of AAI inter-alia include construction, modification &
management of passenger terminals, development & management of cargo terminals,
development & maintenance of apron infrastructure including runways, parallel taxiways,
apron etc., Provision of Communication, Navigation and Surveillance which includes
provision of DVOR / DME, ILS, ATC radars, visual aids etc., provision of air traffic
services, provision of passenger facilities and related amenities at its terminals thereby
ensuring safe and secure operations of aircraft, passenger and cargo in the country.
Air Navigation Services
In tune with global approach to modernization of Air Navigation infrastructure
for seamless navigation across state and regional boundaries, AAI has been going ahead
with its plans for transition to satellite based Communication, Navigation, Surveillance
and Air Traffic Management. A number of co-operation agreements and memoranda of
co-operation have been signed with US Federal Aviation Administration, US Trade &
Development Agency, European Union, Air Services Australia and the French
Government Co-operative Projects and Studies initiated to gain from their experience.

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Through these activities more and more executives of AAI are being exposed to the latest
technology, modern practices & procedures being adopted to improve the overall
performance of Airports and Air Navigation Services.
Induction of latest state-of-the-art equipment, both as replacement and old
equipments and also as new facilities to improve standards of safety of airports in the air
is a continuous process. Adoptions of new and improved procedure go hand in hand with
induction of new equipment. Some of the major initiatives in this direction are
introduction of Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) in India air space to
increase airspace capacity and reduce congestion in the air; implementation of GPS And
Geo Augmented Navigation (GAGAN) jointly with ISRO which when put to operation
would be one of the four such systems in the world.
Security
The continuing security environment has brought into focus the need for
strengthening security of vital installations. There was thus an urgent need to revamp the
security at airports not only to thwart any misadventure but also to restore confidence of
traveling public in the security of air travel as a whole, which was shaken after 9/11
tragedy. With this in view, a number of steps were taken including deployment of CISF
for airport security, CCTV surveillance system at sensitive airports, latest and state-ofthe-art X-ray baggage inspection systems, premier security & surveillance systems. Smart
Cards for access control to vital installations at airports are also being considered to
supplement the efforts of security personnel at sensitive airports
Aerodrome Facilities
In Airports Authority of India, the basic approach to planning of airport
facilities has been adopted to create capacity ahead of demand in our efforts. Towards
implementation of this strategy, a number of projects for extension and strengthening of
runway, taxi track and aprons at different airports has been taken up. Extension of runway
to 7500 ft. has been taken up to support operation for Airbus-320/Boeing 737-800
category of aircrafts at all airports.

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HRD Training
A large pool of trained and highly skilled manpower is one of the major assets
of Airports Authority of India. Development and Technological enhancements and
consequent refinement of operating standards and procedures, new standards of safety
and security and improvements in management techniques call for continuing training to
update the knowledge and skill of officers and staff. For this purpose AAI has a number
of training establishments, viz. NIAMAR in Delhi, CATC in Allahabad, Fire Training
Centres at Delhi & Kolkata for in-house training of its engineers, Air Traffic Controllers,
Rescue & Fire Fighting personnel etc. NIAMAR & CATC are members of ICAO
TRAINER programme under which they share Standard Training Packages (STP) from a
central pool for imparting training on various subjects. Both CATC & NIAMAR have
also contributed a number of STPs to the Central pool under ICAO TRAINER
programme. Foreign students have also been participating in the training programme
being conducted by these institutions
IT Implementation
Information Technology holds the key to operational and managerial
efficiency, transparency and employee productivity. AAI initiated a programme to
indoctrinate IT culture among its employees and this is most powerful tool to enhance
efficiency

in

the

organization.

AAI

website

with

domain

name

www.airportsindia.org.in or www.aai.aero is a popular website giving a host of


information about the organization besides domestic and international flight information
of interest to the public in general and passengers in particular.

1.4 NEED FOR THE STUDY

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The main need of this study is to analyze the working conditions of the
employees in this organization .The satisfaction level of the employees can also be
measured .It will also help in knowing the expectations of employees regarding the
changes to be made in order to make it much more effective. Based on this study some
measures can also be suggested to improve the standard of current organization climate
conditions.

1.5 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

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PRIMARY OBJECTIVE:

To study the effectiveness of organizational climate in AIRPORT


AUTHORITY OF INDIA

SECONDARY OBJECTIVES:

To measure the satisfaction level of employees regarding the present

organizational climate.
To know the expectations of employees regarding their organizational climate
and suggest measures to improve their present organizational climate.

1.6 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

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Based on the study the company can improve the employees satisfaction
level through identifying their needs in the organization. So that the employees will work
effectively and efficiently and the production will also be increased. The working
condition will be improved in the organization and all facilities will be provided in the
organization. The relationship between employees and supervisors will be good and
rewards will be given for employee motivation.

1.7 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

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Organizational climate:
Organizational climate tends to be shared by all or most members of some social
group; is something that older members usually try to pass on to younger members;
shapes behavior and structures perceptions of the world. Climates are often studied and
understood at a national level, such as the American or French climate. Climate includes
deeply held values, beliefs and assumptions, symbols, heroes, and rituals. Climate can be
examined at an organizational level as well. The main distinction between organizational
and national climate is that people can choose to join a place of work, but are usually
boon into a national climate.
Organizational climate, on the other hand, is often defined as the recurring
patterns of behavior, attitudes and feelings that characterize life in the organization, while
an organization climate tends to be deep and stable. Although climate and climate are
related, climate often proves easier to assess and change. At an individual level of
analysis the concept is called individual psychological climate. These individual
perceptions are often aggregated or collected for analysis and understanding at the team
or group level, or the divisional, functional, or overall organizational level.
According to Watkin and Hubbard, high-performing organizations have climates
with particular measurable characteristics, which has shown how organizational climate
can directly account for up to 30% of the variance in key business performance measures.
This is supported by research that examined the relationship between the way in which
employees describe their work environments and the relative performance success of
these environments .Watkin and Hubbard contend that climate does make a difference to
organizations performance because it indicates how energizing the work environment is
for employees. There is, however, clearly more to an organizations performance than an
energized employee or the presence of certain organizational and leadership
characteristics: productivity also depends on the morale which governs discretionary
effort the willingness to go the extra mile

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Approaches to define organization climate


There are two related difficulties in defining organization climate: how to define
climate, and how to measure it effectively on different levels of analysis. Furthermore,
there are several approaches to the concept of climate. Two in particular have received
substantial patronage: the cognitive schema approach and the shared perception
approach.
The cognitive schema approach regards the concept of climate as an individual
perception and cognitive representation of the work environment. From this perspective
climate assessments should be conducted at an individual level.
The shared perception approach emphasizes the importance of shared perceptions
as underpinning the notion of climate. Organizational climate has also been defined as
"the shared perception of the way things are around here".
Organizational climate and culture
The concepts of organizational climate and organizational culture are often used
interchangeably, with researchers in organizational studies treating the concepts as if they
were identical. Organizational climate and organizational culture are similar concepts.
Not only do they both describe the experiences of employees and assist us in
understanding psychological phenomena in particular organizations but they also provide
explanations regarding how organizations influence behavior, attitudes and the wellbeing of individuals, why some organizations are more able to adapt to environmental
changes and why some organizations are more successful than others.
Organizational climate dimensions
The definitions and approaches to organizational climate are diverse. In the
literature, it is evident that the same applies to the dimensions and measurement of
organizational climate because various researchers use a wide variety of dimensions to
assess organizational climate Although many dimensions have been identified, this
research utilized dimensions that were developed specifically for this study. Comparisons
were drawn between these dimensions and those of Coetzee and Wiley and Brooks, and
there is a great deal of overlap among the models.

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Characteristics of Organizational Climate


Organizational climate is the ultimate quality of internal structure of an
organizational environment experienced by all its members. As it has been revealed, the
internal environment of an organization is greatly influential on the kind of behavior
exhibited by its members. In this regard, an organizational climate comprises of a set of
features that distinguish an organization from another by having a distinct set of rules and
regulations that control all the processes in an organization. Basically, an organizational
climate of an organization is described by a certain set of characteristics depicted in the
organization According to Landy& Conte characteristics of an organizational climate
include:
Varying modes of integration of organizational and personal goals; which varies
from one organization to another.Appropriate organizational structure in which each
organization has its own distinct structure from the others. Specific democratic
functioning with appropriate opportunities for participation. Equitable human resource
management which should practice justice and fairness by having suitable employment
relations policies. Mutual trust consideration and support among different levels of
organization. Open discussions to resolve conflicts and avoid any firm of confrontations
among the employees and the management.
Managerial and leadership behaviors which varies from one organization to
another. Acceptance of psychological contrasts between individuals and the entire
organizations management systems.Recognition of employees needs and expectations at
work in the organization.Consideration of flexibility and work balance in the organization
with reference to the various changes within the organization .Opportunities to enhance
interpersonal and career development among the employees and the entire organizational
fraternity.Sense of loyalty and identity with the organization as a result of employees
feeling valued within the organization.

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1.8 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem.
It may be understood as a science of studying how research is done scientifically. In it we
study the various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research
problem along with the logic behind them. It is necessary for the researcher to know not
only the research methods/techniques but also methodology.
RESEARCH DESIGN
A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis
of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy
in procedure. The research design took for the study was descriptive research design.
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH
It includes surveys and fact-finding enquiries of different kinds. The major
purpose of descriptive research is a description of the state of affairs as it exists at
present. The main characteristic of this method is that the researcher has no control over
the variables; he can only report what has happened or what is happening.
The researcher has followed a descriptive research design for the study and has
no control over the variables. The research aims to study the existing practices as they
are.
QUESTIONNAIRE:
The primary instrument used in the study is the questionnaire . A
questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of questions and other
prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondents. Although they are
often designed for statistical analysis of the responses, this is not always the case.
Questionnaires have advantages over some other types of surveys in that they
are cheap, do not require as much effort from the questioner as verbal or telephone
surveys, and often have standardized answers that make it simple to compile data.
However, such standardized answers may frustrate users
DATA COLLECTION:

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NATURE AND SOURCE OF DATA
There are two types of data collection. They are

Primary data collection


Secondary data collection
Data can be primary or secondary and whether one or both are used, and which

is used, depends largely on the research question and the availability of these data
sources. Secondary data refers to data gathered by others or from other studies.
Secondary data is generally less costly and less time consuming than gathering primary
data, typically is accumulated before primary data is gathered and may even help
determine the course by which primary data is pursued. Data observed or collected
directly from first-hand experience. Published data and the data collected in the past or
other parties are called secondary data.
Both primary and secondary sources of data are used in this study. Primary
data was collected directly from the employees with the help of questionnaire and the
secondary sources of data are from books, journals and internet.
SAMPLE DESIGN
A sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given
population. It refers to the technique or the procedure it would adopt in selecting items
for the sample. Sample design must result in a truly representative sample. It must be
such which results in a small sampling error. It must be viable in the context of funds
available for the research study.
SAMPLING UNIT
A decision has to be taken concerning a sampling unit before selecting sample.
Sampling unit may be a geographical one such as state, district, village, etc., or a
construction unit such as house, flat, etc., or it may be a social unit such as family, club,
school, etc., or it may be an individual. The researcher will have to decide one or more of
such units that he has to select for his study.
Data collected from the HR executives & staffs of Airport Authority of India where
912 employee.
SAMPLE METHODS

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The sampling technique chosen to carry out this study is Random sampling.
Random sampling means where from a finite population refers to that method of sample
selection which gives each possible sample combination an equal probability of being
picked up and each item in the entire population to have an equal chance of being
included in the sample. It gives each element in the population an equal probability of
getting into the sample; and all choices are independent of one another. It gives each
possible sample combination an equal probability of being chosen.
POPULATION SIZE:
The survey conducted among 1500 people, the target group was a mix of
employees from all levels.
SAMPLE SIZE:
The sample size taken for the study is 250 respondents.
SAMPLING FRAME
The elementary units or the group or cluster of such units may form the basis
of sampling process in which case they are called as sampling units. A list containing all
such sampling unit is known as sampling frame. Thus sampling frame consists of a list of
items from which the sample is to be drawn. If the population is finite and the time frame
is in the present or past, then it is possible for the frame to be identical with the
population. In most cases they are not identical because it is often impossible to draw a
sample directly from population.
HYPOTHESIS
A proposition, or set of propositions, set forth as an explanation for
the occurrence of some specified group of phenomena, either asserted merely as a
provisional conjecture to guide investigation (working hypothesis) or accepted as highly
probable in the light of established facts.
Null Hypothesis
The null hypothesis is the proposition that implies no effect or no relationship
between phenomena. The null hypothesis is popular because it can be tested and found to
be false, which then implies there is a relationship between the observed data, also known
as H0, no-difference hypothesis
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS

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The proposition that some condition or relationship exists, accepted in scientific
or academic research, if the results fail to support the "null hypothesis" that it does not
exist. A testable statement that states the expected result of the study, specifying the effect
of the independent variable upon the dependent variable, based on the researcher's
knowledge from observations, related studies and previous investigations.
RESEARCH TOOL:
i) PERCENTAGE METHOD
In the case of dichotomous and multiple choice questions percentage
calculated as a part of the analysis of such questions. It refers to the special kind of ratio.
Percentages are used in making comparisons between two or more series of data. It is
used to give a tabulated representation of the respondents viewpoint
Formula:

Percentage method

No of respondents

100

Total no of respondents
ii) CHI-SQUARE TEST FOR GOODNESS OF FIT 2:
The chi-square distribution is used in the common chi-square tests for goodness
of fit of an observed distribution to a theoretical one, the independence of two criteria of
classification of qualitative data, and in confidence interval estimation for a population
standard deviation of a normal distribution from a sample standard deviation. Many other
statistical tests also use this distribution, like Friedman's analysis of variance by ranks.
Formula:
2 = (O - E)2
E

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Where O is the Observed Frequency in each category
E is the Expected Frequency in the corresponding category
df is the "degree of freedom" (n-1)
2 is Chi Square
iii) WEIGHTED AVERAGE METHOD:
Mean in which each item being averaged is multiplied by a number (weight)
based on the items relative importance. The result is summed and the total is divided by
the sum of the Weights. Weighted averages are used extensively in descriptive statistical
analysis such as Index number. Also called weighted mean. It is calculated by the formula
given below.
Weighted average method

WX
--------W

1.9 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


This study is completed by considering only the sample of 250 respondents.

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The study has carried out only with the available limited information given by an
organization.
Based on the opinion given by the employees only the study has been carried out.

2.1 DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

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Analysis and Interpretation is an important part of any kind of inter data
analysis the researcher can begin to identify relationship between various data that will
help to understand more about the respondents and guide towards better decisions. The
tools for this study are Chi-Square, correlation co-efficient method and Percentage
Analysis and Weighted average.
Table No. 2.1 Table showing gender of employees in the organization

S.NO
1
2

NO.OF.RESPONDENTS
163

PERCENTAGE (%)
65.2

Female

87

34.8

TOTAL

250

100

OPTIONS
Male

Interpretation:
From the above table, it is clear that, 65.2 % of respondents are male and 34.8%
percent of respondents are Female.
Chart No. 2.1 (a) Chart showing gender of employees in the organization
70
60
50
40
PERCENTAGE (% ) 30
20
10
0

65.2

34.8

Male

Female
OPTIONS

Table No. 2.2 Table showing respondents experience level in organization

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S.NO.
1
2
3
4

OPTIONS
Below 1 yr
2-5 yrs
5-10 yrs
Above 10 yrs
TOTAL

NO.OF RESPONDENTS
27
54
83
86
250

PERCENTAGE(%)
10.8
21.6
33.2
34.4
100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is inferred that 34.4% of employees are working for more
than 10 years; 33.2% of employees are working for five to ten years; 21.6% of employees
are working for two to five years and 10.8% of employees are working below one year.
Chart No. 2.2 (a) Chart showing respondents experience level in organization

40
35
30
25
20
PERCENTAGE (% )
15
10
5
0

33.2

34.4

21.6
10.8

Below 1 yr

2-5 yrs

5-10 yrs Above 10 yrs

OPTIONS

Table No. 2.3 Table showing employees level of job involvement towards their work

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S.NO.
1
2
3

NO.OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE(%)

OPTIONS
High
Medium
Low
TOTAL

132

52.8
33.2
14
100

83
35
250

Interpretation:
From the above table it is inferred that 52.8% of employees have high level of job
involvement towards their work, 33.2% of employees have medium level of involvement
towards their work and 14% of employees have low level of involvement towards their
work.
Chart No. 2.3(a) Chart showing employees level of job involvement towards their
work

60

52.8

50
40
PERCENTAGE (% )

33.2

30
20

14

10
0
High

Medium

Low

OPTIONS

Table No. 2.4 Table showing employees opinion towards job security provided by the
organization

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NO.OF RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE (%)

Yes

169

67.6

No

81

32.4

250

100

OPTIONS

S.NO
1
2

TOTAL

Interpretation:
From the above table it is inferred that 67.6% of employees says that the
organization provides job security and 32.4% of employees says that the organization
does not provide job security.
Chart No. 2.4 (a) Chart showing employees opinion towards job security provided
by the organization
80
70

67.6

60
50
PERCENTAGE (% )

40

32.4

30
20
10
0
Yes

No
OPTIONS

Table No. 2.5 Table showing employees level of satisfaction towards the job security
provided by their organization

S.NO.

OPTIONS

NO. OF
RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE(%)

25
1
2
3
4
5.

Highly satisfied
Satisfied
Neutral
Dissatisfied
Highly dissatisfied
TOTAL

38
59
68
47
38
250

15.6
23.6
27
18.8
15
100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is inferred that 27% of employees are neutral; 23.6%
of employees are satisfied; 18.8% of employees are dissatisfied: 15.6% of employees are
highly satisfied and 15% of employees are highly dissatisfied towards the job security
provided by the organization.

Chart No. 2.5 (a) Chart showing employees level of satisfaction towards the job
security provided by their organization

30

24

25
20
PERCENTAGE(% )

15

27
19

15

15

10
5
0
Highly satisfied

Neutral

Highly dissatisfied

OPTIONS

Table No. 2.6 Table showing employees opinion towards their level of interpersonal
relationship with their co-workers

S.NO.
1

OPTIONS
Excellent

NO.OF RESPONDENTS
68

PERCENTAGE(%)
27.2

26
2
3
4

Good
Average
Poor
TOTAL

87
46
49
250

34.8
18.4
19.6
100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is inferred that 34.8% of employees have good
interpersonal relationship with their co-workers; 27.2% of employees have excellent
interpersonal relationship with their co-workers; 19.6% of employees have poor
interpersonal relationship with their co-workers and 18.4% of employees have average
interpersonal relationship with their co-workers.
Chart No. 2.6 (a) Chart showing employees opinion towards their level of
interpersonal relationship with their co-workers
100

87

90
80
70

68

60
PERCENTAGE(% )

50

46

49

Average

Poor

40
30
20
10
0

Excellent

Good
OPTIONS

Table No. 2.7 Table showing employees opinion towards their level of interpersonal
relationship with

S.NO
1

superiors

OPTIONS
Good

NO OF.RESPONDENTS
169

PERCENTAGE (%)
67.6

27
2

Bad
TOTAL

81

32.4

250

100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is inferred that 67.6% of employees says good and says bad
as their opinion towards the their interpersonal relationship level with their superiors.

Chart No. 2.7(a) Chart showing employees opinion towards their level of
interpersonal relationship with superiors
80
70

67.6

60
50
PERCENTAGE(% )

40

32.4

30
20
10
0
Good

Bad
OPTIONS

Table No. 2.8 Table showing employees opinion towards the free level of
communication towards other non-technical staffs
S. NO.

OPTION
S

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE (%)

28
1

Yes

186

74.4

No

64

25.6

TOTAL

250

100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is inferred that 74.4% of respondents say yes and 25.6% of
employees says no towards the free level of communication towards their non-technical
staffs.
Chart No. 2.8(a) Table showing employees opinion towards the free level of
communication towards other non-technical staffs

80
70
60
50
PERCENTAGE(% )

40

75

30
20
25

10
0
Yes

No
OPTIONS

Table No. 2.9 Table showing employees opinion towards the consideration of
organization about their views and suggestions in decision making process

29

S. NO.

OPTION

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE (%)

S
Yes

72

28.8

No

178

71.2

250

100

TOTAL
Interpretation:

From the above table it is inferred that 71.2% of employees says no and 28.8% of
employees says yes about the consideration of employees views and suggestions by the
organization.
Chart No. 2.9(a) Chart showing employees opinion towards the consideration of
organization about their views and suggestions in decision making process

80

71.2

70
60
50
PERCENTAGE(% )

40
30

28.8

20
10
0
Yes

No
OPTIONS

Table No. 2.10 Table showing employees opinion towards consideration of their
views and suggestions by their organization

30

S.NO.
1
2
3
4
5

OPTIONS

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE (%)

42
38
84
16
70
250

16.8
15.2
33.6
6.4
28
100

Always
Often
Occasionally
Rarely
Never
TOTAL

Interpretation:
From the above table it is inferred that 33.6% of employees says that the
organization accepts their views and suggestions occasionally; 28% says never: 16.8%
says always; 15.2% says often and 6.4% says that they accept rarely.
Chart No. 2.10(a) Chart showing employees opinion towards consideration of their
views and suggestions by their organization
40
33.6

35
30
25
PERCENTAGE(% )

20

16.8

15.2

15
10

6.4

5
0
Always

Often

Occasionally

Rarely

OPTIONS

Table No. 2.11 Table showing employees opinion towards recognition provided in
their organization

S.NO.

OPTIONS

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

31

1
2
3
4
5

Highly satisfied
Satisfied
Neutral
Dissatisfied
Highly dissatisfied
TOTAL

PERCENTAGE (%)
39
31
5
18
7
100

126
65
14
25
20
250

Interpretation:
From the above table it is inferred that, 39% of the respondents are highly
satisfied,26% of respondents are satisfied,10% of respondents are dissatisfied,8% of
respondents are highly dissatisfied and 5.6% of respondents are neutral towards the
recognition provided n the organization.
2.11(a) Chart showing employees opinion towards recognition provided in their
organization
50
40
30

39
31
18

PERCENTAGE(% ) 20
10

Neutral

Highly dissatisfied

0
Highly satisfied

OPTIONS

Table No. 2.12 Table showing employees opinion towards rewards they expect from
their organization

S. NO.

OPTION

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE (%)

S
Monetary

187

74.8

32
2

Non

63

25.2

Monetary
TOTAL

250

100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is inferred that 74.8% of the respondents expect monetary
benefits and 25.2% of the respondents expects non-monetary benefits from the
organization.
Chart No. 2.12(a) Chart showing employees opinion towards rewards they expect
from their organization

80

74.8

70
60
50
PERCENTAGE(% )

40
25.2

30
20
10
0
Monetary

Non Monetary

OPTIONS

Table No. 2.13 Table showing employees opinion towards the type of rewards
provided by the organization

S.NO.
1
2

OPTIONS
Incentives
Promotion

NO.OF RESPONDENTS
113
79

PERCENTAGE(%)
45.5
31.3

33
3

Allowances
TOTAL

58
250

23.2
100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is inferred that 45.5%of the respondents says incentives;
31.3% of the respondents says promotion and 23.2% of the respondents say allowances.
Chart No. 2.13(a) Chart showing employees opinion towards the type of rewards
provided by the organization

50

45.5

40
31.3
30
PERCENTAGE(% )

23.2

20
10
0
Incentives

Promotion

Allowances

OPTIONS

Table No.2.14 Table showing employees satisfaction level towards the current
benefits provided by the organization
S.NO.
1
2
3
4
5

OPTIONS
Highly satisfied
Satisfied
Neutral
Dissatisfied
Highly dissatisfied
TOTAL

NO.OF.RESPONDENTS
81
75
37
35
22
250

PERCENTAGE(%)
32.4
30
14.8
14
8.8
100

34
Interpretation:
From the above table it is inferred that 32.4% of the respondents are highly
satisfied ;30% of the respondents are satisfied; 14.8% of the respondents are neutral, 14%
of the respondents are dissatisfied and 8.8% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied
towards the current benefits provided by the organization.
Chart No. 2.14Chart showing employees satisfaction level towards the current
benefits provided by the organization

PERCENTAGE(% )

35
30
25
20
15
10
5
0

32.4

30
14.8

14

8.8

OPTIONS

Table No. 2.15 Table showing employees opinion towards welfare facilities provided
in the organization

S. NO.

OPTION

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE (%)

S
Yes

167

66.8

No

83

33.2

TOTAL

250

100

Interpretation:

35
From the above table it is inferred that 66.8% says that the organization provides
adequate welfare facilities and 33.2% says no towards it.

Chart No. 2.15(a) Chart showing employees opinion towards welfare facilities
provided in the organization

80
70

66.8

60
50
PERCENTAGE(% )

40

33.2

30
20
10
0
Yes

No
OPTIONS

Table No.2.16 Table showing employees satisfaction level towards working


conditions prevailing in the organization
S.NO.
1
2
3
4
5

OPTIONS
Highly satisfied
Satisfied
Neutral
Dissatisfied
Highly dissatisfied
TOTAL

Interpretation:

NO.OF RESPONDENTS
107
79
32
20
12
250

PERCENTAGE(%)
32.4
30
14.8
14
8.8
100

36

From the above table it is inferred that 32.4% of the respondents says are highly
satisfied;30% of the respondents are satisfied; 14.8% of the respondents are neutral;14%
of the respondents are dissatisfied and 8.8% of the respondents are highly dissatisfied
towards the working conditions prevailing in the organization.
Chart No. 2.16(a) Chart showing employees satisfaction level towards working
conditions prevailing in the organization
35
30

32.4

30

25
20

14.8

15
PERCENTAGE(% )

14
8.8

10
5
0

OPTIONS

Table No. 2.17 Table showing employees opinion towards changes to be made in the
working environment

S. NO.

OPTION

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE (%)

S
Yes

91

36.4

No

159

63.6

TOTAL

250

100

Interpretation:
From the above table it is inferred that 63.6% of the respondents says yes and
63.6% says no towards the changes to be made in the working environment.

37

Chart No. 2.17(a) Chart showing employees opinion towards changes to be made in
the working environment

70

63.6

60
50
40
PERCENTAGE(% )

36.4

30
20
10
0
Yes

No
OPTIONS

Table No. 2.18 Table showing employees opinion towards adequate facilities
provided in the organization

S.NO.
1
2
3
4
5

OPTIONS
Strongly agree
Agree
Neutral
Disagree
Strongly Disagree
TOTAL

Interpretation:

NO.OF RESPONDENTS
106
73
21
23
27
250

PERCENTAGE(%)
42.4
29.2
8.4
9.2
10.8
100

38
From the above table it is inferred that 42.4% of the respondents strongly agree;
29.2% of the respondents agree;10.8% of the respondents strongly disagree;9.2% of the
respondents disagree; and 8.4% of the respondents are neutral towards the adequate
facilities provided in the organization.
Chart No. 2.18 (a) Chart showing employees opinion towards adequate facilities
provided in the organization
45

42.4

40
35

29.2

30
25
PERCENTAGE(% )

20
15
8.4

10

9.2

10.8

5
0
Strongly agree

Agree

Neutral

Disagree Strongly disagree

OPTIONS

Table No. 2.19 Table showing employees opinion towards opportunity given to
compete with co-workers
S. NO.

OPTION

NO.OF RESPONDENTS

PERCENTAGE (%)

S
Yes

127

50.8

No

123

49.2

250

100

TOTAL
Interpretation:

From the above table it is inferred that 50.8% of the respondents says yes and
49.2% of the respondents says no towards the opportunity given by the organization to
compete with the co-workers.

39
Chart No. 2.19 (a) Chart showing employees opinion towards opportunity given to
compete with co-workers
51

50.8

50.5
50

PERCENTAGE(% )

49.5

49.2

49
48.5
48
Yes

No
OPTIONS

COEFFICIENT OF CORRELATION ANALYSIS


Calculation of coefficient of correlation between the working conditions and
adequate facilities prevailing in the organization
2.20 Table showing relationship between the working conditions and adequate
facilities prevailing in the organization
X
107
79
32
20
12
250

Y
106
73
21
23
27
250

X2
11449
6241
1024
400
144
19258

Y2
11236
5329
441
529
729
18264

XY
11342
5767
672
460
324
18565

40

X = 250
Y = 250
X2= 19258
Y2 = 18264
XY2= 18565
r = 0.9716
RESULT:
Correlation between the working conditions and adequate facilities prevailing in the
organization.

CHI-SQUARE TEST
Option
Recognition
Current Benefits
Total

C1
126
81
207

C2
65
75
140

C3
14
37
51

C4
25
35
60

C5
20
22
42

Total
250
250
500

HO = There is no significant difference between the recognition and the current benefits
provided in the organization
H1 = There is significant difference between the recognition and the current benefits
provided in the organization
Table No.2.21 Table showing Chi square test

41

OBSERVED
FREQUENCY

EXPECTED
FREQUENCY

(O-E)

(O-E)

(O-E)2/E

126
65
14
25
20
81
75
37
35
22
TOTAL

103.5
70
25.5
30
21
103.5
70
25.5
30
21

22.5
-5
-11.5
-5
-1
-22.5
5
11.5
5
1

506.25
25
132.25
25
1
506.25
25
132.25
25
1

4.891
0.357
5.186
0.833
0.0476
4.891
0.3571
5.186
0.833
0.0476
22.6293

Degrees of Freedom = n-1 10-1 = 9


Level of Significance = 5%
Table Value = 9.488
Calculated Value = 22.6293
Since Calculated Value is >Table Value
Reject H0
RESULT:
Hence there is a relationship between the recognition and the current benefits
provided in the organization.

42

WEIGHTED AVERAGE
2.22 Table showing employees opinion regarding rewards provided in their
organization
S.NO
1
2

OPTIONS
Incentives

5
62

Promotion

31

WEIGHTS
3

Allowances

1
250

34
23

86

48

20
250

44
3

TOTAL
2

87

65

116

250
73

29

22

10

W1,W2,Wn are the weights assigned to the values X1,X2,..Xn respective


the weighted average is defined as,

43

Wa1 = W1X1+W2X2+.WnXn
W1+W2++Wn
Calculation:
(1) Incentives
((5*62)+(4*34)+(3*86)+(2*48)+(1*20)) /15
=54.67
(2)Promotion
((5*31)+(4*23)+(3*44)+(2*87)+(1*65)) /15
=41.2
(3)Allowances
((5*116)+(4*73)+(3*29)+(2*22)+(1*10)) /15
=67.53

44

Table showing weightage for each options:


Rank

Weighted Average

Options

67.53

Allowances

54.67

Incentives

41.2

Promotion

Result
From the above table it is inferred that allowances has the highest weightage of
67.53, following that the least weights are given to incentives and promotion. The
company can take steps to give rewards to their employees in form of incentives an
promotion also.

45

3.1 FINDINGS
It is found that 65.2% of the respondents are male.
It is inferred that 34.4% of employees have experience for more than 10 years
It is inferred that 52.8% of employees have high level of job involvement towards
their work
It is inferred that 67.6% of employees says that the organization provides job security.
It is found that 27% of employees are neutral towards their satisfaction level in job
security.
It is found that 34.8% of employees have good interpersonal relationship with their
co-workers.
It is found that that 67.6% of employees says that their interpersonal relationship level
with their superiors is good.
It is inferred that 74.4% of respondents says that there is a free level of
communication towards other non-technical staffs in the organization.
It is found that 71.2% of employees says that the organization does not consider their
views and suggestions in decision making process.
It is inferred that 33.6% of employees says that the organization accepts their views
and suggestions occasionally.
It is inferred that, 39% of the respondents are highly satisfied regarding the
recognition provided in the organization.
It is inferred that 74.8% of the respondents expect monetary benefits from the
organization.
It is inferred that 45.5%of the respondents says incentives is the most preferred type
of reward in their organization.
It is inferred that 32.4% of the respondents are highly satisfied regarding the current
benefits provided in the organization.
It is inferred that 66.8% says that the organization provides adequate welfare
facilities.
It is inferred that 32.4% of the respondents says are highly satisfied towards the
working conditions prevailing in the organization.
It is inferred that 63.6% of the respondents says that changes are to be made in the
working environment.
It is inferred that 42.4% of the respondents strongly agree towards the adequate
facilities provided in the organization.

46
It is inferred that 50.8% of the respondents says that the organization gives enough
opportunity to compete with the co-workers.

From Chi square test it is found that there is a relationship between the recognition
and the current benefits provided in the organization.
From the weighted average it is found that allowances has the highest weightage of
67.53, following that the least weights are given to incentives and promotion.

3.2 SUGGESTIONS

The works and efforts of the employees can be reviewed periodically.


Some changes can be made in the working environment by knowing the
employees opinion so that their level of involvement towards their job can be
increased.

47
Organization can give space to employees to share their opinion and give some
suggestions to improve their standard much more.
The level of job security given in the organization can be increased.
The recognition level of employees can be increased so that their contribution
towards the company can be high.

3.3 CONCLUSION
This study gives a clear idea to the organization about the effectiveness of
current organizational climate and the necessary steps to be taken to make improve its
standard much more. Some of the suggested measures for improving it are considering
employees opinions; increasing level of job security; making some changes in the

48
working environment and recognizing employees efforts periodically. The summary of
findings can be used to bring some changes in the current practices in the organization.