- Congruent segments have the same length.
- Congruent angles have equal measure.
- Congruent polygons have the same shape and size.
- Polygons are congruent if their corresponding angles and sides are congruent.
- Corresponding parts(sides and angles) are in the same place in different ﬁgures 3 rules used to tell when 2 triangles are congruent:
1) Side-Side-Side(SSS)_ If 3 sides of one triangle are congruent to 3 sides of another triangle, then the triangles are congruent.
2) Side-Angle-Side(SAS)_ If 2 angles and the side between them(known as “included” side) are congruent to 2 sides and the angle between them in another triangle, then the triangles are congruent.
3) Angle-Side-Angle(ASA)_ If 2 angles and the side between them(known as “included” side) in one triangle are congruent to two angles and the side between them in another triangle, then the triangles are congruent.
A reﬂection creates a mirror image of each point of a ﬁgure. The ﬁgure is reﬂected about a line called the line of reﬂection.
A transformation is a geometrical operation that changes a ﬁgure into another ﬁgure.
- Ex. of transformation: reﬂections, translations, rotations, dilations, etc.
- To reﬂect a ﬁgure about the x-axis, multiply all y-coordinates by -1.
- To reﬂect a ﬁgure about the y-axis, multiply all x-coordinates by -1. {Symmetry is when you have two exact parts in a ﬁgure}
A ﬁgure has line symmetry if one half of the ﬁgure is a mirror image of the other half folded over the line of symmetry. (Can have more than one line of symmetry. When a ﬁgure is transformed, the new ﬁgure is labeled with “prime” symbols to indicate the new ﬁgure’s vertices. Pre-image is the ﬁgure you start with and image is the ﬁnal ﬁgure you end with(new ﬁgure created). A translation(or a slide) moves each point of a ﬁgure the same distance up/down and left/right.
- Moving diagonally is not a translation.
Coordinate notation: Describe the transformation in terms of changes to the coordinates
of the points in the ﬁgure.
- (x, y) ----> (x+4, y-3)
/
pre-image----> image
A rotation is a transformation that turns each point of a ﬁgure the same number of
degrees around a common point.
- Often rotate around the origin, b/c all of the equations/ formulas are easier. 90˚ clockwise rotation(about the origin)- Switch the coordinates and multiply the new y-
coordinate by -1. 90˚ counterclockwise rotation(about the origin)- Switch the coordinates and multiply the new x-coordinates by -1.
180˚ rotation(about the origin)- Multiply x and y coordinates by -1. The angle through which a ﬁgure is rotated is called the angle of rotation. The common point at the rotation’s center is called the center of rotation. Similar polygons have the same shape, but are not necessarily the same size. --> symbol for similar to: ~
- In similar polygons, corresponding angles are congruent.
- In similar polygons, corresponding sides are in proportion.
- It appears that all 3 ratios of side lengths are the same.
When 3 or more ratios of sides are equal to each other for a polygon, this forms a
proportion, or we simply say that the sides of the polygon are “in proportion” Scale factor- The ratio of corresponding sides(saying that 2 polygons are similar) A dilation stretches or shrinks a ﬁgure.
*arrow notation *scale factor for similarity and dilations *redraw a ﬁgure using vertex coordinates after a dilation *recognize corresponding parts& *changing coordinates *translate a polygon *rotate polygon *reﬂect a ﬁgure *