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CHAPTER 12: STOICHIOMETRY

Stoichiometry deals with numerical relationships in chemical reactions, and calculating the quantities of
substances involved in chemical reactions.

MOLE TO MOLE RATIO


When nitrogen and hydrogen gas are heated under the correct conditions, ammonia gas (NH3) is formed.
a. Write the complete balanced reaction.
1 N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3
b. How many moles of nitrogen react with three moles of hydrogen?
3 mol H2 x
1 mol N2
= 1 mol N2
3 mol H2
c. How many moles of nitrogen react with six moles of hydrogen?
6 mol H2 x
1 mol N2
= 2 mol N2
3 mol H2
d. How many moles of ammonia would be formed if 6 moles of hydrogen react with plenty of nitrogen?
6 mol H2 x
2 mol NH3 = 4 mol NH3
3 mol H2
e. How many moles of ammonia would be formed if 2.54 moles of nitrogen react with plenty of hydrogen?
2.54 mol N2 x 2 mol NH3 = 5.08 mol NH3
1 mol N2
f. How many moles of ammonia could be formed if 3.50 moles of hydrogen react with excess nitrogen?
3.5 mol H2 x 2 mol NH3 = 2.33 mol NH3
3 mol H2
g. How many moles of nitrogen are needed to react with 6.9 moles of hydrogen?
6.9 mol H2 x 1 mol N2
= 2.3 mol N2
3 mol H2
h. How many moles of hydrogen are needed to produce 0.45 moles of ammonia?
0.45 mol NH3 x
3 mol H2
= 0.675 mol NH3
2 mol NH3

2. When potassium chlorate is heated it breaks down to potassium chloride and oxygen.
a. Write the complete balanced reaction.
2 KClO3 2 KCl + 3 O2
b. How many moles of potassium chloride will be produced if 6.2 moles of potassium chlorate break
down?
6.2 mol KClO3 x
2 mol KCl
= 6.2 mol KCl
2 mol KClO3
c. How many moles of oxygen are formed if 4.9 moles of potassium chloride are formed?
4.9 mol KCl x 3 mol O2
= 7.35 mol O2
2 mol KCl
d. How many moles of potassium chlorate must break down in order to produce 0.95 moles of oxygen?
0.95 mol O2 x
2 mol KClO3
= 0.63 mol KClO3
3 mol O2

MOLE TO MASS/VOLUME PROBLEMS


When fluorine gas is bubbled through a solution of aluminum iodide, elemental iodine and aqueous
aluminum fluoride are formed. Write and balance the reaction below.
a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

RXN:

3 F2 + 2 AlI3 3 I2 + 2 AlF3

How many moles of fluorine gas are needed to react with 2.50 moles of aluminum iodide?
2.5 mol AlI3 x
3 mol F2 = 3.75 mol F2
2 mol AlI3

What mass of iodine will form if 4.20 moles of fluorine gas react with excess aluminum iodide?
4.2 mol F2 x 3 mol I2
x
253.8 g I2
= 1066 g I2
3 mol F2
1 mol I2

What mass of fluorine gas is needed to react with 2.15 moles of aluminum iodide?
2.15 mol AlI3 x
3 mol F2
x
38.0 g F2
= 122.6 g F2
2 mol AlI3
1 mol F2

What volume of fluorine gas, at STP, was used if 0.55 moles aluminum fluoride were formed?
0.55 mol AlF3 x
3 mol F2
x
22.4 L F2
= 18.5 L F2
2 mol AlF3
1 mol F2

MASS/MASS, MASS/VOLUME AND MASS/PARTICLE PROBLEMS


1. When iron is heated in pure oxygen, iron (III) oxide is formed. Write a balanced equation for the
reaction below.
______4 Fe + 3 O2 2 Fe2O3____________________
a. What type is it? ____synthesis______
b. How many moles of iron are needed to react with 2.5 moles of oxygen?
2.5 mol O2 x
4 mol Fe
= 3.33 mol Fe
3 mol O2
________________
c. What mass of iron must react with excess oxygen in order to form 4.81 moles of iron (III) oxide?
4.81 mol Fe2O3 x
4 mol Fe
x
55.8 g Fe
= 536.8 g Fe
2 mol Fe2O3
1 mol Fe
________________
d. What mass of iron is needed to react with 40.0 g of oxygen?
40 g O2 x
1 mol O2
x
4 mol Fe
x
55.8 g Fe
32.0 g O2
3 mol O2
1 mol Fe

= 93 g Fe
________________

e. What mass of iron (III) oxide can be formed from the reaction of 10.2 g of iron with excess oxygen?
10.2 g Fe x
1 mol Fe
x
2 mol Fe2O3
x
159.6 g Fe2O3 = 14.6 g Fe2O3
55.8 g Fe
4 mol Fe
1 mol Fe2O3
________________
f. What mass of oxygen is needed to react with 12.7 g of iron?
12.7 g Fe x
1 mol Fe
x
3 mol O2
x
32.0 g O2
55.8 g Fe
4 mol Fe
1 mol O2

= 5.46 g O2
________________

g. What mass of iron (III) oxide will be formed if 10.0 L of oxygen at STP react with excess iron?
10 L O2 x
1 mol O2
x
2 mol Fe2O3
x
159.6 g Fe2O3 = 47.5 g Fe2O3
22.4 L O2
3 mol O2
1 mol Fe2O3
________________

2. Barium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid to form barium chloride and water. Write a balanced
equation for the reaction below. What type is it?
______Ba(OH)2 + 2 HCl BaCl2 + 2 H2O____________________________
a. What type of reaction is this? double replacement
b. What mass of barium chloride will form if 14.0 g of barium hydroxide reacts with excess hydrochloric
acid?
14 g Ba(OH)2 x

1 mol Ba(OH)2
171.3 g Ba(OH)2

1 mol BaCl2 x
1 mol Ba(OH)2

208.3 g BaCl2
1 mol BaCl2

= 17.0 g BaCl2
________________

c. How many grams of hydrochloric acid are needed to react with 15.0 g of barium hydroxide?
15 g Ba(OH)2 x

1 mol Ba(OH)2
171.3 g Ba(OH)2

2 mol HCl
x
1 mol Ba(OH)2

36.5 g HCl
1 mol HCl

= 6.39 g HCl
________________

d. What mass of barium chloride will form if 5.98 g of hydrochloric acid react with excess barium
hydroxide?
5.98 g HCl x

1 mol HCl
36.5 g HCl

1 mol BaCl2
2 mol HCl

208.3 g BaCl2
1 mol BaCl2

= 17.1 g BaCl2
________________

e. How many molecules of water are formed by the reaction of 10.8 g of barium hydroxide with excess
hydrochloric acid?
10.8 g Ba(OH)2 x

1 mol Ba(OH)2
171.3 g Ba(OH)2

2 mol H2O x 6.02 x 1023 molecules


1 mol Ba(OH)2
1 mol H2O

= 7.6 x 1022
molecules H2O

________________

NOTES: PERCENT YIELD


percent yield =

actual yield
theoretical yield

x 100%

1. Propane gas burns in oxygen according to the reaction below:


__1__C3H8 + __5__O2 __3__CO2 + __4__H2O
A student burns 20.0 L of propane gas in excess oxygen at STP. Determine the volume of carbon dioxide that
should form in the reaction.
20 L C3H8 x

1 mol C3H8
22.4 L C3H8

3 mol CO2
1 mol C3H8

22.4 L CO2
1 mol CO2

= 60.0 L CO2

The reaction only produces 48.0 L of carbon dioxide. What is the percent yield?
(48 60) x 100% = 80%
What is the percent error?

___________________

(100 80) = 20%

___________________

2. Sodium chlorate decomposes to produce sodium chloride and oxygen. Write and balance the reaction.
Then determine the mass of sodium chloride that should form if 150 g of sodium chlorate decomposes.
Reaction:

2 NaClO3 2 NaCl + 3 O2

150 g NaClO3 x

1 mol NaClO3
106.5 g NaClO3
____________________

x 2 mol NaCl x
2 mol NaClO3

58.5 g NaCl
1 mol NaCl

= 82.4 g NaCl

The reaction above is carried out in the lab, and 55 g of sodium chloride is collected.
What is the percent yield?
(55 82.4) x 100% = 66.7%
____________________
Determine the percent error.
(100 66.7) = 33.3%

____________________

NOTES: LIMITING REACTANT


1. Define the terms limiting reactant and excess reactant.
Limiting reactant The reactant completely consumed first in a reaction. It determines the amount of product
that can be formed. The reaction will stop when all of the limiting reactant is consumed.
Excess reactant The reactant that remains when a reaction stops because the limiting reactant is completely
consumed. The quantity present is more than sufficient to react with a limiting reactant. Some reactant remains
because there is nothing with which it can react.
2. Balance the reaction below:

_4__Al + _3__O2 _2__Al2O3


3. 4.0 moles of aluminum are placed in a container with 4.0 moles of oxygen. How many moles of
aluminum oxide should form?
There is enough aluminum to make _____________ moles of aluminum oxide.
4 mol Al x

2 mol Al2O3
4 mol Al

= 2 mol Al2O3

There is enough oxygen to make ________________ moles of aluminum oxide.


4 mol O2 x

2 mol Al2O3
3 mol O2

= 2.67 mol Al2O3

______2____________ moles of aluminum oxide will form.


The limiting reactant is __aluminum______. The excess reactant is ____oxygen________.
4. Predict the mass of aluminum oxide that will form if 20.0 g of aluminum react with 15.0 L of oxygen
gas at STP.
There is enough aluminum to make ________________ g of aluminum oxide.
20 g Al x

1 mol Al
27.0 g Al

2 mol Al2O3
4 mol Al

102 g Al2O3
1 mol Al2O3

= 37.8 g Al2O3

There is enough oxygen to make ________________ g of aluminum oxide


15 L O2 x

1 mol O2
22.4 L O2

2 mol Al2O3
3 mol O2

_______37.8________ g of aluminum oxide will form.


7

102 g Al2O3
1 mol Al2O3

= 45.5 g Al2O3

The limiting reactant is __aluminum______. The excess reactant is ____oxygen________.


5. Fluorine gas is bubbled through a solution of potassium iodide. The products of the reaction are
potassium fluoride and iodine. Write a balanced equation for the reaction below.
F2 + 2 KI 2 KF + I2____________________________________________________
What type of reaction is this? _single replacement___
12.6 g of fluorine is bubbled through a solution containing 20.15 g of potassium iodide. What mass of
potassium fluoride should form?
12.6 g F2 x

20.15 g KI x

1 mol F2
38.0 g F2
1 mol KI
166.0 g KI

2 mol KF
1 mol F2
2 mol KF
2 mol KI

58.1 g KF
1 mol KF

= 38.5 g KF

58.1 g KF
1 mol KF

= 7.05 g KF

Mass of KF that will form is 7.05 g


___________________
The limiting reactant is __potassium iodide__. The excess reactant is ___fluorine______.

FINDING THE MASS OF EXCESS REACTANT


The next step in the limiting reactant process is determining the amount of excess reactant remaining
following the reaction. There is a sample problem on the next page. Follow the steps of the sample
problem if you get lost!
Try the problem below:
1. What mass of carbon dioxide will be formed if 50.0 g of propane gas (C3H8) is burned in 40 L of pure
oxygen at STP?
a. Balanced reaction: _C3H8 + 5 O2 3 CO2 + 4 H2O____________________
b. Find the expected yield of carbon dioxide if propane is the limiting reactant:
50 g C3H8 x

1 mol C3H8
44 g C3H8

3 mol CO2
1 mol C3H8

44 g CO2
1 mol CO2

= 150 g CO2

c. Find the expected yield of carbon dioxide if oxygen is the limiting reactant:
40 L O2 x

1 mol O2
22.4 L O2

3 mol CO2
5 mol O2

44 g CO2
1 mol CO2

= 47.1 g CO2

d. The limiting reactant is ___O2_______. The excess reactant is ______C3H8_________.

e. Use the limiting reactant to determine how much of the excess reactant does react.
40 L O2 x

1 mol O2
22.4 L O2

1 mol C3H8
5 mol O2

44 g C3H8
1 mol C3H8

= 15.7 g C3H8

f. Subtract the amount that reacts from the amount you started with to find the mass of propane gas
remaining.
50 15.7 = 34.3 g C3H8 remains

SAMPLE PROBLEM: FINDING THE MASS OF EXCESS REACTANT


What mass of copper (II) iodide will be formed if 35.0 g of copper is placed in a solution containing 90.0 g of
silver iodide?
a. Balanced reaction: ___Cu + 2 AgI CuI2 + 2 Ag__________________
b. Find the expected yield of copper (II) iodide if copper is the limiting reactant
35.0 g Cu x 1 mol Cu
63.5 g

1 mol CuI2
1 mol Cu

317.3g CuI2
1 mol CuI2

= 174.9 g CuI2

c. Find the expected yield of copper (II) iodide if silver iodide is the limiting reactant:
90.0 g AgI x 1 mol AgI x
234.8g

1 mol CuI2
2 mol AgI

317.3g CuI2
1 mol CuI2

= 60.8 g CuI2

d. The limiting reactant is ____AgI____________. The excess reactant is ____Cu______.

e. Use the limiting reactant to determine how much of the excess reactant does react.
90.0 g AgI x 1 mol AgI x
234.8g

1 mol Cu
2 mol AgI

63.5 g Cu
1 mol Cu

= 12.2 g Cu reacted

f. Subtract the amount that reacts from the amount you started with to find the mass remaining.
35.0g Cu 12.2g Cu = 22.8 g Cu remains

10

REVIEW HOMEWORK - MOLE PRACTICE PROBLEMS


1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 molecules (covalent)
1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 formula units (ionic)
1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 atoms (monoatomic element)

HOW MANY PARTICLES

1 mole = molar mass (grams) - HOW HEAVY


1 mole = 22.4 L for a gas at STP - HOW MUCH SPACE

Make the following mole conversions. Show ALL work for credit!
1.

42.5 g of barium nitrate to moles


42.5 g Ba(NO3)2 x

2.

1 mol O2
22.4 L O2

1 mol CO2
44 g CO2

= 0.107 mol O2

22.4 L CO2
1 mol CO2

= 4.15 L CO2

2.24 x 1023 molecules of nitrogen triiodide to grams


2.24 x 1023 molecules NI3 x

6.

= 99.6 g LiCl

8.15 g of carbon dioxide gas at STP to liters


8.15 g CO2 x

5.

42.4 g LiCl
1 mol LiCl

2.40 L of oxygen gas at STP to moles


2.4 L O2 x

4.

= 0.163 mol Ba(NO3)2

2.35 moles of lithium chloride to grams


2.35 mol LiCl x

3.

1 mol Ba(NO3)2
261.3 g Ba(NO3)2

1 mol NI3
x
6.02 x 1023 molecules NI3

394.7 g
1 mol NI3

0.0425 moles of lead (IV) carbonate to grams


0.0425 mol Pb(CO3)2 x

327.2 g Pb(CO3)2
1 mol Pb(CO3)2

11

= 13.9 g Pb(CO3)2

= 146.9 g NI3

HOMEWORK - MOLE-MOLE PROBLEMS


1.

N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3
How many moles of hydrogen are needed to completely react with two moles of
nitrogen?
2 mol N2 x

2.

3 mol H2
1 mol N2

2 KClO3 2 KCl + 3 O2
How many moles of oxygen are produced by the decomposition of six moles of
potassium chlorate?
6 mol KClO3 x

3.

3 mol O2
2 mol KClO3

= 9 mol O2

Zn + 2 HCl ZnCl2 + H2
How many moles of hydrogen are produced from the reaction of three moles of zinc with
an excess of hydrochloric acid?
3 mol Zn x 1 mol H2
1 mol Zn

4.

= 6 mol H2

= 3 mol H2

Write the balanced reaction for the combustion of propane (C3H8).


C3H8 + 5 O2 3 CO2 + 4 H2O_____________________________
How many moles of oxygen are necessary to react completely with 4 moles of propane?
4 mol C3H8 x

5.

5 mol O2
1 mol C3H8

= 20 mol O2

Write and balance the reaction for mixing solutions of potassium phosphate and
magnesium nitrate.
K3PO4 + Al(NO3)3 3 KNO3 + AlPO4_________________________________
How many moles of potassium nitrate are produced when 2 moles of potassium
phosphate react?
2 mol K3PO4 x

3 mol KNO3
1 mol K3PO4

= 6 mol KNO3
12

13

HOMEWORK - MOLE/MASS & VOLUME PROBLEMS


When aluminum carbonate decomposes, aluminum oxide and carbon dioxide gas form.
Write the complete balanced reaction given below.

1 Al2(CO3)3 (s) 1 Al2O3 (s) + 3 CO2 (g)


a. determine the molar mass of each product and reactant for later use:
Al2(CO3)3

(27 x 2) + 3(12 + (3 x 16)) = 234 g/mol

Al2O3

(27 x 2) + (3 x 16) = 102 g/mol

CO2

12 + (2 x 16) = 44 g/mol

b. What mass of aluminum carbonate is needed to form 2.5 moles of carbon dioxide?
2.5 mol CO2 x

1 mol Al2(CO3)3
3 mol CO2

234 g Al2(CO3)3
1 mol Al2(CO3)3

= 195 g Al2(CO3)3

c. What mass of aluminum oxide will form if 2.2 moles of carbon dioxide form?
2.2 mol CO2 x

1 mol Al2O3
3 mol CO2

x 102 g Al2O3
1 mol Al2O3

= 74.8 g Al2O3

d. What mass of aluminum carbonate must decompose in order to form 2.2 moles of aluminum oxide?
2.2 mol Al2O3 x 1 mol Al2(CO3)3
1 mol Al2O3

234 g Al2(CO3)3
1 mol Al2(CO3)3

= 514.8 g Al2O3

e. What volume of carbon dioxide will form if 5.0 moles of aluminum carbonate decompose at STP?
5 mol Al2(CO3)3 x

3 mol CO2
x 22.4 L CO2
1 mol Al2(CO3)3 1 mol CO2

14

= 336 L CO2

HOMEWORK STOICHIOMETRY MASS-MASS PROBLEMS


1.

2 KClO3 2 KCl + 3 O2
How many grams of potassium chloride are produced when 25 g of potassium chlorate
decomposes?
25 g KClO3 x

2.

= 15.2 g KCl

1 mol N2
28 g N2

3 mol H2
1 mol N2

2 g H2
1 mol H2

= 12.9 g H2

N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3
How many grams of ammonia are produced if 60.0 g of nitrogen react with excess hydrogen?
60 g N2 x

4.

74.6 g KCl
1 mol KCl

N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3
How many grams of hydrogen are necessary to react with 60.0 g of nitrogen?
60 g N2 x

3.

1 mol KClO3 x 2 mol KCl x


122.6 g KClO3
2 mol KClO3

1 mol N2
28 g N2

2 mol NH3
1 mol N2

x 17 g NH3
1 mol NH3

= 72.9 g NH3

Solutions of silver chloride and barium nitrate are mixed.


a. Write the complete balanced reaction
2 AgNO3 + BaCl2 2 AgCl + Ba(NO3)2_________________________
b. How many grams of silver chloride are produced from the reaction of 5.0 g of silver nitrate
with excess barium chloride?
5 g AgNO3 x 1 mol AgNO3
169.9 g AgNO3

5.

2 mol AgCl
2 mol AgNO3

143.4 g AgCl
1 mol AgCl

= 4.2 g NH3

Zinc is placed in a solution of hydrochloric acid


a. Write the complete balanced reaction
Zn + 2 HCl ZnCl2 + H2______________________________________
b. What mass of zinc must react in order to form 2.0 L of hydrogen gas at STP?
2.0 L H2 x

1 mol H2
22.4 L H2

1 mol Zn
1 mol H2

65.4 g Zn
1 mol Zn

15

= 5.84 g Zn

HOMEWORK - STOICHIOMETRY MIXED PROBLEMS


1.

N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3
What volume of NH3 at STP is produced if 25.0 g of N2 is reacted with an excess of H2?
25 g N2 x

2.

1 mol N2
28 g N2

1 mol KClO3
122.6 g KClO3

3 mol O2
x
2 mol KClO3

22.4 L O2
1 mol O2

= 1.37 L O2

1 mol KClO3
122.6 g KClO3

2 mol KCl x
2 mol KClO3

74.6 g KCl
1 mol KCl

= 3.04 g KCl

Zn + 2 HCl ZnCl2 + H2
What volume of hydrogen at STP is produced when 2.5 g of zinc react with an excess of
hydrochloric acid?
2.5 g Zn x

5.

x 22.4 L NH3 = 40 L NH3


1 mol NH3

2 KClO3 2 KCl + 3 O2
If 5.0 g of KClO3 is decomposed, how many grams of KCl are produced?
5 g KClO3 x

4.

2 mol NH3
1 mol N2

2 KClO3 2 KCl + 3 O2
If 5.0 g of KClO3 is decomposed, what volume of O2 is produced at STP?
5 g KClO3 x

3.

1 mol Zn
65.4 g Zn

1 mol H2
1 mol Zn

22.4 L H2
1 mol H2

= 0.56 L H2

Solutions of sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid are mixed.


a. Write the complete balanced reaction
2 NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2 H2O_________________
b. How many molecules of water are produced if 2.0 g of sodium sulfate are produced in the
reaction above?
2 g Na2SO4 x

6.

1 mol Na2SO4
142.1 g Na2SO4

2 mol H2O
x
1 mol Na2SO4

6.02 x 1023 molecules H2O


1 mol H2O
= 1.69 x 1022 molecules H2O

Aluminum chloride decomposes


a. Write the complete balanced reaction
2 AlCl3 2 Al + 3 Cl2_________________________________________
b. If 10.0 g of aluminum chloride are decomposed, how many molecules of Cl2 are produced?
10 g AlCl3 x

1 mol AlCl3
133.5 g AlCl3

3 mol Cl2
2 mol AlCl3

16

6.02 x 1023 molecules Cl2


1 mol Cl2
= 6.76 x 1022 molecules Cl2

HOMEWORK - LIMITING REACTANT/PERCENT YIELD


1. Solid calcium is added to a solution of iron (III) chloride. The reaction is given below:
_3__Ca + _2__FeCl3 __3__CaCl2 + _2__Fe
a. Balance the reaction.
b. What mass of calcium chloride will form if 5.0 g of calcium react with 5.0 g of iron (III) chloride?
5 g Ca x
1 mol Ca
x
3 mol CaCl2
x 111.1 g CaCl2
= 13.85 g CaCl2
40.1 g Ca
3 mol Ca
1 mol CaCl2
5 g FeCl3 x

1 mol FeCl3
x
162.3 g FeCl3

3 mol CaCl2
2 mol FeCl3

111.1 g CaCl2
1 mol CaCl2

= 5.13 g CaCl2

Mass of CaCl2 that will form is 5.13 g


c. The limiting reactant is: _____FeCl3_________. The excess reactant is: _______Ca_____________.
d. A student performs the reaction and produces 4.6 g of calcium chloride. What is the percent yield?
(4.6 5.13) x 100% = 89.7%
e. Determine the mass of excess reactant that remains at the end of the reaction.
5 g FeCl3 x

1 mol FeCl3
x
162.3 g FeCl3

3 mol Ca
2 mol FeCl3

40.1 g Ca
1 mol Ca

= 1.85 g Ca reacts, so 3.15 g


remains

2. Write the reaction for the combustion of methane (CH4) in oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water.
CH4 + 2 O2 CO2 + 2 H2O
a. What mass of carbon dioxide is produced by the reaction of 120.0 g of methane with 180.0 g of oxygen?
120 g CH4 x

1 mol CH4
16.0 g CH4

180 g O2 x

1 mol O2
32.0 g O2

1 mol CO2
1 mol CH4
x

1 mol CO2
2 mol O2

44.0 g CO2
1 mol CO2

= 330 g CO2

44.0 g CO2
1 mol CO2

= 123.75 g CO2

Mass of CO2 that will form is 123.75 g


b. The limiting reactant is: ______O2______________. The excess reactant is: _____CH4_____________
c. A student performs the reaction above, and produces 102 g of carbon dioxide. What is his percent yield?
(102 123.75) x 100% = 82.4%
d. Determine the mass of excess reactant remaining after the reaction is complete.
180 g O2 x

1 mol O2
32.0 g O2

1 mol CH4
2 mol O2

17

16.0 g CH4
= 45 g CH4 reacts
1 mol CH4
So 120 45 = 75 g CH4 remains