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# CHAPTER 12: STOICHIOMETRY

Stoichiometry deals with numerical relationships in chemical reactions, and calculating the quantities of
substances involved in chemical reactions.

## MOLE TO MOLE RATIO

When nitrogen and hydrogen gas are heated under the correct conditions, ammonia gas (NH3) is formed.
a. Write the complete balanced reaction.
1 N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3
b. How many moles of nitrogen react with three moles of hydrogen?
3 mol H2 x
1 mol N2
= 1 mol N2
3 mol H2
c. How many moles of nitrogen react with six moles of hydrogen?
6 mol H2 x
1 mol N2
= 2 mol N2
3 mol H2
d. How many moles of ammonia would be formed if 6 moles of hydrogen react with plenty of nitrogen?
6 mol H2 x
2 mol NH3 = 4 mol NH3
3 mol H2
e. How many moles of ammonia would be formed if 2.54 moles of nitrogen react with plenty of hydrogen?
2.54 mol N2 x 2 mol NH3 = 5.08 mol NH3
1 mol N2
f. How many moles of ammonia could be formed if 3.50 moles of hydrogen react with excess nitrogen?
3.5 mol H2 x 2 mol NH3 = 2.33 mol NH3
3 mol H2
g. How many moles of nitrogen are needed to react with 6.9 moles of hydrogen?
6.9 mol H2 x 1 mol N2
= 2.3 mol N2
3 mol H2
h. How many moles of hydrogen are needed to produce 0.45 moles of ammonia?
0.45 mol NH3 x
3 mol H2
= 0.675 mol NH3
2 mol NH3

2. When potassium chlorate is heated it breaks down to potassium chloride and oxygen.
a. Write the complete balanced reaction.
2 KClO3 2 KCl + 3 O2
b. How many moles of potassium chloride will be produced if 6.2 moles of potassium chlorate break
down?
6.2 mol KClO3 x
2 mol KCl
= 6.2 mol KCl
2 mol KClO3
c. How many moles of oxygen are formed if 4.9 moles of potassium chloride are formed?
4.9 mol KCl x 3 mol O2
= 7.35 mol O2
2 mol KCl
d. How many moles of potassium chlorate must break down in order to produce 0.95 moles of oxygen?
0.95 mol O2 x
2 mol KClO3
= 0.63 mol KClO3
3 mol O2

## MOLE TO MASS/VOLUME PROBLEMS

When fluorine gas is bubbled through a solution of aluminum iodide, elemental iodine and aqueous
aluminum fluoride are formed. Write and balance the reaction below.
a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

RXN:

3 F2 + 2 AlI3 3 I2 + 2 AlF3

How many moles of fluorine gas are needed to react with 2.50 moles of aluminum iodide?
2.5 mol AlI3 x
3 mol F2 = 3.75 mol F2
2 mol AlI3

What mass of iodine will form if 4.20 moles of fluorine gas react with excess aluminum iodide?
4.2 mol F2 x 3 mol I2
x
253.8 g I2
= 1066 g I2
3 mol F2
1 mol I2

What mass of fluorine gas is needed to react with 2.15 moles of aluminum iodide?
2.15 mol AlI3 x
3 mol F2
x
38.0 g F2
= 122.6 g F2
2 mol AlI3
1 mol F2

What volume of fluorine gas, at STP, was used if 0.55 moles aluminum fluoride were formed?
0.55 mol AlF3 x
3 mol F2
x
22.4 L F2
= 18.5 L F2
2 mol AlF3
1 mol F2

## MASS/MASS, MASS/VOLUME AND MASS/PARTICLE PROBLEMS

1. When iron is heated in pure oxygen, iron (III) oxide is formed. Write a balanced equation for the
reaction below.
______4 Fe + 3 O2 2 Fe2O3____________________
a. What type is it? ____synthesis______
b. How many moles of iron are needed to react with 2.5 moles of oxygen?
2.5 mol O2 x
4 mol Fe
= 3.33 mol Fe
3 mol O2
________________
c. What mass of iron must react with excess oxygen in order to form 4.81 moles of iron (III) oxide?
4.81 mol Fe2O3 x
4 mol Fe
x
55.8 g Fe
= 536.8 g Fe
2 mol Fe2O3
1 mol Fe
________________
d. What mass of iron is needed to react with 40.0 g of oxygen?
40 g O2 x
1 mol O2
x
4 mol Fe
x
55.8 g Fe
32.0 g O2
3 mol O2
1 mol Fe

= 93 g Fe
________________

e. What mass of iron (III) oxide can be formed from the reaction of 10.2 g of iron with excess oxygen?
10.2 g Fe x
1 mol Fe
x
2 mol Fe2O3
x
159.6 g Fe2O3 = 14.6 g Fe2O3
55.8 g Fe
4 mol Fe
1 mol Fe2O3
________________
f. What mass of oxygen is needed to react with 12.7 g of iron?
12.7 g Fe x
1 mol Fe
x
3 mol O2
x
32.0 g O2
55.8 g Fe
4 mol Fe
1 mol O2

= 5.46 g O2
________________

g. What mass of iron (III) oxide will be formed if 10.0 L of oxygen at STP react with excess iron?
10 L O2 x
1 mol O2
x
2 mol Fe2O3
x
159.6 g Fe2O3 = 47.5 g Fe2O3
22.4 L O2
3 mol O2
1 mol Fe2O3
________________

2. Barium hydroxide reacts with hydrochloric acid to form barium chloride and water. Write a balanced
equation for the reaction below. What type is it?
______Ba(OH)2 + 2 HCl BaCl2 + 2 H2O____________________________
a. What type of reaction is this? double replacement
b. What mass of barium chloride will form if 14.0 g of barium hydroxide reacts with excess hydrochloric
acid?
14 g Ba(OH)2 x

1 mol Ba(OH)2
171.3 g Ba(OH)2

1 mol BaCl2 x
1 mol Ba(OH)2

208.3 g BaCl2
1 mol BaCl2

= 17.0 g BaCl2
________________

c. How many grams of hydrochloric acid are needed to react with 15.0 g of barium hydroxide?
15 g Ba(OH)2 x

1 mol Ba(OH)2
171.3 g Ba(OH)2

2 mol HCl
x
1 mol Ba(OH)2

36.5 g HCl
1 mol HCl

= 6.39 g HCl
________________

d. What mass of barium chloride will form if 5.98 g of hydrochloric acid react with excess barium
hydroxide?
5.98 g HCl x

1 mol HCl
36.5 g HCl

1 mol BaCl2
2 mol HCl

208.3 g BaCl2
1 mol BaCl2

= 17.1 g BaCl2
________________

e. How many molecules of water are formed by the reaction of 10.8 g of barium hydroxide with excess
hydrochloric acid?
10.8 g Ba(OH)2 x

1 mol Ba(OH)2
171.3 g Ba(OH)2

1 mol Ba(OH)2
1 mol H2O

= 7.6 x 1022
molecules H2O

________________

## NOTES: PERCENT YIELD

percent yield =

actual yield
theoretical yield

x 100%

## 1. Propane gas burns in oxygen according to the reaction below:

__1__C3H8 + __5__O2 __3__CO2 + __4__H2O
A student burns 20.0 L of propane gas in excess oxygen at STP. Determine the volume of carbon dioxide that
should form in the reaction.
20 L C3H8 x

1 mol C3H8
22.4 L C3H8

3 mol CO2
1 mol C3H8

22.4 L CO2
1 mol CO2

= 60.0 L CO2

The reaction only produces 48.0 L of carbon dioxide. What is the percent yield?
(48 60) x 100% = 80%
What is the percent error?

___________________

## (100 80) = 20%

___________________

2. Sodium chlorate decomposes to produce sodium chloride and oxygen. Write and balance the reaction.
Then determine the mass of sodium chloride that should form if 150 g of sodium chlorate decomposes.
Reaction:

2 NaClO3 2 NaCl + 3 O2

150 g NaClO3 x

1 mol NaClO3
106.5 g NaClO3
____________________

x 2 mol NaCl x
2 mol NaClO3

58.5 g NaCl
1 mol NaCl

= 82.4 g NaCl

The reaction above is carried out in the lab, and 55 g of sodium chloride is collected.
What is the percent yield?
(55 82.4) x 100% = 66.7%
____________________
Determine the percent error.
(100 66.7) = 33.3%

____________________

## NOTES: LIMITING REACTANT

1. Define the terms limiting reactant and excess reactant.
Limiting reactant The reactant completely consumed first in a reaction. It determines the amount of product
that can be formed. The reaction will stop when all of the limiting reactant is consumed.
Excess reactant The reactant that remains when a reaction stops because the limiting reactant is completely
consumed. The quantity present is more than sufficient to react with a limiting reactant. Some reactant remains
because there is nothing with which it can react.
2. Balance the reaction below:

## _4__Al + _3__O2 _2__Al2O3

3. 4.0 moles of aluminum are placed in a container with 4.0 moles of oxygen. How many moles of
aluminum oxide should form?
There is enough aluminum to make _____________ moles of aluminum oxide.
4 mol Al x

2 mol Al2O3
4 mol Al

= 2 mol Al2O3

4 mol O2 x

2 mol Al2O3
3 mol O2

## ______2____________ moles of aluminum oxide will form.

The limiting reactant is __aluminum______. The excess reactant is ____oxygen________.
4. Predict the mass of aluminum oxide that will form if 20.0 g of aluminum react with 15.0 L of oxygen
gas at STP.
There is enough aluminum to make ________________ g of aluminum oxide.
20 g Al x

1 mol Al
27.0 g Al

2 mol Al2O3
4 mol Al

102 g Al2O3
1 mol Al2O3

= 37.8 g Al2O3

15 L O2 x

1 mol O2
22.4 L O2

2 mol Al2O3
3 mol O2

7

102 g Al2O3
1 mol Al2O3

= 45.5 g Al2O3

## The limiting reactant is __aluminum______. The excess reactant is ____oxygen________.

5. Fluorine gas is bubbled through a solution of potassium iodide. The products of the reaction are
potassium fluoride and iodine. Write a balanced equation for the reaction below.
F2 + 2 KI 2 KF + I2____________________________________________________
What type of reaction is this? _single replacement___
12.6 g of fluorine is bubbled through a solution containing 20.15 g of potassium iodide. What mass of
potassium fluoride should form?
12.6 g F2 x

20.15 g KI x

1 mol F2
38.0 g F2
1 mol KI
166.0 g KI

2 mol KF
1 mol F2
2 mol KF
2 mol KI

58.1 g KF
1 mol KF

= 38.5 g KF

58.1 g KF
1 mol KF

= 7.05 g KF

## Mass of KF that will form is 7.05 g

___________________
The limiting reactant is __potassium iodide__. The excess reactant is ___fluorine______.

## FINDING THE MASS OF EXCESS REACTANT

The next step in the limiting reactant process is determining the amount of excess reactant remaining
following the reaction. There is a sample problem on the next page. Follow the steps of the sample
problem if you get lost!
Try the problem below:
1. What mass of carbon dioxide will be formed if 50.0 g of propane gas (C3H8) is burned in 40 L of pure
oxygen at STP?
a. Balanced reaction: _C3H8 + 5 O2 3 CO2 + 4 H2O____________________
b. Find the expected yield of carbon dioxide if propane is the limiting reactant:
50 g C3H8 x

1 mol C3H8
44 g C3H8

3 mol CO2
1 mol C3H8

44 g CO2
1 mol CO2

= 150 g CO2

c. Find the expected yield of carbon dioxide if oxygen is the limiting reactant:
40 L O2 x

1 mol O2
22.4 L O2

3 mol CO2
5 mol O2

44 g CO2
1 mol CO2

= 47.1 g CO2

## d. The limiting reactant is ___O2_______. The excess reactant is ______C3H8_________.

e. Use the limiting reactant to determine how much of the excess reactant does react.
40 L O2 x

1 mol O2
22.4 L O2

1 mol C3H8
5 mol O2

44 g C3H8
1 mol C3H8

= 15.7 g C3H8

f. Subtract the amount that reacts from the amount you started with to find the mass of propane gas
remaining.
50 15.7 = 34.3 g C3H8 remains

## SAMPLE PROBLEM: FINDING THE MASS OF EXCESS REACTANT

What mass of copper (II) iodide will be formed if 35.0 g of copper is placed in a solution containing 90.0 g of
silver iodide?
a. Balanced reaction: ___Cu + 2 AgI CuI2 + 2 Ag__________________
b. Find the expected yield of copper (II) iodide if copper is the limiting reactant
35.0 g Cu x 1 mol Cu
63.5 g

1 mol CuI2
1 mol Cu

317.3g CuI2
1 mol CuI2

= 174.9 g CuI2

c. Find the expected yield of copper (II) iodide if silver iodide is the limiting reactant:
90.0 g AgI x 1 mol AgI x
234.8g

1 mol CuI2
2 mol AgI

317.3g CuI2
1 mol CuI2

= 60.8 g CuI2

## d. The limiting reactant is ____AgI____________. The excess reactant is ____Cu______.

e. Use the limiting reactant to determine how much of the excess reactant does react.
90.0 g AgI x 1 mol AgI x
234.8g

1 mol Cu
2 mol AgI

63.5 g Cu
1 mol Cu

= 12.2 g Cu reacted

f. Subtract the amount that reacts from the amount you started with to find the mass remaining.
35.0g Cu 12.2g Cu = 22.8 g Cu remains

10

## REVIEW HOMEWORK - MOLE PRACTICE PROBLEMS

1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 molecules (covalent)
1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 formula units (ionic)
1 mole = 6.02 x 1023 atoms (monoatomic element)

## 1 mole = molar mass (grams) - HOW HEAVY

1 mole = 22.4 L for a gas at STP - HOW MUCH SPACE

Make the following mole conversions. Show ALL work for credit!
1.

## 42.5 g of barium nitrate to moles

42.5 g Ba(NO3)2 x

2.

1 mol O2
22.4 L O2

1 mol CO2
44 g CO2

= 0.107 mol O2

22.4 L CO2
1 mol CO2

= 4.15 L CO2

## 2.24 x 1023 molecules of nitrogen triiodide to grams

2.24 x 1023 molecules NI3 x

6.

= 99.6 g LiCl

8.15 g CO2 x

5.

42.4 g LiCl
1 mol LiCl

2.4 L O2 x

4.

## 2.35 moles of lithium chloride to grams

2.35 mol LiCl x

3.

1 mol Ba(NO3)2
261.3 g Ba(NO3)2

1 mol NI3
x
6.02 x 1023 molecules NI3

394.7 g
1 mol NI3

## 0.0425 moles of lead (IV) carbonate to grams

0.0425 mol Pb(CO3)2 x

327.2 g Pb(CO3)2
1 mol Pb(CO3)2

11

= 13.9 g Pb(CO3)2

= 146.9 g NI3

## HOMEWORK - MOLE-MOLE PROBLEMS

1.

N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3
How many moles of hydrogen are needed to completely react with two moles of
nitrogen?
2 mol N2 x

2.

3 mol H2
1 mol N2

2 KClO3 2 KCl + 3 O2
How many moles of oxygen are produced by the decomposition of six moles of
potassium chlorate?
6 mol KClO3 x

3.

3 mol O2
2 mol KClO3

= 9 mol O2

Zn + 2 HCl ZnCl2 + H2
How many moles of hydrogen are produced from the reaction of three moles of zinc with
an excess of hydrochloric acid?
3 mol Zn x 1 mol H2
1 mol Zn

4.

= 6 mol H2

= 3 mol H2

## Write the balanced reaction for the combustion of propane (C3H8).

C3H8 + 5 O2 3 CO2 + 4 H2O_____________________________
How many moles of oxygen are necessary to react completely with 4 moles of propane?
4 mol C3H8 x

5.

5 mol O2
1 mol C3H8

= 20 mol O2

Write and balance the reaction for mixing solutions of potassium phosphate and
magnesium nitrate.
K3PO4 + Al(NO3)3 3 KNO3 + AlPO4_________________________________
How many moles of potassium nitrate are produced when 2 moles of potassium
phosphate react?
2 mol K3PO4 x

3 mol KNO3
1 mol K3PO4

= 6 mol KNO3
12

13

## HOMEWORK - MOLE/MASS & VOLUME PROBLEMS

When aluminum carbonate decomposes, aluminum oxide and carbon dioxide gas form.
Write the complete balanced reaction given below.

## 1 Al2(CO3)3 (s) 1 Al2O3 (s) + 3 CO2 (g)

a. determine the molar mass of each product and reactant for later use:
Al2(CO3)3

Al2O3

## (27 x 2) + (3 x 16) = 102 g/mol

CO2

12 + (2 x 16) = 44 g/mol

b. What mass of aluminum carbonate is needed to form 2.5 moles of carbon dioxide?
2.5 mol CO2 x

1 mol Al2(CO3)3
3 mol CO2

234 g Al2(CO3)3
1 mol Al2(CO3)3

= 195 g Al2(CO3)3

c. What mass of aluminum oxide will form if 2.2 moles of carbon dioxide form?
2.2 mol CO2 x

1 mol Al2O3
3 mol CO2

x 102 g Al2O3
1 mol Al2O3

= 74.8 g Al2O3

d. What mass of aluminum carbonate must decompose in order to form 2.2 moles of aluminum oxide?
2.2 mol Al2O3 x 1 mol Al2(CO3)3
1 mol Al2O3

234 g Al2(CO3)3
1 mol Al2(CO3)3

= 514.8 g Al2O3

e. What volume of carbon dioxide will form if 5.0 moles of aluminum carbonate decompose at STP?
5 mol Al2(CO3)3 x

3 mol CO2
x 22.4 L CO2
1 mol Al2(CO3)3 1 mol CO2

14

= 336 L CO2

## HOMEWORK STOICHIOMETRY MASS-MASS PROBLEMS

1.

2 KClO3 2 KCl + 3 O2
How many grams of potassium chloride are produced when 25 g of potassium chlorate
decomposes?
25 g KClO3 x

2.

= 15.2 g KCl

1 mol N2
28 g N2

3 mol H2
1 mol N2

2 g H2
1 mol H2

= 12.9 g H2

N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3
How many grams of ammonia are produced if 60.0 g of nitrogen react with excess hydrogen?
60 g N2 x

4.

74.6 g KCl
1 mol KCl

N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3
How many grams of hydrogen are necessary to react with 60.0 g of nitrogen?
60 g N2 x

3.

122.6 g KClO3
2 mol KClO3

1 mol N2
28 g N2

2 mol NH3
1 mol N2

x 17 g NH3
1 mol NH3

= 72.9 g NH3

## Solutions of silver chloride and barium nitrate are mixed.

a. Write the complete balanced reaction
2 AgNO3 + BaCl2 2 AgCl + Ba(NO3)2_________________________
b. How many grams of silver chloride are produced from the reaction of 5.0 g of silver nitrate
with excess barium chloride?
5 g AgNO3 x 1 mol AgNO3
169.9 g AgNO3

5.

2 mol AgCl
2 mol AgNO3

143.4 g AgCl
1 mol AgCl

= 4.2 g NH3

## Zinc is placed in a solution of hydrochloric acid

a. Write the complete balanced reaction
Zn + 2 HCl ZnCl2 + H2______________________________________
b. What mass of zinc must react in order to form 2.0 L of hydrogen gas at STP?
2.0 L H2 x

1 mol H2
22.4 L H2

1 mol Zn
1 mol H2

65.4 g Zn
1 mol Zn

15

= 5.84 g Zn

## HOMEWORK - STOICHIOMETRY MIXED PROBLEMS

1.

N2 + 3 H2 2 NH3
What volume of NH3 at STP is produced if 25.0 g of N2 is reacted with an excess of H2?
25 g N2 x

2.

1 mol N2
28 g N2

1 mol KClO3
122.6 g KClO3

3 mol O2
x
2 mol KClO3

22.4 L O2
1 mol O2

= 1.37 L O2

1 mol KClO3
122.6 g KClO3

2 mol KCl x
2 mol KClO3

74.6 g KCl
1 mol KCl

= 3.04 g KCl

Zn + 2 HCl ZnCl2 + H2
What volume of hydrogen at STP is produced when 2.5 g of zinc react with an excess of
hydrochloric acid?
2.5 g Zn x

5.

## x 22.4 L NH3 = 40 L NH3

1 mol NH3

2 KClO3 2 KCl + 3 O2
If 5.0 g of KClO3 is decomposed, how many grams of KCl are produced?
5 g KClO3 x

4.

2 mol NH3
1 mol N2

2 KClO3 2 KCl + 3 O2
If 5.0 g of KClO3 is decomposed, what volume of O2 is produced at STP?
5 g KClO3 x

3.

1 mol Zn
65.4 g Zn

1 mol H2
1 mol Zn

22.4 L H2
1 mol H2

= 0.56 L H2

## Solutions of sodium hydroxide and sulfuric acid are mixed.

a. Write the complete balanced reaction
2 NaOH + H2SO4 Na2SO4 + 2 H2O_________________
b. How many molecules of water are produced if 2.0 g of sodium sulfate are produced in the
reaction above?
2 g Na2SO4 x

6.

1 mol Na2SO4
142.1 g Na2SO4

2 mol H2O
x
1 mol Na2SO4

## 6.02 x 1023 molecules H2O

1 mol H2O
= 1.69 x 1022 molecules H2O

## Aluminum chloride decomposes

a. Write the complete balanced reaction
2 AlCl3 2 Al + 3 Cl2_________________________________________
b. If 10.0 g of aluminum chloride are decomposed, how many molecules of Cl2 are produced?
10 g AlCl3 x

1 mol AlCl3
133.5 g AlCl3

3 mol Cl2
2 mol AlCl3

16

## 6.02 x 1023 molecules Cl2

1 mol Cl2
= 6.76 x 1022 molecules Cl2

## HOMEWORK - LIMITING REACTANT/PERCENT YIELD

1. Solid calcium is added to a solution of iron (III) chloride. The reaction is given below:
_3__Ca + _2__FeCl3 __3__CaCl2 + _2__Fe
a. Balance the reaction.
b. What mass of calcium chloride will form if 5.0 g of calcium react with 5.0 g of iron (III) chloride?
5 g Ca x
1 mol Ca
x
3 mol CaCl2
x 111.1 g CaCl2
= 13.85 g CaCl2
40.1 g Ca
3 mol Ca
1 mol CaCl2
5 g FeCl3 x

1 mol FeCl3
x
162.3 g FeCl3

3 mol CaCl2
2 mol FeCl3

111.1 g CaCl2
1 mol CaCl2

= 5.13 g CaCl2

## Mass of CaCl2 that will form is 5.13 g

c. The limiting reactant is: _____FeCl3_________. The excess reactant is: _______Ca_____________.
d. A student performs the reaction and produces 4.6 g of calcium chloride. What is the percent yield?
(4.6 5.13) x 100% = 89.7%
e. Determine the mass of excess reactant that remains at the end of the reaction.
5 g FeCl3 x

1 mol FeCl3
x
162.3 g FeCl3

3 mol Ca
2 mol FeCl3

40.1 g Ca
1 mol Ca

## = 1.85 g Ca reacts, so 3.15 g

remains

2. Write the reaction for the combustion of methane (CH4) in oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water.
CH4 + 2 O2 CO2 + 2 H2O
a. What mass of carbon dioxide is produced by the reaction of 120.0 g of methane with 180.0 g of oxygen?
120 g CH4 x

1 mol CH4
16.0 g CH4

180 g O2 x

1 mol O2
32.0 g O2

1 mol CO2
1 mol CH4
x

1 mol CO2
2 mol O2

44.0 g CO2
1 mol CO2

= 330 g CO2

44.0 g CO2
1 mol CO2

= 123.75 g CO2

## Mass of CO2 that will form is 123.75 g

b. The limiting reactant is: ______O2______________. The excess reactant is: _____CH4_____________
c. A student performs the reaction above, and produces 102 g of carbon dioxide. What is his percent yield?
(102 123.75) x 100% = 82.4%
d. Determine the mass of excess reactant remaining after the reaction is complete.
180 g O2 x

1 mol O2
32.0 g O2

1 mol CH4
2 mol O2

17

16.0 g CH4
= 45 g CH4 reacts
1 mol CH4
So 120 45 = 75 g CH4 remains