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\^

%)

9 Bohr
1 ( )
.
.
En

2,18 10 18 J
n2

2 ( )

, .

f  Ei

(n): (
). : n = 1, 2, 3 ,
:
(). : 0, 1, 2, , n - 1.
:
x, y, z. : -l, ..., 0, ..., +l.
spin (ms): .
: ms = +1\2.

Pauli
"
.
.

"
,

,
.

und
" ,
spin,
spin".

9 Moseley

"
"


( )
.. s, p, d f.
T s: ns1
ns2 s , 1 2.
T p: ns2
npx p , II V
13 18.
T d: ns2
n 1dx d , VB 3 12.
T f: ns2
n 2fx f , .


.
.


.
.


.
.

9

.


.
..

Ca(OH)2 o Ca

2

 2OH 

(..
) .
, .
..
HCl  H2O o H3O   Cl 
HCN  H2O R H 3O   CN 

9 - rrhenius
: 3+ ( +).
..

HF  H2O R H 3O   F 

: .
..
NaOH o Na   OH 

9 - ronsted - Lowry
: .
: .
..


NH3  H2O R NH+
N
N
N
N 4  OH

CH3COOH  H2O R CH3COO   H3O 



N

N

9
2  2 R 3   

w = [3+][] = 1014, 25C.


25C :
[3+] = [] = 107 .
25C :
[3+] > 107 [] < 107 .
25C :
[3+] < 107 [] > 107 .

9 

(pH) &   (pOH)

PH =  log[H3O+] [H3O+] = 10pH


POH = log[OH] [OH] = 10pOH

9 -
: Cl, HBr, HJ, HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4 ( ).
: 3, (.. RNH2).

9 M -
()
mol mol
.

mol
mol

0<<1




( )
( )
( ).
(a Kb)
:  2 R 3   

[H3O  ] [OH ]
[HA]



: B  H2O R BH  OH

Kb

[BH ] [OH  ]
[B]




( ).

9 Ostwald
Ka

2C
(1  )

a
A d 0,1  d 0,01 a = 2C.
C
-
a Kb = Kw

9
, .
.
..
3  2 R 4  
4+.
4Cl o NH 4  Cl 

9
pH , .
T (/)
(/+)
..
CN, NaCN
NH3, NH4Cl
pH
pH

pK a  log

C
C

pOH=pK

 log

pH , .

, ,
pH.
..
H
N

 2 R 3  

N
2

pH  pKa H  1 .
pH ! pKa H  1 .

9
1. o
.
i) - (..  , Cl  Cl, Br  Br)

C2 + 2 o C2+2
C2 + 2 o C22

ii) +-  (.. + Cl,+ Br,+ l, + OH).

C2 + o C2+1

C2 + 2 o C2+1
Markovnikov: T

.
2.
.
i)  (..  , Cl  Cl, Br  Br)

C22 + 22 o C2+2
C22 + 22 o C224
C22 + 2 o C22

ii) +-  (.. + Cl , + Br, +l ,


+ OH ).

3. (

) .

:
: 2, CN, RMgX.

M RMgX :
(HCH=O) (RCH2 OH)
, HCH=O, (

Grignard (RMgX) g
RX.

9
1. .
C2+1 + aO

C2 +NaX + H2O

2. .
C22 + 2aO

C22 + 2NaX + 2H2O

3. .
C2+1

C2 + H2O

2
.

9
1.
i) RX + gOH oROH + AgX
ii) RX + NaCN o RCN + NaX
RCN + 2H2O

RCOOH + NH3

( )
( )
( o)


iii)
iv)
v)
vi)

RX
RX
RX
RX

+
+
+
+

RONa oROR + NaX


NH3 o R2 + X
RCOONa o RCOR + NaX
RCCNa oRCCR + NaX

(
(
(
(

)
)
)
)

2.
R + SOCl2 o RCl + SO2 + HCl ( )
3.
RCOR + 2

RC + ROH

4.
CH4 + Cl2 o CH3Cl +
CH3Cl + Cl2 o CH2Cl2
CH2Cl2 + Cl2 o CHCl3
CH3Cl + Cl2 o CCl4 +

HCl
+ HCl
+ HCl
HCl


9
1. .

CH2=CH2

(  CH2  CH2  )

CH3 

CH3  CH=CH2

Cl

 CN

2. 1,4

CH3 -

Cl -

H-

9 A
1.
n4
2Cr27. n4 .
i)
O
H2 O

O

R  CH2OH 
oR

CH
O o R
 COOH


ii)
R1
R1
O
CH  OH 
C O
o
H2 O
R2
R2


..
5RCH2OH  4KMnO 4  6H 2SO 4 o 5RCOOH  2K 2SO 4  4MnSO 4  11H 2O
3

R1

R1

C O  K SO  Cr (SO )  7H O
CHOH  K Cr O  4H SO o3
2
4
2
4 3
2
2 2 7
2
4
R2
R2


2.

Fehling Tollens.
O

R

CH
O o R
 COOH


..
RCHO  2CuSO 4  5NaOH o RCOONa  Cu 2O p 2Na 2SO 4 + 32
RCHO  2AgNO 3  3NH 3 H 2O o RCOONH 4  2Ag p 2NH 4NO 3

3. HCOOH, HOOC - COOH .


HCOOH o CO 2,

HCOONa o CO

COOH
COOH
I
o CO 2,
I
o CO 2
COOH
COOH
..
5HCOOH  2KMnO 4  3H 2SO 4 o 5CO 2  2MnSO 4  K 2SO 4  8H 2O

5(COONa)2 + 2KMnO4 + 8H2SO4 o 10CO2 + K2SO4 + 2MnSO4


+ 5Na2SO4 + 8H2O

9 A
i) 2
Ni, Pt, Pd

CH2  H2 
o CH

CH2

 CH

Ni, Pt, Pd

HCCH  2H 2 
o CH 3  CH

ii) 2
Ni

RCHO  H 2 oRCH 2OH


R1

R1
C

Ni

O  H2 o
R

CH  OH

iii) 2
CH3CN  22 o C 3C 2 2

9
RCOOH, C6H5OH, ROH, RC {CH.
: RCOOH > C6H5OH > ROH > RC { CH.
i) RCOOH
RCOOH  NaOH o RCOONa  H 2O
2RCOOH  Na 2CO 3 o 2RCOONa  CO 2  H 2O
1
RCOOH  Na o RCOONa  H 2
2
RCOOH  NH 3 o RCOONH 4

ii)

C6H5OH

C6H5OH  NaOH o C 6H 5ONa  H 2O


C6H5OH  Na o C 6H 5ONa 

1
H
2

iii) ROH
ROH  Na o RONa 

1
H2
2

iv) RC { CH
1
RCCH  Na o RCCNa  H 2
2

RCCH  CuCl  NH 3 o RCCCu p NH 4Cl

9 A
:
RNH2, RCOO, RO, RC {C, R, C6H5O
..
RNH2  HCl o RNH 3Cl 
R1

R1

R2

NH  HCl o

R2

NH2Cl

RCOONa  HCl o RCOOH  NaCl


RONa  H2O o ROH  NaOH

9
1. 2
R  CH  CH 3  X 2 o R  C  CH 3  2HX
I
II
OH
O

2. CH3
R  C  CH3  3X 2 o R  C  CX 3  3HX
II
II
O
O

3. CX3 O
RCCX 3 OH  o RCOO   CHX 3
II
O

C 2 1  CH  CH 3 t 0 :
I
OH
C 2 1  CH  CH 3  4X 2  6NaOH o CHX 3  C 2 1COONa  5NaX  5H 2O
I
OH

C 2 1  C  CH 3 t 0
II
:

C 2 1  C  CH 3  3X 2  4NaOH o CHX 3  C 2 1COONa  3NaX  3H 2O


I
O