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1

**Applying Optimum Combining to a DS/CDMA
**

Code Diversity System

Hector Candiales and Shin’ichi Tachikawa

Abstract—In this paper, we propose a new weight coefficient calculation method for a DS/CDMA code-diversity system. The

method is based on the well-known optimum combining theory, whereby the weight coefficient vector that maximizes output

signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SNIR) can be found by solving a linear system that involves an estimated interferenceplus-noise correlation matrix. The method has two steps: first, estimating the interference-plus-noise correlation matrix; and

second, solving the required linear system. We evaluate the proposed method using computer simulations, and show that it

yields almost-equal bit error rate performance when compared to the previously proposed method: adaptive weight control. The

result is expected, as an optimum combiner can also be implemented with an LMS adaptive array. Nevertheless, the proposed

method has a couple of advantages; namely, being a direct (non-iterative) calculation method, and requiring a comparatively

shorter training sequence. Its main drawback is the need to estimate the desired user’s power level at the receiver. The

overhead caused by solving the linear system could be of concern, but becomes largely negligible compared to the training time

if the receiver’s hardware is capable of many floating point operations per bit/symbol period.

Index Terms—DS/CDMA, code-diversity, multiple access interference, optimum combining, interference-to-noise correlation

matrix

—————————— u ——————————

1 INTRODUCTION

I

**n past years, there have been studies about a directsequence code-division multiple-access (DS/CDMA)
**

communication system which employs a code-diversity

scheme as a method for suppressing multiple access interference (MAI). This is known as DS/CDMA codediversity. The original concept of a code-diversity system

is based on the use of a sum of several PN sequences as

the spreading codes for users [1]. This approach enables

diversity reception by employing several receiving

branches matched to each one of the individual PN sequences which compose the spreading code. Codediversity has been shown to be effective in suppressing

multiple access interference, especially under a near-far

problem environment, that is, when the received signal

power of any of the undesired users is much larger than

the desired user’s.

After the proposal of the original method, codediversity was simulated under multipath fading channels,

and showed to be effective still [2]. Afterward, a constant

amplitude composite sequence code-diversity method

was introduced, which simplified the original system by

implementing diversity reception using multivalued orthogonal cyclic shifted M (OM) sequences at the receiver

[3]. More recently, two-valued digitally-constructed

branch sequences with constant composite value have

been proposed. The application of these sequences has

the benefit of simplifying hardware implementation [4].

As with any diversity method, the calculation of appropriate weight coefficients for branch combining is critical

————————————————

**• H. Candiales was with the Nagaoka Universtity of Technology, Nagaoka,
**

Niigata, Japan.

• S. Tachikawa is with the Nagaoka National College of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata, 940-8532, Japan.

to the system’s bit error rate (BER) performance. The original code-diversity proposes a calculation method based

on maximal ratio combining (MRC), in which each weight

coefficient is calculated as the division of the root mean

square (RMS) level of the desired signal component, by

the power of the interference-plus-noise component at

each branch [1]. Seeking further performance improvement, an adaptive weight control (AWC) method based

on the least mean squares (LMS) algorithm was proposed

in [5]. This method showed notable improvement over

the original one, nonetheless, requiring increased complexity and a considerably longer training sequence.

Motivated by the question of optimal weight coefficients for code-diversity, this paper proposes a calculation

method based on optimum combining theory, whereby

the weight coefficient vector that maximizes output signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SNIR) can be found

by solving a linear system involving an estimated interference-plus-noise correlation matrix [6]. This approach is

based in noting that the output SINR of a DS/CDMA

code-diversity system can be written in the form of a generalized Rayleigh quotient, and therefore has the associated optimal solution presented in [7].

In Sect. 2, we present a baseband model of a

DS/CDMA code-diversity communication system. Furthermore, we introduce the concept of orthogonal cyclic

shifted M (OM) sequences and both weight coefficient

calculation methods proposed so far for code-diversity:

MRC by anti-cross correlation and adaptive weight control. In Sect. 3, we derive an expression for the signal-tointerference plus noise ratio (SNIR) and present the equation that maximizes it, according to optimum combining

theory. In Sect. 4, a direct method to calculate weight coefficients is proposed based on optimum combining. The

method requires two steps; estimating the interference-

2

plus-noise correlation matrix at the receiver and calculating the optimum weigh coefficients by solving a linear

system. In Sect. 5, we present numerical results of a performance evaluation based on the simulation of its average bit error rate. Finally in Sect. 6, we present the conclusions.

**is fed to M correlating branches, where the signal is
**

matched, not only to its carrier (omitted since it's a baseband model), but to the corresponding branch sequence

from the set OM1, OM2, …, OMM. Correlator outputs are

then multiplied by the weight coefficients from the set g1,

g2, …, gM, and added up to obtain a weight sum that becomes the input to the threshold decision stage.

2 SYSTEM MODEL

2.1 OM Sequences

The branch sequences are core elements of the codediversity method. In this model, orthogonal cyclic shifted

M sequences are used. These are a set of multilevel sequences especially devised to make constant amplitude

code-diversity possible [3]. A set of base OM sequences is

generated by first building an N×N matrix that contains

all the shifted versions of a maximal length (M) sequence

of code length N, and then adding and multiplying an

orthogonalization component and a normalization factor,

respectively.

Given an M sequence of code length N, the n-th chip of

the k-th OM sequence, that is omn(k) (n = 0, 1, 2, …, N-1; k =

1, 2, …, N), is given by the following expression

**Consider the baseband model of a DS/CDMA constant
**

amplitude code-diversity communication system shown

in Fig. 1. At the desired user’s transmitter, the data signal

is spectrum-spread by the sequence (OM1 + OM2 + … +

OMM)*PN, where PN is a pseudo-noise sequence (such as

a Gold sequence), and OM is the sum of all composite

orthogonal cyclic shifted M sequences OM1, OM2, …,

OMM. By design, OM results in a sequence of pulse

widths with constant amplitude +1, so that OM*PN=PN.

Therefore, the addition and product (OM1 + OM2 + … +

OMM)*PN, does not need to be implemented in practice

and the standard DS/CDMA transmitter can be preserved.

omn

(k )

= β ( M n+k −1 + α ) ,

(1)

**where Mn denotes the n-th chip of the M sequence {M1, M2,
**

…, MN-1}, ! the normalization factor, and " the orthogonalization complement. and are defined as

α=

1+ 1+ N

,

N

(2)

1

.

N +1

(3)

and

β=

Fig.1. System model of original code-diversity

**The spectrum-spread signal propagates through a
**

channel where no loses or fading are considered, but

where additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and multiple access interference add to it as undesired components which degrade the bit error rate of the system. Multiple access interference is the sum of the transmitted signal of every user which is not the desired user. Each undesired user exhibits a relative phase shift or delay with

respect to the desired user's signal since the DS/CDMA

environment is asynchronous.

At the receiver, the received signal is first synchronized to the desired user's PN sequence, and then multiplied by it to perform the despread process. The model

assumes perfect synchronization, and its underlying

mechanisms are not considered in the model.

Following the spectrum-despread, the resulting signal

**It can be demonstrated that these sequences have two
**

important properties: a) they compose an orthogonal set,

b) the sum of all sequences results in a sequence of constant value +1.

Generally, the number of branches M will be less than

the code length N. In such case, it is necessary to compose

the N sequences into a lesser number, for instance L sequences OM1, OM2, …, OML. This is called branch composition. In this paper, we use the order allocation algorithm,

which is as follows:

1. Obtain w as the result of N/L rounded down to

the nearest integer;

2. Obtain r as the remainder of N/L;

3. From the set of original sequences om1, om2, …,

omN, assign in increasing order w+1 sequences to

the first OM1, OM2, …, OMr sequences, and w sequences to the remaining OM(r+1), OM(r+2), …, OML

sequences. Note that (w+1) r + w (L-r) = N.

**2.2 MRC Code-Diversity by Anti-Cross Correlation
**

This is the weight coefficient calculation method proposed for the conventional DS/CDMA code-diversity

system [1]. It calculates the weight of the k-th branch in

proportion to the received signal's root mean square

(RMS) level, and in inverse proportion to the interference-

3

plus-noise power following the formula

gk =

**ergodic random processes [8]. Further working out the
**

expression gives us

λ

,

E [ I ] + E [ N k2 ]

(4)

2

k

where

is the RMS value of the desired signal component, E[Ik2] is the interference power, and E[Nk2] is the

noise power; all at the output of the k-th branch correlator.

It is worth noting that the power levels are calculated as

probabilistic averages over the random variables of noise

and data symbols.

Assuming that the desired user's power component at

the output of the k-th branch's correlator, E[Sk2], is a

known value,

can be calculated as

λ = E[ Sk2 ] ,

SNIR =

2

k

2

k

E[ I ] + E[ N ] = E[ Z ] − E[ S ] ,

=

]

k

M

=

(7)

,

**where g(n) denotes the weight coefficient column vector,
**

d(n) the threshold decision stage output, and c(n) the column vector with the correlators outputs; all at the n-th

training bit. gT denotes the transpose of g and the fixed

step size.

**3 AN EQUATION THAT MAXIMIZES THE SNIR
**

Consider the system model shown in Fig. 1. Let Zk denote

the output of the k-th branch correlator. Let Sk, Nk, and Ik

be respectively the user's signal, noise, and interference

components of Zk, such that Zk = Sk + Nk + Ik. The output

signal-to-interference plus noise ratio (SINR) at the input

of the threshold decision stage will be

SNIR =

2

⎡⎛ M

⎞ ⎤

E ⎢⎜ ∑ g k Sk ⎟ ⎥

⎠ ⎥⎦

⎢⎣⎝ k =1

E `[Sk Sk ' ]

k'

E [( N k + I k )( N k ' + I k ' )]

k =1 k =1

M

∑∑ g g

( ss )

k ' kk '

∑∑ g g

( ss )

k ' kk '

k =1 k =1

M M

k

R

R

k =1 k =1

**where E[Zk2], is the k-th branch's correlator output power.
**

This value is estimated for all branches sampling the correlator outputs Z1, Z2, …, ZM during a training sequence.

[

M

∑∑ g g

(6)

g(n + 1) = g(n) + µ d (n) − gT (n)c(n) c(n)

M

k'

k =1 k =1

k

**2.3 Adaptive Weight Control
**

The adaptive weight control code-diversity is a method in

which the diversity weights are controlled using the least

mean squares (LMS) algorithm [5]. The weight coefficients are iteratively updated during a training sequence

using the formula

M

∑∑ g g

k

(5)

2

k

⎡ M M

⎤

E ⎢∑∑ g k g k ' ( N k + I k )( N k ' + I k ' )⎥

⎣ k =1 k =1

⎦

M

**and the interference-plus-noise component as
**

2

k

⎡ M M

⎤

E ⎢∑∑ g k g k ' Sk Sk ' ⎥

⎣ k =1 k =1

⎦

=

gT R ssg

,

gT R nng

**where g is the column vector with the weight coefficients
**

g1, g2, …, gM, the T superscript denotes the transpose of a

vector/matrix, and Rss and Rnn are the user’s signal and

interference-plus noise correlation matrices defined as

⎛ R11( ss )

⎜ ( ss )

⎜ R

R ss = ⎜ 21

⎜

(

⎜ R ss )

⎝ M 1

R12( ss ) … R1(Mss ) ⎞

⎟

( ss )

R22

… R2( ssM) ⎟ ,

⎟

⎟

( ss ) ⎟

RM( ss2) … RMM

⎠

(8)

2

⎡⎛ M

⎞ ⎤

(

)

E ⎢⎜ ∑ g k I k + N k ⎟ ⎥

⎠ ⎥⎦

⎢⎣⎝ k =1k

**The above powers averages are calculated as secondorder probabilistic averages (expectations) with respect to
**

data symbols and noise, since these are in practice slow

varying time functions that can be modeled as stationary

(10)

and

⎛ R11( nn )

⎜ ( nn )

⎜ R

R ss = ⎜ 21

⎜

⎜ R ( nn )

⎝ M 1

R12( nn ) … R1(Mnn ) ⎞

⎟

( nn )

)

R22

… R2( nn

M ⎟

,

⎟

⎟

( nn ) ⎟

RM( nn2) … RMM

⎠

(11)

where

Rkk( ss' ) = E[ Sk Sk ' ] ,

(12)

and

Rkk( nn' ) = E[( N k + I k )( N k ' + I k ' )] .

.

(9)

(13)

**It is worth noting that the expression in (9) has the form
**

of a generalized Rayleigh quotient. The maximization

problem of this quotient appears in various fields, and is

generally solved by interpreting it as an eigenvalue problem. In communications, however, optimum combining

borrows from array processing theory stating that the

weight coefficient vector that maximizes the output SINE

expressed in the form of (9) is given by the expression

4

−1 ~

g = αR nn

V,

(14)

where

is an arbitrary constant, V is the propagation

vector, ~ denotes complex conjugate, and Rnn-1 denotes the

inverse of Rnn. In this system model, let = 1 and V = 1 =

(1, 1, …, 1)T. Then (14) reduces to

−1

g = R nn

1 .

(15)

4 A PROPOSED METHOD

Previous methods for calculating weight coefficients in

the code-diversity system were based on either, maximum ration combining (MRC) by anti-cross correlation,

or adaptive weight control (AWC). MRC by anti-cross

correlation is a simple and convenient method, yet, it

cannot properly maximize the SINR in a code-diversity

system as a consequence of multiple access interference

not beign independent among branches. Hence, MRC by

anti-cross correlation becomes sub-optimal in a

DS/CDMA code-diversity system.

On the other hand, adaptive weight control has shown

to achieve a notably better performance. In fact, optimum

combining is known to be achievable by using least mean

square (LMS) adaptive arrays, which are the core of the

AWC method. However, AWC has shown some drawbacks in the code-diversity system. First, it requires a

longer training sequence; around 5,000 and 200,000 bits

(as seen in [2] and [5]), whereas the original MRC method

requires only 1,000 bits [1]. Aditionally, because AWC is

an interative method, there is the issue of properly selecting the step size, which incorrectly selected causes the

algorithm no to converge.

Looking to overcome these drawbacks, in this section

we introduce a direct calculation method (non-iterative)

similar to MRC by anti-cross correlation, but based on

optimum combining.

**4.1 Estimating the Interference-plus-Correlation
**

Matrix

From (15), it is clear that finding the weight coefficients

that maximize the output SINR requires computing the

interference-plus-correlation matrix Rnn defined in (11)

and (13). The expectation in (13) can be estimated in a

similar way as it is done in MRC by anti-cross correlation

[1]. First consider that

E[Z k Zk ' ] = E[(Sk + I k + N k )(Sk ' + I k ' + N k ' )].

(16)

**Since Sk, Ik, and Nk are mutually independent and with
**

zero mean, it is easy to see that

E[ Z k Z k ' ] = E[ Sk Sk ' ] + E[( I k + N k )( I k ' + N k ' )] ,

(17)

and thus

E[( I k + N k )( I k ' + N k ' )] = E[ Z k Z k ' ] − E[ Sk Sk ' ] .

(18)

Note that (18) is a more general version of (6). Now con-

**sider that from (18), (10), (11), (12), and (13), it should be
**

clear that the following extended matrix relation holds

R nn = R zz − R ss ,

(19)

where Rzz is the correlator output correlation matrix defined as

⎛ R11( zz )

⎜ ( zz )

⎜ R

R ss = ⎜ 21

⎜

⎜ R ( zz )

⎝ M 1

R12( zz ) … R1(Mzz ) ⎞

⎟

( zz )

R22

… R2( zzM) ⎟

,

⎟

⎟

( zz ) ⎟

RM( zz2) … RMM

⎠

(20)

where

Rkk( zz' ) = E[ Z k Z k ' ].

(21)

**To calculate Rnn with (19), Rzz and Rnn must be estimated.
**

Rzz can be computed in K training bits measuring the value of Zk directly from all branch correlators at each training bit, and then computing

1 K

T

zi zi

∑

K i =1

R zz =

,

(22)

**where zi is the column vector holding correlators outputs
**

Z1, Z2, …, ZM at the i-th training bit.

Contrary to the case of Rzz, computing Rss requires an

indirect approach. First, consider the system model in

Fig.1. Note that since OM1(t) + OM2(t) + … + OMM(t) = 1,

for all t in [0, T], Sk can be written as

T

Sk = ∫ DATA(t ) ⋅ PN 2 (t ) ⋅ OM k (t )dt.

0

(23)

**PN(t) is a pseudo-noise sequence that takes the binary
**

values {-1, 1} and DATA(t) is a sequence of random pulses

of width T that takes antipodal values equal in magnitude

to the square root of the user's signal received power P.

Then,

T

Sk = ∫ DATA(t ) ⋅ (1) ⋅ OM k (t )dt ,

0

=∫

T

0

P ⋅ b0 ⋅ OM k (t )dt ,

(24)

**where b0 represents the data as a uniformly distributed
**

random variable that takes the binary values {-1, 1}. From

(24), it follows that

T

Sk = Pb0 ∫ OM k (t )dt ,

0

⎛ 1 T

⎞

= PTb0 ⎜ ∫ OM k (t )dt ⎟,

0

⎝ T

⎠

= PTb0ok ,

(25)

**where ok is the mean value of the k-th composite OM
**

sequence in a bit period T. Borrowing the result from (25),

5

note that E[Sk Sk'] can be expressed as

E [ Sk Sk ' ] = E

[(

PTb0ok

2

[ ]

)(

)]

PTb0ok ,

2

= PT E b0 ok ok ,

= PT 2ok ok .

(26)

**Finally, from (10), (12), and (26), Rss can be expressed
**

as

R ss = PT 2OOT ,

(27)

**where O is defined as the column vector holding the values o1 , o2 ,..., oM . The superscript T denotes the transpose
**

of a matrix/vector.

From (19), (22), and (27), the interference-plus-noise

correlation matrix can be expressed as

R nn =

1 K

T

zi zi − PT 2OOT .

∑

K i =1

(28)

**Note that zi is measured directly from the receiver at
**

each training bit, and that T, K, and O are known values

once the system is designed. Nevertheless, the user's received signal power level P has to be estimated at the receiver in order to fully compute Rnn and implement the

method. This is a shared similarity between the proposed

method and MRC by anti-cross correlation.

**4.2 Calculating the Optimum Weight Coefficients
**

Having estimated the interference-plus-correlation matrix

Rnn, the optimum weight coefficients can be calculated

using (15). However, taking advantage of a special characteristic of Rnn, the weights can be found without having

to invert this matrix (which can be computationally costly), but rather by solving a simple linear system that derives from it. To show this, first note that (15) can be written as the linear equation

R nng = 1.

(29)

**From (11) and (13), it is clear that Rnn will always be a
**

real symmetrical matrix. Furthermore, note that since the

SINR is a ratio of positive power values for any g, which

is evident from (8), then gTRnng > 0 for all non-zero g. This

latter relation indicates that Rnn is positive definite. Linear

algebra knowledge states that a real symmetrical positive

definite matrix A has a unique Cholesky decomposition

such that A = BBT, where B is lower triangular [9]. This

property allows the linear system in (29) to be decomposed into a two triangular systems that can be solved

inexpensively via forward and back substitutions [10].

Therefore, the proposed algorithm for solving (29) is as

follows.

1. Perform the Cholesky decomposition Rnn = BBT,

2. Solve the lower triangular system Bz = 1 with

forward substitution,

3. Solve the upper triangular system BTg = z with

backward substitution.

Algorithms for computing the Cholesky decomposi-

**tion require approximately n3/3 floating point operations
**

(flops). On the other hand, solving a triangular system

with forward or back substitution demands approximately n2 flops in either case. Consequently, the Cholesky

method for solving the linear system in (29) would require around n3/3 + n2 flops. In a 5 branched codediversity system, this would be approximately 90 flops.

Hence it can be seen that if the receiver hardware can perform many floating point operations during a bit period

(which is likely in spread spectrum systems), then the

overhead of solving the linear system will be negligible

compared to the training time.

5 NUMERICAL RESULTS

This section shows the results of computer simulations

carried out in order to evaluate the performance of the

proposed method. The simulation models a near-far problem environment, where the user's signal is degraded by

AWGN and a single interfering user (multiple access interference) with greater received power (SIR = -10dB).

Gold codes are used as PN sequences for both user and

interference. The asynchronous CDMA environment is

modeled using asynchronous bit timing and synchronous

chip timing. Interference delay takes all the integer values

from from 0 to 30 chips (code lenght is 31). Code-diversity

employs five receiving branches, each with one composite

OM sequence built using the order allocation algorithm.

Weight coefficients are calculated with MRC by anti-cross

correlation, adaptive weight control (AWC), and the proposed method. Further details are shown in Table 1.

Table 1 Simulation specifications

Modulation system

BPSK-DS/SS

Number of user

2

PN Sequences

Gold sequences

Preferred pair M[45], M[75]

**User’s and interference’s PN
**

sequence

G0 and G3

Code length

31

Transmission line

AWGN and interference

Eb/N0

0 ~ 8 dB

**Signal-to-interference Ratio
**

(SIR)

-10 dB

Interference bit timing

Asynchronous

Interference chip timing

Synchronous

Interference delay

0 ~ 30 chips

Number of branches

5

Branch sequences

OM sequences (M[67])

Branch composition

Order allocation

Weight coefficient method

MRC, AWC, and proposed

Training bits

**MRC: 1,000 bits
**

AWC: 10,000 bits

Proposed: 1,000 bits

Step size (for AWC)

10-2

6

6 CONCLUSIONS

Fig. 2. Performance evaluation of the proposed method

**Simulation results aresummarized in the average BER
**

vs. Eb/N0 [dB] plot shown in Fig. 2. There are five curves

depicted. Two of them are upper and lower bounding

curves which show the performance of the conventional

DS/CDMA system with and without multiple access interference (MAI), respectively. The three remaining

curves show the performance of a 5-branched codediversity system with multiple access interference, each

applying a different weight coefficient calculation method

(MRC, AWC, and the proposed). In every case, the resulting curve is obtained averaging the bit error rate (BER)

over the range of interference delays considered (0 ~ 30

chips).

The following are observations that can be drawn from

the plot. First, consider the bounding curves that show

the performance of the conventional DS/CDMA system

with and without MAI. Notice how heavily the performance is degraded in a conventional system when there

is a near-far problem; in the case of this simulation, an

interfering user with ten times the received power of the

desired user. In order to do a numerical comparison, let's

consider the average BER at the fixed point of Eb/N0 = 8

dB for every curve. The no MAI case yields an average

BER of 1.95*10-4, whereas the MAI case yields 6.45*10-2; a

difference greater than 2 orders of magnitude.

The application of the code-diversity method produces

a noticeable performance improvement. Using MRC by

anti-cross correlation, the average BER reduces to 2.78*102

at Eb/N0 = 8 dB. However, using AWC or the proposed

method, the reduction goes down to 4.80*10-3 and 4.99*103

, respectively. This constitutes, in either case, a reduction

of more than an order of magnitude from the MAI case

with the conventional system.

In this paper, we proposed a weight coefficient calculation method for DS/CDMA code-diversity based on optimum combining theory and evaluated its performance

through computer simulations. The results showed us

that the difference between AWC and the proposed

method is nearly negligible, hence having almost the

same performance. This result is consistent with optimum

combining theory [6], given that an optimum combiner

can also be implemented using an LMS adaptive array;

the core of adaptive weight control. Using the proposed

method, however, has two advantages over AWC. First, it

is a direct (non-iterative) calculation method not subject

to the convergence issues of numerical algorithms. Second, it needs a far smaller training sequence (only 1,000

bits). Its main drawback is requiring an estimate for the

user's received power level at the receiver, something that

is not necessary with AWC and a shared characteristic

with MRC by anti-cross correlation. The overhead caused

by finding the solution to the linear system could be of

concern, but it'll be negligible compared to the training

time if the hardware is capable of performing many floating point operations per bit period T.

REFERENCES

[1] T. Seki, M. Hamamura and S. Tachikawa, “Suppression effects of multiple access interference in

DS/CDMA with code-diversity”, IEICE Trans.

Fundamentals, vol. E82-A, no. 12, pp.2720-2727, Dec.

1999.

[2] R. Manzanilla, M. Hamamura and S. Tachikawa, “Sequence suppression characteristics of code-diversity

DS/CDMA over multipath fading channels”, IEICE

Trans. Fundamentals, vol. E84-A, no. 12, pp. 2983-2990,

Dec. 2001.

[3] S. Hasebe and S. Tachikawa, “DS/SS code-diversity

communication system using a constant amplitude

composite sequence”, IEICE Trans. Fundamentals, vol.

J90-A, no. 1, pp. 44-53, Jan. 2007.

[4] H. Noguchi and S. Tachikawa, “A novel spreading

sequence and its performances for code-diversity in

DS/CDMA communication systems”, Proc. Int. Symposium on Inf. Theory and its Applications (ISITA), pp.

347-351, Oct. 2012.

[5] S. Tachikawa and M. Takekawa, “DS/CDMA codediversity communication system using adaptive

weight control”, Proc. 14th Asia-Pacific Conf. on Commun. (APCC2008), Oct. 2008.

[6] J.H. Winters, “Optimum combining in digital mobile

radio with cochannel interference”, IEEE Journal on

Selected Areas in Commun., vol. SAC-2, no.4, pp. 528539, Jul. 1984.

[7] C. Baird and C. Zahm, “Performance criteria for narrowband array processing”, Proc. IEEE Conf. on Decision and Control, vol. 10, 1971.

[8] M. Pursley, “Performance evaluation for phase-coded

spread-spectrum multiple-access communication—

part I: system analysis”, IEEE Trans. on Commun., vol.

7

**COM-25, no. 8, pp. 795-799, Aug. 1977.
**

[9] G. Hammerlin and K. Hoffmann, Numerical Mathematics, Springer-Verlag, New York, pp. 61-63, 1977.

[10] D. S. Watkins, Triangular Systems, Fundamentals of

Matrix Computations, John Wiley & Sons, New York,

pp. 23-29, 2004.

Hector Candiales was born in Valencia, Venezuela, in 1986. He

received the B.S. degree in electronic engineering from Simon Bolivar University, Venezuela, in 2010. From 2008 to 2009, he was a

exchange student at Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka,

Japan. From 2010 to 2014, he worked as a project and sales engineer at Vikua, Venezuela. His current research interests lie in the

area of spread spectrum communications.

Shin’ichi Tachikawa was born in Niigata, Japan. He received the

B.S., M.S. and Dr. Degrees in electrical engineering from Nagaoka

University of Technology, Nagaoka, Japan, in 1980, 1982 and 1991,

respectively. He was engaged at Nagaoka University of Technology

from 1982 to 2009. Since 2009, he has been a member of Engineering at National Institute of Technology, Nagaoka College, where he

is now a Professor. His current research interests lie in the areas of

spread spectrum communication system, ultra wideband systems,

coding theory and signal processing. Dr. Tachikawa is a member of

IEICE (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication

Engineers) of JAPAN.

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