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NDT.netJune1999,Vol.4No.

NondestructiveTestingApplicationsin
CommercialAircraftMaintenance.
TableofContentsECNDT
'98
Session:Aerospace

Md.AlahiUddinKhanBimanBangladeshAirlines,Bangladesh.

INTRODUCTION
Inaircraftmaintenanceprogrammeitis
importanttoinspectthemechanicaldamageand
assesstheextentoftherepairwork.Butin
schedulemaintenanceitisadifficulttofinding
thedefectsrapidly,asthemaintenanceofaircraft
mustbeaccomplishedwithinscheduledtimeand
sametobereleasedintimeforcommercial
operation.

TABLEOFCONTENTS
Introduction
DIFFERENTNDTMETHODS
LiquidPenetrant
MagneticParticle
EddyCurrent
Ultrasonic
Radiography
Visual/Optical
Sonic/Resonance
InfraredThermography
Conclusion
References

Duringaircraftmaintenance'NONDESTRUCTWETESTING'(NDT)isthemosteconomical
wayofperforminginspectionandthisistheonlywayofdiscoveringdefects.Insimplywecan
say,NDTcandetectcracksoranyotherirregularitiesintheairframestructureandengine
componentswhichareobviouslynotvisibletothenakedeye.
Structures&differentassembliesofaircraftaremadefromvariousmaterials,suchas
aluminiumalloy,steel,titaniumandcompositematerials.Todismantletheaircraftinpiecesand
thenexamineeachcomponentwouldtakealongtime,sotheNDTmethodandequipment
selectionmustbefastandeffective.
InthepresenttrendofNDTapplicationonaircraft7080%ofNDTisperformedonthe
airframe,structure,landinggearsandtherestcarriedoutonengine&relatedcomponents.
Inordertomaintaintheaircraftdefectsfreeandensureahighdegreeofquality&reliability
andasapartofinspectionprogramme,usuallyfollowingNDTmethodsareapplied
1)Liquidpenetrant2)Magneticparticle,3)Eddycurrent4)Ultrasonic5)Radiography(x
ray/gamaray)6)Visual/Optical7)Sonic/Resonance8)InfraredThermography.

DIFFERENTNDTMETHODS
1.LiquidPenetrant:
Liquidpenetranttestingisoneoftheoldestofmodernnondestructivetestingmethods&widely
usedinaircraftmaintenance.Liquidpenetranttestingcanbedefinedasaphysical&chemical
nondestructiveproceduredesignedtodetect&exposesurfaceconnecteddiscontinuitiesin
'nonporous'engineeringmaterials.
Thefundamentalpurposeofpenetranttestingistoincreasethevisiblecontrastbetweena
discontinuity&itsbackground.Thisisachievedbytreatingtheareawithanappropriately
formulatedliquidofhighmobility&penetratingpower(whichentersthesurfacecavities),and
thenencouragingtheliquidtoemergefromthedeveloper,torevealtheflawpatternunderwhite
light(whenvisibledyepenetrantsareused)orunderultravioletlight(whenfluorescent

penetrantsareused).Evaluationalsoconductwiththeaidof3Xto5Xmagnification.The
objectiveofliquidpenetranttestingistoprovidevisualevidencecracks,porosity,laps,seams
ofothersurfacediscontinuitiesrapidly&economicallywithhighdegreeofreliability.
Equipment:Varioustypesofpenetranttestunitsareusedinaircraftmaintenance
i)PortableEquipment:Penetrantsmaterialsareavailablein'Aerosolspraycans'insmall
containersforbrushorwipeapplication.Withtheseaerosolcanpenetranttestingare
performedoninstalledpartsonaircraft's,structureorinpowerplants
ii)StationaryTestEquipment:Thistypeofequipmentismostfrequentlyusedinfixed
installations,consistsofaseriesofmodularworkstations.Typicalstationsareasfollows:
a)deeptanksforpenetrantb)emulsifier&developerc)anumberofdrainordwellareas
d)awashareawithappropriatelightinge)dryingovenandf)aninspectionbooth.
iii)SmallPartsTestUnit:Theseinspectionunitsdesignedforprocessingaircraftsmall
parts.Theunitsaresmallerthanthestationarysystem.Smallpartsareloadedintowire
baskets&thenprocessedthrougheachofthestations.
iv)AutomatedTestSystem:Inthispenetranttestingprocesspenetrantapplication,
washing,anddryingareautomatic,butdeveloperapplication,theultravioletlight
inspection&interpretationaremanuallyperformedbyaninspector.Largeaircraft
componentsareinspectedinthisautomaticsystem.
Applications:Detectionofsurfacedetectsorstructuraldamageinallmaterialsofaircraft.
Fluorescentpenetrantsareusedincriticalareasformoresensitiveevaluation.
KeyPoints:Fast&simpletouse,inexpensiveandeasilytransportable.Candetectverysmall
surfacediscontinuity.Canbeusedonaircraftorintheworkshop.Frequentlyusedtoconfirm
suspecteddefects.Areatobecleanedbeforeandaftercheck.

2.MagneticParticle:
Magneticparticletestingisasensetivemethodofnondestructivetestingforsurfacebreaking
andsomesubsurfacediscontinuationin'ferromagnetic'materials.
Thetestingmethodisbasedontheprinciplethatmagneticfluxinamagnetisedobjectislocally
distortedbythepresenceofdiscontinuity.Thisdistortioncausessomeofthemagneticfieldto
exit&reenterthetestobjectatthediscontinuity.Thisphenomenoniscalledmagneticflux
leakage.Fluxleakageiscapableofattractingfinelydividedparticlesofmagneticmaterialsthat
inturnforman'indication'ofthediscontinuity.Therefore,thetestbasicallyconsistsofthree
operations:a)Establishasuitablemagneticfluxinthetestobjectbycircularorlongitudinal
magnetisation.b)Applymagneticparticlesindrypowderofaliquidsuspensionandc)
Examinethetestobjectundersuitablelightingconditionsforinterpreting&evaluatingthe
indications.
Fluorescentorblackoxideparticlesintheaerosolcansareusedduringcriticalareasofaircraft
structure/componentsinspectionwhenusingeitherpermanentorelectromagnets.Fluorescent
particleinspectionmethodisevaluatedbyblacklight(Blacklightconsistsofa100watt
mercuryvapourprojectionspotlampequippedwithafiltertotransmitwavelengthbetween
3200to3800Angstromunitandabsorbsubstantiallyallvisiblewhitelight).
Equipment:Followingtypesofequipmentsareusedformagneticparticleinspection:
i)Stationarymagneticfluxmachines(usingFWDC,HWDCAC):Fixedcabinetwith

fluidsuspensioncirculation&deliverysystem,adjustablepositionofcoils,headstock&
moveabletailstockusedfor,inspectingstillpartsremovedfromengineandaircraft.
ii)Mobileportablemagneticfluxmachine:Handcarriedordollytransportedwithlimited
ofcurrentfacility.
iii)Electromagnetyokes(adjustable):Suitableforinspectingirregularshapedpartsfor
surfacedefects.
iv)Permanentmagnet:Itisusedinisolatedcriticalareaofsmall&largepartsinaircraft.
Applications:Simpleinprinciple,easilyportable.Fastandeffectiveforsurface&subsurface
defectsinferromagneticmaterialsofanyshape,removedfromengines,pumps,landinggear,
gearboxes,shafts,shockstrutsetc.Widelyusedforboltsinspection.
KeyPoints:Onlysuitableforferromagneticmaterials.Demagnetisationprocedureis
required.Positionallimitationsamagneticfieldisdirectional&bestresultsmustbeoriented
perpendiculartothediscontinuity.

3.EddyCurrent:
Eddycurrenttestsareimportanttest&widelyusedmethodwithinthebroadfieldof
Nondestructivematerials&evaluation.Thismethodisparticularlywellsuitedforthedetection
ofserviceinducedcracksusuallycausedeitherbyfatigueorbystresscorrosion.Eddycurrent
inspectioncanbeperformedwithaminimumofpartpreparationandahighdegreeof
sensitivity.
Eddycurrentsareelectricalcurrentsinducedinaconductorofelectricitybyreactionwith
alternatingmagneticfield.Eddycurrentsarecircular&orientedperpendiculartothedirection
oftheappliedmagneticfield.Thea)electricalconductivityb)magneticpermeabilityc)
geometryandd)homogeneityofthetestobject,allaffectstheinducedcurrents.
Theelectricalconductivity&magneticpermeabilityofamaterialisinfluencedbyitschemistry
&heattreatcondition.Mixedlotsofmaterialsorpartssubjectedtofireorexcessiveheat
damagecanbequickly&easilyseparated(conductivitytesting).Changesinthegeometry&
homogeneityofthetestobjectwillchangethemagnitude&distributionoftheeddycurrents.
Bymonitoringthesechanges,thepresenceofcracks&otherflawscanbedetected.
Theeddycurrentinspectionsystembasicallyconsistsoffivefunctions:a)Oscillatorb)Test
coilabsoluteordifferentialc)Bridgecircuitd)Signalprocessingcircuitse)Readoutor
display.
Equipment:Usuallyforaircrafteddycurrentinspectionfollowingtestinstrumentsareused
1)MeterdisplayinstrumentItcomprisesagraduatedscaleinmilliampersofmoveable
meterneedle.Theamplitudeofneedlemovementinproportionaltotheimpedanceofthe
testcircuit.
2)ImpedanceplanedisplayinstrumentItfeaturesa'flyingdot'onaCRT,LCDorvideo
display.Thepositionofflyingdotindicatestheimpedanceofthetestcircuit,butalso
displayseffectofbothresistance&reactancepresentingbothphaseandamplitude
information.
3)LineartimebasedisplayinstrumentItisusuallyusedwithrotatingopenholeprobe
scanners.The'horizontalposition'ofthesignalonthedisplayindicatessensorclock

pPositioninthehole&the'verticalpeak'ofthesignalindicatesamplitudeofresponse.
4)BargraphdisplayinstrumentItfeaturesonLCDreadoutbarscalegraduatedin
voltagesensitiveincrements.Thepositionofthedisplayindicationisadjustablefromone
bartofullscale.
Compatibilitywiththeinstrument&materialselectiondifferenttypesofprobesareusedSuch
arei)Highfrequencysurface&boltholeprobesii)Highfrequencyspecialprobes(countersink
plug&shaped)iii)Lowfrequencyprobe(spotencircling&shaped)iv)Slidingprobe
(driver/receiver).
Applications:Eddycurrenttestisusedtodetectsurface&subsurfacedefects,corrosionin
aircraftstructures,fastenerholesandboltholes.Surfacedetectsandconductivitytestingby
highfrequencyandsubsurfacedetectsbylowfrequencymethods.
Routineeddycurrentinspectioniscarriedoutonaircraftundercarriagewheelhubsforcracks
alsousedtodetectcracksindifferenttubes,tublarcomponentsofaircraft&engine.
KeyPoints:Onlyapplicabletoconductivematerials(ferrous,nonferrous&austenitic
components).Calibrationstandards&trainedoperatorrequired.Fast&portable.Spacialprobes
requiredforvariationofmaterialsandaccessibility.

4.Ultrasonic:
Soundwithafrequencyabovethelimitofaudibilityiscalled'ultrasonic'.Itrangeswitha
frequencyof0.2MHzto800MHz.
Ultrasonicinspectionprovidesasensitivemethodofnondestructivetestinginmostmaterials,
metallic,nonmetallic,magneticornonmagnetic.Itpermitsthedetectionofsmallflawswith
onlysinglesurfaceaccessibilityandiscapableofestimatinglocation&sizeofthedefect
Providingbothsurfacesareparallel,ultrasonicsmaybeusedforthicknessmeasurement,where
onlyonesurfaceisaccessible.Theeffectiveresultofanultrasonictestisheavilydependenton
subjectsurfacecondition,grainsize&directionandacousticimpedance.Ultrasonictechniques
areverywidelyusedforthedetectionofinternaldefectsinmaterials.
Ultrasonicinspectionoperatesontheprincipleof'transmitted'&'reflected'soundwave.Sound
hasaconstantvelocityinagivensubstancetherefore,achangeintheacousticalimpedanceof
thematerialcausesachangeinthesoundvelocityatthatpointproducinganecho.Thedistance
oftheacousticalimpedance(flaw)canbedeterminedifthevelocityofthesoundinthetest
material,andthetimetakenforthesoundtoreach&returnfromtheflawisknown.
Ultrasonicinspectionisusuallyperformedwithtwotechniques(i)Reflection(Pulseecho)
technique(ii)Throughtransmissiontechnique.'Pulseecho'techniqueismostwidelyusedin
aircraftmaintenanceinspection.
Equipment:Theultrasonicflawdetectionequipmentcompriseswiththefollowingbasic
elements:(i)Cathoderayoscilloscope(ii)TimingCircuit(iii)Rategenerator(iv)RFpulser(v)
Amplifier&(vi)Transducer(searchunit)
Acousticenergy(transmittedorreflected)arepresented,displayedorrecordedinfourways.
i)AScan:Thebasiccomponentsof'pulseecho'system.Employsastandvideo,cathode
raytubeorLCDdisplay.Displaydiscontinuitydepthandamplitudeofsignal.Most
commonlyusedinaircraftinspection

ii)BScan:Itdisplaysdiscontinuitydepthanddistributionin'crosssectionalview'.
Meansofpresentationrecordingpaperandcomputermonitor.
iii)CScan:Itdisplaysdiscontinuitydistributionin'flatplanview'.Recordingpaper&
computermonitorrequiredforpresentation.
iv)DigitalReadout:Itdisplaysaultrasonictimeofflightinformationindigitalformat
representingsoundvelocitythicknessreadings.
Applications:Usedfordetectionofsurface&subsurfacedetectsinwelds,forging,casting
mainstructuralfittingsoflandinggearlegs&engineattachments.Boltsincriticalareas,
aircraftstructurejoints&pylon.Alsochecksadhesivebondqualityoflapjoints&composite
structure.Usedforthicknessmeasurementafterdamageorcorrosionremoval.
KeyPoints:Fast,dependable&portable.Resultsareimmediatelyknown.Calibration
standards&trainedoperatorrequired.Discontinuityorientationoftestobjectmustbeknownto
selectwavemode.

5.Radiography:
Radiographyisoneoftheoldestandwidelyusednondestructivetestingmethods.Aradiograph
isaphotographicrecordproducedbythepassageofelectromagneticradiationsuchasxraysor
gammaraysthroughanobjectontoafilm.Whenfilmisexposedtoxrays,gammaraysorlight
aninvisiblechangecalleda'latentimage'isproducedinfilmemulsion.Theareassoexposed
becomedarkerwhenthefilmisimmersedinadevelopingsolution.Afterdevelopmentthefilm
isrinsedtostopdevelopment.Thefilmisnextputintoafixingbathandthenwashedtoremove
thefixer.Finallydriedsothatitmayhandledforinterpretationandrecord.
Xray:Threethingsrequiredtogeneratexrays,asourceofelectrons,ameansof
propellingelectronsathighspeedsandtargetmaterials.Whenhighspeedelectrons
interactwithmatter(thenucleusofthetargetmaterial),theirenergyisprovided,itishigh
enough,convertedtoxrayenergy.
Typicalxrayequipmentisconsistsoffollowingfeatures:i)Tubeenvelopeii)Cathode
ofthexraytubeiii)Anodeofthexraytubeiv)Focalspot(sizeoftheradiationfocal
spot)v)Xraybeamconfigurationvi)Acceleratingpotential(theoperatingvoltage
differenceinelectricalpotentialbetweenthecathodeandanode)
Gammaray:Gammaraysaretheemissionsfromthedisintegratingnucleiofradioactive
substances.Twomostcommonlyused'isotopes'forperformingindustrialinspectionsare
Iridium192andCobalt60.Butinaircraftmaintenanceduringgammaradiography
Iridium192isusuallyused.IsotopesofRadium226andCesium137areavailablebut
arenotgenerallyusedforaircraftradiography.Gammarayradiographyhasthe
advantagesofsimplicityofapparatus,compactnessoftheradioactivesourcesand
independencefromoutsideelectricalsource.
Applications:Consideringthepenetrationandabsorptioncapabilityofxradiation,
radiographyisusedtoinspectavarietyofnonmetallicpartsforporosity,waterentrapment,
crushedcore,cracksandresinrich/stravedconditionsandmetallicproductssuchaswelds,
castingsandforgingaswellaslocatingdiscontinuitiesinfabricatedstructuralassembliessuch
ascracks,corrosion,inclusions,debris,loosefittings,rivets,outofroundholes&thickness
variations.Gammarayradiographyisusuallyusedfordetectionofinternalflawsofaircraft
structure(steel&titanium)andenginecomponentswhichrequirehigherenergylevelsorother
assemblieswhereaccessisdifficult.

KeyPoints:Radiationhazard,aircraftmustbecleanofallpersonnel.Trainedoperator,film
processing&viewingequipmentsrequired.CrackpointmustbenearlyparalleledtoXray
beam.Eliminatesmanydisassemblyrequirement.Providespermanentrecordsoffindings.
Accessibilityrequiredinbothsidesofthetestspecimen.

6.Visual/Optical:
Visualinspectionisprobablythemostwidelyusedofallthenondestructivetests.Itissimple,
easytoapply,quicklycarriedoutandusuallylowincost.Thebasicprincipleusedinvisual
inspectionistoilluminatethetestspecimenwithlightandexaminethespecimenwiththeeye.
Inmanyinstancesaidsareusedtoassistintheexamination.
Thismethodismainlyusedi)tomagnifydefectswhichcannotbedetectedbytheunaidedeye,
ii)toassistintheinspectionofdefectsandiii)topermitvisualchecksofareasnotaccessibleto
unaidedeye.
Equipment:VisualandOpticaltestsarecarriedoutinaircraftmaintenancewithfollowing
equipment:
i)MagnifyingGlassGenerallyconsistsofasinglelensforlowerpowermagnification
anddoubleormultiplelensesforhighermagnification.
ii)MagnifyingMirrorThisoneisaconcavereflectivesurface,suchasadentalmirror
maybeusedtoviewrestrictedareasofaircraftnotaccessiblewithamagnifyingglass.
iii)MicroscopeItisamultipleelementmagnifier,providingveryhighpower
magnification,isusedfortheinspectionofpartsremovedfromtheaircraft.Some
portableunitsarealsousedtoevaluatesuspectedindicationsfoundontheaircraft.
iv)BorescopeBorescopeisaprecisionopticalinstrumentwithbuiltinillumination.
Borescopessometimescalled'endoscopes'or'endoprobes',whichconsistswithsuperior
opticalsystemsandhighintensitylightsources,somebroescopesprovidesmagnification
option,zoomcontrolsoraccessories.
v)FlexibleFibreOpticBorescopePermitsmanipulationoftheinstrumentaround
camersandthroughpassageswithseveraldirectionalchanges.Wovenstainlesssteel
sheathingsprotectstheimagerelaybundleduringrepeatedflexingandmanoeuvring.The
workinglengthsarenormally60to365cmwithdiametersfrom3to12.5min.
vi)VideoImagescopeThevideoImagescopeissimilartoaFibrescopewiththe
exceptionthatvideocameraanditsconnectionshavereplacedtheimagebundleandaTV
monitorhasreplacedtheeyepiece.Thisimagemaybemagnifiedforpreciseviewing.
Thefieldofvisionisupto90degreeandprobetiphasfourwayarticulation.Presently
thesmallestdiameteris9.5mmwithworkinglengthupto100feet.
Applications:Detectionofsurfacedefectsorstructuraldamageinallmaterials.Optical
instrumentsareusedforvisualchecksofinternalareasandfordeepholesandboresofaircraft
structure,landinggearsetc.Widelyusedtomonitorenginecomponents,suchas,turbinewheels
andnozzles,compressorvanesandbladescombustioncanswithoutopeningtheengine.
'Borescopes','fibrescopes'and'videoimagescopes'aremostimportantopticalaidsinremote
visualinspection,whichareaisnormallyinaccessible.
KeyPoints:Simpletouseinareaswhereothermethodsareimpractical.Accessibility
required.Reliabilitydependsupontheexperienceoftheoperator.

7.Sonic/Resonance:
Sonicandresonancetestingmethodsareusedprimarilyforthedetectionofseparationsbetween
layersoflaminatedstructures.
SonicandResonancetestingiseffectivefordetectionofcrushedcoreordebondsinadhesive
bondedhoneycomb,impactdamageanddelimitationsincompositestructuresandexfoliation
corrosion.
Thetaptestmethodhasdemonstratedtheabilitytodetectcracks,corrosion,impactdamageand
debonding.Thesonictestinginstrumentoperateintheaudioornearaudiofrequencyrange.
Resonancetestinginstrumentsmayoperateeitherorboththesonicorultrasonicfrequency
range.Differentmethodsoftransmittingandreceivingenergyhavebeendeveloped.Basically,
eachtechniqueintroducesapressurewaveintothespecimenandthendetectstheresonant,
transmittedorreflectedwave.
Generallyfollowingacousticmechanicalprinciplesareusedtoevaluatethedamping
characteristicsofthespecimen.
a.Resonancetestmethod:Thistestworkswellformanyunbondsanddeliminated.
b.Pitch/catchswepttestmethod:Thistestisbestdetectingunbondsanddeeperdefects.
c.Pitch/catchimpulsetestmethod:Inthismethodthejointsnottestablebyswept
method,canbetestedsatisfactorilybythismode.
d.MIA(MechanicalImpedanceAnalysis)testmethod:Thismethodworkswellon
unbondscrushedcoreanddefectsontheinsideofcompositestructure.
e.Eddysonicharmonictestmethod:Itiscapableofdetectingbothnearsideandfarside
disbond.
f.Taptest:Taptestisamanualmethod.Taptestingisacommonandinexpensivetypeof
inspection.Inthisproceduretheinspectortapsthesurfaceoftheteststructureand
evaluatethesoundgenerated.Theinspectoreitherlistensdirectlytothesoundoruses
speciallydesignedreceivertoanalysethesoundandcomparetheresponsewithdefect
freepart.
Application:Toexaminebondingexistsbetweenhoneycomb,detectdelaminationsin
compositelaminates.Largestructuressuchas,fairings,cowlandwingtrailingedge,rudder,
flaps,ailerons,elevatorsetc.aremadefromcompositesandhoneycombmaterials.
Taptestingislimitedtodetectionofdisbondsorvoidsbetweenupperfacingsheetandadhesive.
Itwillnotdetectdisbondorvoidsat2ndor3rdlayerbondlines,suchasdoublerareas.Itis
limitedtothedetectionofdelaminations,approximately25mm(1inch)indiaorgreater,
locatedlessthan1.3mm(0.05inch)belowthesurfacebeingexamined.
Keypoints:Losessensitivitywithincreasingmaterialthickness.Electricalsourceand
referencestandardsrequired.

InfraredThermography:
Infraredandthermalmethodsfornondestructivearebasedontheprinciplethatheatflowina
materialisalteredbythepresenceofsometypesofanomalies.Thesechangesinheatflow

causelocalizedtemperaturedifferencesinthematerial.Theimagingorstudyofsuchthermal
patternsisknownas'thermography'.Theterms'infrared'and'thermal'areusedinterchangeably
insomecontexts.Thermalreferstothephysicalphenomenonofheat,involvingthemovement
ofmolecules.Infrared(belowthecolourred)denotesradiationbetweenthevisibleand
microwaveregionsoftheelectromagneticspectrum.
Theintensityandfrequency/wavelengthoftheradiationcanbecorrelatedcloselywiththeheat
oftheradiator.itfollowsthatradiationsensorscanbeusedtotellusaboutthephysical
conditionofthetestobject.Thisisthebasisofthetechnologyof'thermography'.
Equipment:Athermalimagerbasicallyconsistsofadetector,ascanningsystem,anoptical
system&videodisplayunit.Themajorityofcamerasfunctionlikeatelevisioncameraand
theiroutputisavideosignalwhichisproportionaltotheoutputsignalofthedetector.
Subsequently,thispassesontoasignaltreatmentandvisualizationsystemwhichassignsto
eachlevelagreytoneinanscaleorfalsecolour.Inthisway,animagecanbeobtainedonaTV
monitorwhichrepresentthedistributionoftemperaturesthroughoutallthefieldofviewor
printedoutascolourgraphics.
Applications:Usedtodetectcertainvoids,inclusions,debonds,liquidingressor
contamination,foreignobjectsanddamagedorbrokenstructuralassemblies.Infrared
thermographyalsobeenchosenforquickoperationaluseandthereliabilityofdefection'liquid
contamination'inthecompositesandwichincomparedtoxraymethod.Detectionofthermal
overheatinginelectrical&hydraulicsystem.Speciallythermographicinspectiononaircraft
structuresarecarriedouttodetectfollowingdefects:(i)Compositelaminatepartsfor
delaminationdebondingorforeignobjects(ii)Compositesandwichpartsfordebondingand
liquidcontamination.(iii)Metallicbondedpartsfordebondingofcorrosionon.iv)Metallic
sandwichpartsforliquidcontamination,debondingofcorrosion.
Keypoints:Thismethodshowstemperaturechangeswhichcanindicatedefects.Required
trainedoperator.Transportable&referencestandardsmayberequired.

CONCLUSION
Probablytheaerospaceindustryisleadingintheworldforinnovationofnewmaterialsand
fabricationtechniqueregularlytoimprovesafety,efficiency&reducecost.Atthesametime
inspectiontechniquesarealsobeingdevelopedtomonitortheirintegrity.Forinstance,with
increasinguseofcompositesinlatestcommercialaircraftconstructionhasmotivatedrapid
developmentinultrasonictechniqueCscanpresentation.Itcandetectdefectsdeepinside
compositesproducing3dimensionalimagesofthestructures&anyirregularitieswithinthetest
item.
Onlywithappropriateapplicationsofnondestructivetestingtechniquescanbringthebenefitsof
advancedmaterialssciencebefullyutilized.

REFERENCES
1. ASNTNondestructiveTestingHandbookVolTen1996
2. ASNTNondestructiveTestingHandbookVolNine1996.
3. B.Hull&V.JohnNondestructiveTesting(1998),Macmillan,UK
4. ChrisHobbs&RonSmithBeneaththeSurface,BritishAirwaysTechnicalJournal.
5. P.GLorenzTheScienceofRemoteVisualInspection,1990.
6. NDTStandardPracticeManualMcDonnelDouglasCorporation(Revision3),1996.
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