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Peshawar, Pakistan

Earthquake Engineering

MODULE 9

Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan &

drakhtarnaeem@nwfpuet.edu.pk

mjaved@nwfpuet.edu.pk

1

It is already known that the equations of motion for a a MDOF

with lumped mass system and undergoing only lateral displacement

can be written as:

nth column is the nth mode shape of vibration (i.e. each column

represents a particular mode shape).

Recalling the results of Prob M8.2

1.00

1.000 0.446 1.000

0.802

1.000

[ ] = 1 2 3 = 1.802 0.445 1.247 = 0.804 0.445 1.000

2.243 0.802 0.555 1.000 0.802 0.445

{u} = []{q}

{u } = []{q }

{u} = []{q}

the modal amplitude vector.

1.00

0. 5q1

q1

0.804

a b c

0.446

q1 ( t ) = A1Cosn1t + B1Sinn1t

0.50q1

q1

0.402q1

0.804q1

0.223q1

0.446q1

d ? ( & q)

b

CE-409: MODULE 9 u

(Fall-2013)

1=1*q1

d?

Substituting values of

[ m][]{q} +[c ][]{q } +[ k ][]{q} = { p(t)}

Pre-multiply both sides by [ ]T

[ ] [ m] [ ]{ q} + [ ] [ c] [ ]{ q } + [ ] [ k ] [ ]{ q} = [ ] { p(t) }

[ M ]{ q} + [ C ]{ q } + [ K ]{ q} = { P(t)}

T

[ K ] = Modal stiffness matrix

[ C] = Modal damping matrix

MODULE

9 (Fall-2013)

{P( t )}CE-409:

= Modal

(applied)

forces vector

Because of orthogonally properties of mode shapes (i.e., each mode

shape is independent of others) as shown below

1.000

0.445

0.802

Third mode shape

0.445

0.804

0.446

First mode shape

1.00

0.802

1.0

0

Second mode shape

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

[A]

[ A ]T [ A ] = [ I]

said to be orthogonal if

where [I] is an identity matrix in which diagonal terms are 1 and off

diagonal terms are 0 and therefore det [I]=1. [ M ] , [ K ] and [ C] are

diagonal matrices (i.e., matrices in which off diagonal terms are zero)

m3

m3

m2

m1

k3

m2

k2

m1

m1

[ m] = 0

0

0

m2

0

0

0

m 3

k1

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

coupled equations replaces by N uncoupled equation for SDOF

systems

M q + C q + K q = P (t)

n

Kn= Generalized stiffnes for the nth natural mode

Cn= Generalized damping for the nth natural mode

Pn(t)= Generalized force for the nth natural mode

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

The equation given on previous slide is for nth mode of MDOF of

order N. All the independent equations for N modes in matrix form

can be written as

Mq + Cq + Kq = P(t)

K= Diagonal matrix of the generalized modal stiffnesses

C= Diagonal matrix of the generalized modal dampings

P(t) = Column vector of the generalized modal forces Pn(t)

The uncoupled equations of motions for earthquake excitations can

be written as

T

Where

{ p (t)} = [ m]{} u (t )

eff

{} = {1}Nx1 for structures where the dynamic degrees of freedom

are displacements in the same direction as the ground motion

10

[ ] [ m]{} = { L}

L and m has

same units

Replacing

[ M ]{ q} + [ C ]{ q } + [ K ]{ q} = { Peff (t)} = { L} ug (t )

For nth mode

M n qn + Cn q n + K n qn = Lnug (t )

Mn

2 n M n n

Kn

Ln

qn +

q n +

qn =

ug (t )

Mn

Mn

Mn

Mn

Ln

or qn + 2 n n q n + n qn =

ug (t )

Mn

2

11

The term Ln/Mn has been given the name of participation factor for

the nth mode and is represented by n (capital Greek alphabet for

Gamma)

{

Ln

n } [ m]{ }

n =

=

T

M n { n } [ m] { n }

T

mode participates in the response. This terminology is misleading,

however, because n is not independent of how the mode is

normalized, nor a measure of the modal contribution to a response

quantity.

The magnitude of the participation factor is dependent on the

9 (Fall-2013)

normalization CE-409:

method MODULE

used for the

mode shapes.

12

Participation factors

Once the modal amplitudes {q} have been found the

displacements of the structure are obtained from

{u} = []{q}

cancel out the effect of normalization carried out to calculate q

(slide 11).

The displacements associated with the nth mode are given by

{ un (t)} = [ n ]{ qn (t)}

13

Effective weight of structure in nth mode=

{

n } T [ m]{ } { n } T [ m]{ }

Ln

Ln 2

(

Wn =

g=

L n g ) = n (L n g ) =

g

Mn

Mn

{ n } T [ m] { n }

It shall be noted that the sum of the all effective weights for an

excitation in a given direction ( i.e. for a given {}) should equal

the total weight of the structure. Note, this may not be the case

where rotational inertia terms also exist in the mass matrix.

Many building codes require that a sufficient number of

modes be used in the analyses such that the sum of the effective

weights is at least 90% of the weight of the structure. This

provides a measure on the number of modes required in the

analysis.

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

14

freedom are displacements in the same direction as the ground motion

u3

u2

u2

u1

u3

u1

Direction of EQ is

horizontal

1

{ } = 1

1

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

Direction of EQ is

horizontal

1

{ } = 1

0

15

The base shear in nth mode can be determined using relation

2

An Ln An

Vbn = Wn

=

g

g Mn g

Where Wn = Effective weight of structures in nth mode

16

from the base shear

In many design codes the first step is to compute the modal base

shear force and this is then distributed along the structures (shown

on next slide) to each degrees of freedom.

The distributed loads are assumed to give the same

displacements in the structure as those generated by the exciting

base shear.

Vbn

{ f n } = [ m ]{ n }

Ln

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

17

from the base shear

m3n

f3n

m2n

m1n

Vbn

nth mode, Vbn

f2n

f1n

structure in nth mode

Vbn = f1n + f 2 n + f 3n = f n

18

A 3 story R.C. building as shown below is required to be

designed for a design earthquake with PGA=0.3g, and its elastic

design spectrum is given by Fig 6.9.5 multiplied by 0.3). Carry

out the dynamic analysis by using the above mentioned design

m3

spectrum. Take:

Story height = 10ft

Total stiffness of each story = 250 kips/in.

m2

m1

k3

k2

k1

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

19

m=W/g = (386.4k) /(396.4 in/sec2)= 1.0 kip-sec2/in

1 0 0

[ m] = 0 1 0

0 0 1

500

[ k ] = 250

0

500 n 2

2

[ k ] n [ m] = 250

250

500

250

250

500 n

250

0

250

250

250

2

250 n

0

20

Natural frequencies

Setting det [ k ] n [ m] = 0

2

= 19.69 rad / sec

= 28.49 rad / sec

n1

n2

n3

T = 0.89 sec

n1

T = 0.32 sec

n2

T = 0.22 sec

n3

21

Mode shapes

Normalized coordinates of first mode shape

[[k ]

n1

500 n12

250

Substituting

[m]]{1 } =0

250

500 n1

250

11

250 21 = 0

2

250 n1

31

0

= 49.56 and = 1

2

n1

11

22

Mode shapes

450.44

250

0

First row gives

Second row gives

250

450.44

250

0 1

250

200.44

21

31

=0

21

31

31

31

2.24 2.24/2.24 + 1.00

31

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

23

Mode shapes

n2

= 387.7

250

0

500 387.7

250

500 387.7

250

0

250

250 387.7

12

22

32

112.3 250

250 112.3

250

0

= 0.45

22

& = 0.80

32

0 1

250

137.3

22

32

=0

=0

12 + 1.00

=

+

0.45

22

0.80

32

24

Mode shapes

31 + 1.00 + 0.80

+ 0.56 + 0.45

33

1.00 + 1.00 + 1.00

[ ] = 1 2 3 = 1.80 + 0.45 1.25

2.24 0.80 + 0.56

0.45 + 1.00 + 0.80

= 0.80 + 0.45 1.00

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

25

{

Ln

n } [ m]{ }

n =

=

T

M n { n } [ m] { n }

T

{

Ln

n } [ m]{1}

n =

=

T

M n { n } [ m] { n }

T

{

L1

1} [ m]{1}

1 =

=

T

M 1 {1} [ m] {1}

T

26

11

T

L1 = {1} [ m]{1} = 21

31

0.45

L1 = 0.80

1.00

1 0 0 1

0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1

1 0 0 1

0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1

1

2

2

L1 = 2.25 kip - sec /in. = 27 kip - sec /ft

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

27

T

M 1 = {1} [ m] {1}

0.45

M 1 = 0.80

1.00

1 0 0 0.45

0 1 0 0.80

0 0 1 1.00

0.45

1.00

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

28

Participation factor, n

L1 2.25

1 =

=

= 1.22

M 1 1.84

Similarly

L2 0.65

2 =

=

= 0.36

M 2 1.84

L3 0.25

3 =

=

= 0.14

M 3 1.84

29

{

n } [ m]{ }{ n } [ m]{ }

Ln

Wn =

g=

g

T

Mn

{ n } [ m] { n }

T

(

L1

2.25)

W1 =

g=

* 386.4 = 1063.1 kips

M1

1.84

2

2

(

L2

0.65)

W2 =

g=

* 386.4 = 88.7 kips

M2

1.84

2

2

(

L3

0.25)

W3 =

g=

* 386.4 = 13.1 kips

M3

1.84

2

30

W

Participating mass of the structure in nth mode= PM = n

n

W

W1 1063.1

*

PM 1 =

=

= 0.917 = 91.7%

W 3 * 386.4

*

W2

88.7

PM 2 =

=

= 0.077 = 7.7%

W 3 * 386.4

W3

13.1

*

PM 3 =

=

= 0.0113 = 1.13%

W 3 * 386.4

*

PM = 1.00

considered so that PM 0.9. In our case, indeed, the consideration

of just the first mode would have been sufficient as PM1 0.9

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

31

2

Ln

Vbn =

Mn

An

An

g = Wn

g

g

determined from Fig. 6.9.5 given

on next slide

1.8

A1

1

Vb1 = W1 . = 1063.1*

g * * 0.3 = 645.0 kips

g

g

Tn1

A2

2.71g

For Tn2 = 0.32 sec : Vb 2 = W2 * 0.3 = 88.7 *

* 0.3 = 72.1 kips

g

g

A3

2.71g

For Tn3 = 0.22 sec : Vb 3 = W3 * 0.3 = 13.1*

* 0.3 = 10.7 kips

g

g

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

32

Tn 2 = 0.32 sec

Tn 3 = 0.22 sec

0.22 sec

0.32 sec

0.89 sec

33

First mode

Vbn

{ f n } = [ m ]{ n }

Ln

f1n

1n

f11

11

Vb1

Vb1

[ m] 2n f 21 = [ m] 21

f 2n =

f L1

f L1

31

31

3n

3n

f11

12 0 0 0.45 129.0

645

0

12

0

0

.

80

=

229

.

3

f 21 =

31

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

34

Second mode

Vbn

{ f n } = [ m ]{ n }

Ln

f12

12

12 0 0 + 1.00

72.1

Vb 2

[ m] 22 =

0

12

0

+

0.45

f 22 =

f L2

(0.65 *12) 0 0 12 0.80

32

32

f12 + 110.8

f 22 = + 49.8

f 88.6

32

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

35

Third mode

Vbn

{ f n } = [ m ]{ n }

Ln

f13

13

12 0 0 + 0.80

10.7

Vb 3

[ m] 23 =

0

12

0

1.00

f 23 =

f L3

(0.25 *12) 0 0 12 + 0.45

33

33

f13 + 34.2

f 23 = 42.8

f + 19.3

33

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

36

{ f n } = { f1n

f 2n

286.7 88.6 + 19.3

37

88.6 k

286.7 k

229.3 k

i1

49.8 k

129.0 k

j1

110.8 k

645.0 kips

Mode 1

19.3 k

i2

42.8 k

i3

j2

34.2 k

j3

72.0 kips

10.7 kips

Mode 2

Mode 3

38

The use of response spectra techniques for multi-degree of

freedom structures is complicated by the difficulty of combining

the responses of each mode.

It is extremely unlikely that the maximum response of all the

modes would occur at the same instant of time.

When one mode is reaching its peak response there is no way of

knowing what another mode is doing.

The response spectra only provide the peak values of the

response, the sign of the peak response and the time at which the

peak response occurs is not known.

39

{ u} max [ ]{ q} max

Therefore

and, in general

{ u} max [ ]{ q} max

40

Combined Response ro

Let rn be the modal response quantity (base shear, nodal

displacement, inter-storey drift, member moment, column stress

etc.) for mode n .The r values have been found for all modes (or

for as many modes that are significant).

Most design codes do not require all modes to be used but many

do require that the number of modes used is sufficient so that the

sum of the Effective Weights of the modes reaches, say, 90% of the

weight of the building. Checking the significance of the

Participation Factors may be useful if computing deflections and

rotations only.

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

41

The maximum absolute response for any system response quantity

is obtained by assuming that maximum response in each mode

occurs at the same instant of time. Thus the maximum value of the

response quantity is the sum of the maximum absolute value of the

response associated with each mode. Therefore using ABSSUM

method

N

ro rno

n =1

modal combination rules is not popular is structural design

applications

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

42

Square-Root-of-the Sum-of-the-Squares

(SRSS) method

The SRSS rule for modal combination,

E.Rosenblueths PhD thesis (1951) is

r r

o

n =1

no

developed

in

1/ 2

for 2-dimensional analyses is the square root of the sum of the

squares method. The method shall not be confused with the rootmean-square of statistical analysis as there is no denominator.

43

Square-Root-of-the Sum-of-the-Squares

(SRSS) method

This method was very commonly used in design codes until about

1980. Most design codes up to that time only considered the

earthquake acting in one horizontal direction at a time and most

dynamic analyses were limited to 2-dimensional analyses .

44

In three-dimensional structures, different modes of freevibration in different directions may have very similar natural

frequencies.

If one of these modes is strongly excited by the earthquake at a

given instant of time then the other mode, with a very similar

natural frequency, is also likely to be strongly excited at the same

instant of time. These modes are often in orthogonal horizontal

directions but there may be earthquake excitation directions where

both modes are likely to be excited.

In these cases the Root-Sum-Square or SRSS combination

method has been shown to give non-conservative results for the

likely maximum response. In such cases some other methods such

as CQC, DSC are used

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

45

Consider nodes i & j of the frame for which R.S.modal

analysis was carried out on previous slides

Using SRSS

Ai1

Ai2

Ai3

i1

Mi1

i2

Mi2

i3

Mi3

method

A i = A j = A i12 + A i 2 2 + ( A i3 ) 2

M i = M i12 + M i 2 2 + ( M i3 ) 2

j1

j2

Mj1

j3

Mj2

Mj3

Aj1

Aj2

Aj3

Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 3

M j = M j12 + M j2 2 + M j3 2

46

Caution

It must be stressed that what ever response item r that the

analyst or designer requires it must be first computed in each mode

before the modal combination is carried out.

If the longitudinal stress is required in a column in a frame, then

the longitudinal stress which is derived from the axial force and

bending moment in the column must be obtained for each mode

then the desired combination method is used to get the maximum

likely longitudinal stress.

It is NOT correct to compute the maximum likely axial force and

the maximum likely bending moment for the column then use these

axial forces and bending moments, after carrying out their modal

combinations, to compute the longitudinal stress in the column.

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

47

A 3 story R.C. building as shown below is required to be

designed for a design earthquake with PGA=0.25g, and its elastic

design spectrum is given by Fig 6.9.5 (Chopras book) multiplied

by 0.25). It is required to carry out the dynamic modal analysis by

using the afore mentioned design spectrum . Take: m3

Story height = 10ft

Total stiffness of first 2 stories = 2000 kips/ft.

m2

Mass of first 2 floors = 5000 slugs

Mass of top floor = 6000 slugs

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

m1

k3

k2

k1

48

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