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# University of Engineering & Technology,

Peshawar, Pakistan

## CE-409: Introduction to Structural Dynamics and

Earthquake Engineering

MODULE 9

## RESPONSE SPECTRUM MODAL ANALYSIS

Prof. Dr. Akhtar Naeem Khan &
drakhtarnaeem@nwfpuet.edu.pk

## Prof. Dr. Mohammad Javed

mjaved@nwfpuet.edu.pk
1

## Modal decoupling of the EOMs

It is already known that the equations of motion for a a MDOF
with lumped mass system and undergoing only lateral displacement
can be written as:

## Let [ ] be the modal matrix (matrix of mode shapes) in which the

nth column is the nth mode shape of vibration (i.e. each column
represents a particular mode shape).
Recalling the results of Prob M8.2
1.00
1.000 0.446 1.000
0.802
1.000
[ ] = 1 2 3 = 1.802 0.445 1.247 = 0.804 0.445 1.000
2.243 0.802 0.555 1.000 0.802 0.445

{u} = []{q}
{u } = []{q }
{u} = []{q}

## Where {u} is displacement vector and {q} is

the modal amplitude vector.

## CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

1.00

0. 5q1

q1

0.804
a b c

0.446

q1 ( t ) = A1Cosn1t + B1Sinn1t

0.50q1

q1

0.402q1

0.804q1

0.223q1

0.446q1

d ? ( & q)

b
CE-409: MODULE 9 u
(Fall-2013)
1=1*q1

d?

## Modal decoupling of the EOMs

Substituting values of

## [ m]{u} +[c ]{u } +[ k ]{u} = { p(t)}

[ m][]{q} +[c ][]{q } +[ k ][]{q} = { p(t)}
Pre-multiply both sides by [ ]T

[ ] [ m] [ ]{ q} + [ ] [ c] [ ]{ q } + [ ] [ k ] [ ]{ q} = [ ] { p(t) }
[ M ]{ q} + [ C ]{ q } + [ K ]{ q} = { P(t)}
T

## Where [ M ] = Modal mass matrix

[ K ] = Modal stiffness matrix
[ C] = Modal damping matrix
MODULE
9 (Fall-2013)
{P( t )}CE-409:
= Modal
(applied)
forces vector

## Modal decoupling of the EOMs

Because of orthogonally properties of mode shapes (i.e., each mode
shape is independent of others) as shown below
1.000

0.445

0.802
Third mode shape

0.445

0.804
0.446
First mode shape

1.00
0.802

1.0
0
Second mode shape

## Mode shapes being normalized by taking greatest floor term taken as 1

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

## Modal decoupling of the EOMs

[A]

[ A ]T [ A ] = [ I]

## Note that a matrix

said to be orthogonal if
where [I] is an identity matrix in which diagonal terms are 1 and off
diagonal terms are 0 and therefore det [I]=1. [ M ] , [ K ] and [ C] are
diagonal matrices (i.e., matrices in which off diagonal terms are zero)
m3
m3
m2
m1

k3
m2
k2

m1

m1
[ m] = 0
0

0
m2
0

0
0

m 3

k1
CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

## Since [ M ] , [ C] and [ K ] are diagonal matrices so the N

coupled equations replaces by N uncoupled equation for SDOF
systems
M q + C q + K q = P (t)
n

## Where Mn= Generalized mass for the nth natural mode

Kn= Generalized stiffnes for the nth natural mode
Cn= Generalized damping for the nth natural mode
Pn(t)= Generalized force for the nth natural mode
CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

## Modal decoupling of the EOMs

The equation given on previous slide is for nth mode of MDOF of
order N. All the independent equations for N modes in matrix form
can be written as

Mq + Cq + Kq = P(t)

## Where M= Diagonal matrix of the generalized modal masses

K= Diagonal matrix of the generalized modal stiffnesses
C= Diagonal matrix of the generalized modal dampings
P(t) = Column vector of the generalized modal forces Pn(t)

## Modal analysis for earthquake forces

The uncoupled equations of motions for earthquake excitations can
be written as
T

## [ M ]{ q} + [ C ]{ q } + [ K ]{ q} = { Peff (t)} = [ ] { peff (t )}

Where

{ p (t)} = [ m]{} u (t )
eff

## {}= Influence vector (refer slide 15 for details) of size Nx1.

{} = {1}Nx1 for structures where the dynamic degrees of freedom
are displacements in the same direction as the ground motion

10

## Modal analysis for earthquake forces

[ ] [ m]{} = { L}

L and m has
same units

Replacing

[ M ]{ q} + [ C ]{ q } + [ K ]{ q} = { Peff (t)} = { L} ug (t )
For nth mode

M n qn + Cn q n + K n qn = Lnug (t )

Mn
2 n M n n
Kn
Ln
qn +
q n +
qn =
ug (t )
Mn
Mn
Mn
Mn

Ln
or qn + 2 n n q n + n qn =
ug (t )
Mn
2

11

## Modal Participation factors

The term Ln/Mn has been given the name of participation factor for
the nth mode and is represented by n (capital Greek alphabet for
Gamma)

{
Ln
n } [ m]{ }
n =
=
T
M n { n } [ m] { n }
T

## n is usually considered a measure of the degree to which the nth

mode participates in the response. This terminology is misleading,
however, because n is not independent of how the mode is
normalized, nor a measure of the modal contribution to a response
quantity.
The magnitude of the participation factor is dependent on the
9 (Fall-2013)
normalization CE-409:
method MODULE
used for the
mode shapes.

12

Participation factors
Once the modal amplitudes {q} have been found the
displacements of the structure are obtained from

{u} = []{q}

## The above mentioned equation to determine modal displacements

cancel out the effect of normalization carried out to calculate q
(slide 11).
The displacements associated with the nth mode are given by

{ un (t)} = [ n ]{ qn (t)}

13

## Effective weight of structure in nth mode, Wn

Effective weight of structure in nth mode=

{
n } T [ m]{ } { n } T [ m]{ }
Ln
Ln 2
(
Wn =
g=
L n g ) = n (L n g ) =
g
Mn
Mn
{ n } T [ m] { n }
It shall be noted that the sum of the all effective weights for an
excitation in a given direction ( i.e. for a given {}) should equal
the total weight of the structure. Note, this may not be the case
where rotational inertia terms also exist in the mass matrix.
Many building codes require that a sufficient number of
modes be used in the analyses such that the sum of the effective
weights is at least 90% of the weight of the structure. This
provides a measure on the number of modes required in the
analysis.
CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

14

## {} = Influence vector= {1}Nx1 for structures where the dynamic degrees of

freedom are displacements in the same direction as the ground motion
u3

u2

u2
u1

u3

u1
Direction of EQ is
horizontal

1

{ } = 1
1

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

Direction of EQ is
horizontal

1

{ } = 1
0

15

## Base Shear Force in the structure in the nth node, Vbn

The base shear in nth mode can be determined using relation

2
An Ln An
Vbn = Wn
=
g

g Mn g
Where Wn = Effective weight of structures in nth mode

16

## Distribution of nodal (joint) forces in the structure

from the base shear
In many design codes the first step is to compute the modal base
shear force and this is then distributed along the structures (shown
on next slide) to each degrees of freedom.
The distributed loads are assumed to give the same
displacements in the structure as those generated by the exciting
base shear.

Vbn
{ f n } = [ m ]{ n }
Ln
CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

17

## Distribution of nodal (joint) forces in the structure

from the base shear
m3n

f3n

m2n
m1n

Vbn

nth mode, Vbn

f2n
f1n

## Vbn distributed along the

structure in nth mode

Vbn = f1n + f 2 n + f 3n = f n

18

## Response spectrum model analysis: Example

A 3 story R.C. building as shown below is required to be
designed for a design earthquake with PGA=0.3g, and its elastic
design spectrum is given by Fig 6.9.5 multiplied by 0.3). Carry
out the dynamic analysis by using the above mentioned design
m3
spectrum. Take:
Story height = 10ft
Total stiffness of each story = 250 kips/in.

m2

## Weight of each floor = 386.4 kips

m1

k3

k2

k1
CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

19

## Mass and stiffness matrices

m=W/g = (386.4k) /(396.4 in/sec2)= 1.0 kip-sec2/in

1 0 0

[ m] = 0 1 0
0 0 1

500
[ k ] = 250
0

500 n 2

2
[ k ] n [ m] = 250

250
500
250

250
500 n
250

## CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

0
250
250

250
2
250 n
0

20

Natural frequencies

Setting det [ k ] n [ m] = 0
2

## = 7.04 rad / sec

= 19.69 rad / sec
= 28.49 rad / sec

n1

n2

n3

T = 0.89 sec
n1

T = 0.32 sec
n2

T = 0.22 sec
n3

## CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

21

Mode shapes
Normalized coordinates of first mode shape

[[k ]

n1

500 n12

250

Substituting

[m]]{1 } =0

250
500 n1
250

11

250 21 = 0
2

250 n1

31
0

= 49.56 and = 1
2

n1

11

22

Mode shapes

450.44
250

0
First row gives
Second row gives

250
450.44
250

0 1

250

200.44

21

31

=0

21

31

31

31

## {1} = 21 = 1.80 = 1.80/2.24 = + 0.80

2.24 2.24/2.24 + 1.00

31
CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

23

Mode shapes

n2

= 387.7

250
0
500 387.7

250
500 387.7
250

0
250
250 387.7

12

22

32

112.3 250
250 112.3

250
0

= 0.45
22

& = 0.80
32

0 1

250

137.3

22

32

=0

=0

12 + 1.00

=
+
0.45
22

0.80

32

24

Mode shapes

31 + 1.00 + 0.80

## Similarly 23 = 1.25 = 1.00

+ 0.56 + 0.45

33
1.00 + 1.00 + 1.00
[ ] = 1 2 3 = 1.80 + 0.45 1.25
2.24 0.80 + 0.56
0.45 + 1.00 + 0.80
= 0.80 + 0.45 1.00

## 1.00 0.80 + 0.45

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

25

## Modal mass, Mn and participation factor,n

{
Ln
n } [ m]{ }
n =
=
T
M n { n } [ m] { n }
T

## For structure given in problem{}={1}

{
Ln
n } [ m]{1}
n =
=
T
M n { n } [ m] { n }
T

{
L1
1} [ m]{1}
1 =
=
T
M 1 {1} [ m] {1}
T

26

## Modal mass, Mn and participation factor,n

11

T
L1 = {1} [ m]{1} = 21

31

0.45

L1 = 0.80
1.00

1 0 0 1
0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1

1 0 0 1
0 1 0 1

0 0 1 1

## L1 = 0.45 0.80 1.00 1

1

2
2
L1 = 2.25 kip - sec /in. = 27 kip - sec /ft
CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

27

## Modal mass, Mn and participation factor,n

T
M 1 = {1} [ m] {1}

0.45

M 1 = 0.80
1.00

1 0 0 0.45
0 1 0 0.80

0 0 1 1.00

0.45

1.00

## M 1 = 1.84 kip - sec 2 /in. = 22.1 kip - sec 2 /ft

CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

28

Participation factor, n

L1 2.25
1 =
=
= 1.22
M 1 1.84
Similarly

L2 0.65
2 =
=
= 0.36
M 2 1.84
L3 0.25
3 =
=
= 0.14
M 3 1.84

29

## Effective weight of structure participating in nth mode, Wn

{
n } [ m]{ }{ n } [ m]{ }
Ln
Wn =
g=
g
T
Mn
{ n } [ m] { n }
T

## g = 386.4 kip - sec 2 /in

(
L1
2.25)
W1 =
g=
* 386.4 = 1063.1 kips
M1
1.84
2
2
(
L2
0.65)
W2 =
g=
* 386.4 = 88.7 kips
M2
1.84
2
2
(
L3
0.25)
W3 =
g=
* 386.4 = 13.1 kips
M3
1.84
2

30

## Mass of the structure participating in nth mode , PMn

W
Participating mass of the structure in nth mode= PM = n
n
W
W1 1063.1
*
PM 1 =
=
= 0.917 = 91.7%
W 3 * 386.4
*

W2
88.7
PM 2 =
=
= 0.077 = 7.7%
W 3 * 386.4
W3
13.1
*
PM 3 =
=
= 0.0113 = 1.13%
W 3 * 386.4
*

PM = 1.00

## Most of the code requires that such number of modes shall be

considered so that PM 0.9. In our case, indeed, the consideration
of just the first mode would have been sufficient as PM1 0.9
CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

31

2

Ln
Vbn =
Mn

An
An
g = Wn
g
g

## Values of A for each Tn can be

determined from Fig. 6.9.5 given
on next slide

## Mode 1: Tn1=0.89 sec

1.8
A1
1
Vb1 = W1 . = 1063.1*
g * * 0.3 = 645.0 kips
g
g
Tn1
A2
2.71g
For Tn2 = 0.32 sec : Vb 2 = W2 * 0.3 = 88.7 *
* 0.3 = 72.1 kips
g
g
A3
2.71g
For Tn3 = 0.22 sec : Vb 3 = W3 * 0.3 = 13.1*
* 0.3 = 10.7 kips
g
g
CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

32

Tn 2 = 0.32 sec
Tn 3 = 0.22 sec

0.22 sec
0.32 sec
0.89 sec

33

## Nodal forces acting on the structure in nth mode, fn

First mode

Vbn
{ f n } = [ m ]{ n }
Ln

f1n
1n
f11
11
Vb1
Vb1
[ m] 2n f 21 = [ m] 21
f 2n =
f L1
f L1
31
31
3n
3n
f11
12 0 0 0.45 129.0
645

0
12
0
0
.
80
=
229
.
3
f 21 =

## f (2.25 *12) 0 0 12 1.00 286.7

31
CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

34

## Nodal forces acting on the structure in nth mode, fn

Second mode

Vbn
{ f n } = [ m ]{ n }
Ln

f12
12
12 0 0 + 1.00
72.1
Vb 2

[ m] 22 =
0
12
0
+
0.45
f 22 =

f L2
(0.65 *12) 0 0 12 0.80

32
32
f12 + 110.8

f 22 = + 49.8
f 88.6

32
CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

35

## Nodal forces acting on the structure in nth mode, fn

Third mode

Vbn
{ f n } = [ m ]{ n }
Ln

f13
13
12 0 0 + 0.80
10.7
Vb 3

[ m] 23 =
0
12
0

1.00
f 23 =

f L3
(0.25 *12) 0 0 12 + 0.45

33
33
f13 + 34.2

f 23 = 42.8
f + 19.3

33
CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

36

{ f n } = { f1n

f 2n

## f 3n } = 229.3 + 49.8 42.8

286.7 88.6 + 19.3

37

88.6 k

286.7 k
229.3 k

i1

49.8 k

129.0 k

j1

110.8 k

645.0 kips

Mode 1

19.3 k

i2

42.8 k

i3

j2

34.2 k

j3

72.0 kips

10.7 kips

Mode 2

Mode 3

38

## Combination of Modal Maxima

The use of response spectra techniques for multi-degree of
freedom structures is complicated by the difficulty of combining
the responses of each mode.
It is extremely unlikely that the maximum response of all the
modes would occur at the same instant of time.
When one mode is reaching its peak response there is no way of
knowing what another mode is doing.
The response spectra only provide the peak values of the
response, the sign of the peak response and the time at which the
peak response occurs is not known.

39

## Combination of Modal Maxima

{ u} max [ ]{ q} max

Therefore

and, in general

{ u} max [ ]{ q} max

## CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

40

Combined Response ro
Let rn be the modal response quantity (base shear, nodal
displacement, inter-storey drift, member moment, column stress
etc.) for mode n .The r values have been found for all modes (or
for as many modes that are significant).
Most design codes do not require all modes to be used but many
do require that the number of modes used is sufficient so that the
sum of the Effective Weights of the modes reaches, say, 90% of the
weight of the building. Checking the significance of the
Participation Factors may be useful if computing deflections and
rotations only.
CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

41

## Absolute sum (ABSSUM) method

The maximum absolute response for any system response quantity
is obtained by assuming that maximum response in each mode
occurs at the same instant of time. Thus the maximum value of the
response quantity is the sum of the maximum absolute value of the
response associated with each mode. Therefore using ABSSUM
method
N

ro rno
n =1

## This upper bound value is too conservative. Therefore, ABSSUM

modal combination rules is not popular is structural design
applications
CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

42

Square-Root-of-the Sum-of-the-Squares
(SRSS) method
The SRSS rule for modal combination,
E.Rosenblueths PhD thesis (1951) is

r r
o

n =1

no

developed

in

1/ 2

## The most common combination method and is generally satisfactory

for 2-dimensional analyses is the square root of the sum of the
squares method. The method shall not be confused with the rootmean-square of statistical analysis as there is no denominator.

## CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

43

Square-Root-of-the Sum-of-the-Squares
(SRSS) method
This method was very commonly used in design codes until about
1980. Most design codes up to that time only considered the
earthquake acting in one horizontal direction at a time and most
dynamic analyses were limited to 2-dimensional analyses .

44

## Three Dimensional Structures

In three-dimensional structures, different modes of freevibration in different directions may have very similar natural
frequencies.
If one of these modes is strongly excited by the earthquake at a
given instant of time then the other mode, with a very similar
natural frequency, is also likely to be strongly excited at the same
instant of time. These modes are often in orthogonal horizontal
directions but there may be earthquake excitation directions where
both modes are likely to be excited.
In these cases the Root-Sum-Square or SRSS combination
method has been shown to give non-conservative results for the
likely maximum response. In such cases some other methods such
as CQC, DSC are used
CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

45

## Modal combination of responses

Consider nodes i & j of the frame for which R.S.modal
analysis was carried out on previous slides
Using SRSS
Ai1
Ai2
Ai3

i1

Mi1

i2

Mi2

i3

Mi3

method

A i = A j = A i12 + A i 2 2 + ( A i3 ) 2

M i = M i12 + M i 2 2 + ( M i3 ) 2
j1

j2
Mj1

j3
Mj2

Mj3

Aj1

Aj2

Aj3

Mode 1

Mode 2

Mode 3

M j = M j12 + M j2 2 + M j3 2

## CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

46

Caution
It must be stressed that what ever response item r that the
analyst or designer requires it must be first computed in each mode
before the modal combination is carried out.
If the longitudinal stress is required in a column in a frame, then
the longitudinal stress which is derived from the axial force and
bending moment in the column must be obtained for each mode
then the desired combination method is used to get the maximum
likely longitudinal stress.
It is NOT correct to compute the maximum likely axial force and
the maximum likely bending moment for the column then use these
axial forces and bending moments, after carrying out their modal
combinations, to compute the longitudinal stress in the column.
CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

47

## Home Assignment No. M9

A 3 story R.C. building as shown below is required to be
designed for a design earthquake with PGA=0.25g, and its elastic
design spectrum is given by Fig 6.9.5 (Chopras book) multiplied
by 0.25). It is required to carry out the dynamic modal analysis by
using the afore mentioned design spectrum . Take: m3
Story height = 10ft
Total stiffness of first 2 stories = 2000 kips/ft.

m2

## Total stiffness of top floor = 1500 kips/ft

Mass of first 2 floors = 5000 slugs
Mass of top floor = 6000 slugs
CE-409: MODULE 9 (Fall-2013)

m1

k3

k2

k1
48