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Considerable uncertainty exist with regard to stability of slopes due to several factors and recognition of these uncertainties has made designees to introduce factor of safety. Several studies, during recent years on analytical methods using soil properties have improved understanding the several uncertainties. The reliability analysis of slopes can be used to represent uncertainty in mathematical models, which can be assumed to follow the characteristic of random uncertainty. The distribution uncertain variable, which is unknown, makes its estimation difficult. Hence, the concepts of fuzzy set theory appear to be quite reliable when limited information is available. This paper attempts to review the slope stability problem and deals with the intricacies of the concept of reliability and fuzzy logic as applied to stability analysis of slope. It has been suggested that the FOSM algorithm provides a general agreement among the different slope stability solutions.

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 6, ( Part -2) June 2015, pp.01-03

RESEARCH ARTICLE

www.ijera.com

OPEN ACCESS

Stability Analysis A Review

Nazarullah Khan*, Dr. R Bhuvana Vijaya ** Dr A Mallikarjuna Reddy***,

Dr M T Prathap Kumar****

*(Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics, Ghousia College of Engineering, Ramanagara, India)

** (Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics JNTUA, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India)

*** (Professor, Department of Mathematics, S K University, Anantapur, Andhra Pradesh, India)

**** (Senior Professor and R&D Coordinator, REVA Institute of Technology and Management, Bengaluru,

India,)

ABSTRACT

Considerable uncertainty exist with regard to stability of slopes due to several factors and recognition of these

uncertainties has made designees to introduce factor of safety. Several studies, during recent years on analytical

methods using soil properties have improved understanding the several uncertainties. The reliability analysis of

slopes can be used to represent uncertainty in mathematical models, which can be assumed to follow the

characteristic of random uncertainty. The distribution uncertain variable, which is unknown, makes its

estimation difficult. Hence, the concepts of fuzzy set theory appear to be quite reliable

when limited

information is available. This paper attempts to review the slope stability problem and deals with the intricacies

of the concept of reliability and fuzzy logic as applied to stability analysis of slope. It has been suggested that the

FOSM algorithm provides a general agreement among the different slope stability solutions.

Keywords factor of safety, fuzzy logic, reliability method, slope stability,, uncertainty

I. INTRODUCTION

Slope stability analysis includes assessing

failure of an element by checking whether the stress

in the element equals the strength of an element.

However, the strength of soil varies from one

location to another, as well as, with time.

Considerable uncertainty exist with regard to

stability of slopes due to several factors such as-the

method of measurement of soil properties are not

perfect, stress in soil is being uncertain and most of

the methods used contain simplifying assumptions

that leads to errors of uncertain magnitudes.

Recognition of these uncertainties has made

designees to introduce factor of safety, which is

defined as the ratio of measured strength to

calculated stress.

Risk and uncertainty in slope stability shall be

dealt using observational method [1]. It shall be

noted that this method will be applicable only during

construction stage, where in the design can be

changed. Where critical behavior cannot be

observed ,the designer must rely on calculated

risk[2].Several studies, during recent years on

analytical methods using soil properties

have

improved understanding the several uncertainties.

This paper attempts to summarize the slope stability

problem and consider their effect in design practice

and introduces the concept of reliability and fuzzy

logic as applied to stability analysis of slope.

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SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS

Several investigators[3,4,5 and 6] described

effective application of probability concepts for

stability analysis of slopes have used first order

second moment methods(FOSM). The established

methods previously deal with uncertainty regarding

natural properties and loading conditions. However

they do not address inadequacies such as erosion,

errors in

construction

and inadequate

soil

exploration that might miss a critical geological

detail. Thus, it is still better to deal relative

probabilities of failure or other measures of

reliability. Mean-first order reliability method that

incorporates uncertainty into decisionmaking

process without establishing an absolute value of t

he

probability

of failure was also used[7].

However, the probability of failure incorporates only

those factors that are included in the analysis and

hence

considered as a lower bound of actual

probability of failure. An approach in six steps to

compute uncertainty in factors of safety and the

corresponding reliability index as follows was

recommended [2]:

(i) Identify variables such as geometry, weight

and strength of soil.

(ii) To determine the mean value of each variable

so onto calculate best estimate of factor of

safety

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 6, ( Part -2) June 2015, pp.01-03

(iii) Determine the uncertainty in each variable with

its likely variable.

(iv) Perform sensitivity analysis to determine

change in factor of safety

(v) Obtain V

[ F ]

=1

V xj

V e

(1)

where g is a geometrical simplified model such

as method of stress that depends on vector x of

geometry and soil properties. e is a modeling

error that describes how a model deviates from

real.

(vi) The reliability index then can be computed

using

where

1.0

describes the safety by the number of standard

deviations separately, the best estimate of F from its

defined failure value of 1.0. However, it shall be

noted from equation (1), that the uncertainty in the

model error e is uncorrelated with uncertainties in

the model parameter + and +

RELIABILITY ANALYSIS

possibility of obtaining different reliability index

values for a chosen probabilistic failure surface [8].

The minimum reliability index occurs in same

critical probabilistic failure surface that does not

coincide with critical deterministic failure surface.

Thus, the aim of reliability analysis shall be to find

minimum value that indicates the most critical

slip surface. However the reliability index can be

associated with a slope but not to any specific

surface.

The reliability analysis of slopes can be used to

represent uncertainty in mathematical models, which

can be assumed to follow the characteristic of

random uncertainty. However not all uncertainties

are random, especially those based on incomplete

information. Hence, such uncertainties cannot be

handled by probability based reliability analysis.

Further, the distributions type of uncertain variable

is also unknown, making its estimation rather

difficult. Hence, the concepts of fuzzy set theory

were recommended and appear to be quite reliable

when limited information is available [9]. When the

uncertainty arises due to impression and ambiguity,

the variable becomes fuzzy and hence one can

incorporate the fuzzy uncertainty in reliability

analysis of slopes.

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THEORY

represented by fuzzy numbers that allows a simple

and practice oriented way to allow for expert

judgment [9]. The chosen membership shape can be

trapezoidal one as shown in fig (1).

(2)

is the reliability index

F is the computed factor of safety.

III.

IV

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The cut of a fuzzy set A can be defined

as: = |() , for 0 ,1 , i.e., the

cut of a fuzzy set A is the crisp set that

contains all the elements of the universal set X hose

membership grades in A are greater than or equal to

the specified value of .

Thus the discretise a fuzzy member

into a group of

cut intervals .For each

uncertain parameters , the cut gives upper and

lower bound values for a particular cut.

In the fig.1, a b, c and d are calculated as:

a = 1 1 ;

b = 2 1 ;

c = + 3 1 ;

and

d = + 4 1 ;

where being the number of standard deviations

between expected value of the parameter and the

fuzzy set vertices. Based on the expected judgments,

the values are reported as 1 = 0.5 and 2 =

1.5. However, the value of can be modified to

allow for soil behavior.

The vertex method, based on the cut

concept involves interval analysis, there by reducing

the fuzzy computation as a series of interval analysis

[10]. The value of is set to a value in the range of

0 to 1 and drawing a horizontal line that intersects

fuzzy member at two points and +. Thus,

the cut ranging from 0.1 to 0.995 can be

considered to involve fuzzy number. For four

strength parameters, there will four fuzzy numbers

that can be investigated at 2 4 = 8 vertex

dimension .Each of the vertex are treated as

weak value to find the most critical failure

surface[12] with the remaining parameters set at

their mean values. Thus, the first order second

moment (FOSM) algorithm is used to calculate

minimum reliability index.

The vertex method computes two factors of

safety + and . By approximate method, the

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ISSN : 2248-9622, Vol. 5, Issue 6, ( Part -2) June 2015, pp.01-03

derivatives for each cut is applied. The final

step comprises assuming the fuzzy mean value for

each derivative calculated using the following

formula:

=1

(3)

+ +

=

4

2

where is the number of standard deviation of

which + and are greater or smaller than the

mean of , N s the number of cut . The

application of simple algorithm with correct

experienced based parameter provides the result in

good agreement with slope stability solutions.

IV.

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ASCE, New York .N. Y.,1992, Vol.2, 10711111

[8] Hassan.A. Wolff.TF.,Search algorithm for

minimum reliability index of Earth slopes,

.Journal of Geotechnical and Geo

environmental Engineering 1999, pp 301308

[9] G R Dodagoudar and G Venkatachalam,

Reliability analysis of slopes using Fuzzy

set theory, Jou. of Computers and

Geotechnics, 2000, Vol. 27, pp 101-115.

[10] Juang CH, Jhi

Y-Y,Lee DH Stability

analysis of existing slopes considering

uncertainty,. Engineering Geology, 1998,

vol. 49, pp 111-122.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

that they can be used in actual practice but requires

considerable effort and should have a good reason to

use. A better and consistent approach is by a

probabilistic approach based on fuzzy set theory.

This approach takes into account the variability in

parameters used for factor of safety calculations.

Further, the FOSM algorithm provides a general

agreement among the different slope stability

solutions.

REFERENCES

Peck, R .B . Advantages and limitations of

the observational method in applied soil

mechanics: Ninth Rankine Lecture.

Geotechnique, 1969, Vol. 19(2), pp171-187.

[2] John T Christian, Charles C Ladd and

Gregory B Baecher, Reliability Applied to

slope

stability

analysis

Jou.

Of

Geotechnical Engg., 1993, Vol.120(12), pp

2180-2205.

[3] Wu . T. H , and Kraft, L.M Safety analysis

of slopes J. Soil mech. and Found. Div.,

ASCE, 1970, Vol. 96(2), pp609-630.

[4] Cornell. C . A . First order uncertainty

analysis of soils deformation and stability.

Proc., of First Int . Conf. on Applications

of probability and Statistics in Soil and

Struct. Engrg (ICAP) , Hong Kong, 1971,

pp129-144

[5] Alonso . E .E . Risk analysis of Slopes and

its applications to Slopes in Canadian

sensitive clays . Geotechnique . 1976, vol.

26(3), pp 453-472

[6] Tang. W .H., Yucemen ,M.S. , and Ang. A

. H.-S , Probability based short term

design of slopes Can . Geotech . Jou,,

1976, Vol.13 (3), pp201 215

[7] Christian .J.T., Ladd .C.C., and Baecher

.G.B., Reliability and probability in

stability analysis Proc. Stability and

[1]

www.ijera.com

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