22 views

Uploaded by SmileCaturas

II. Motion.vectors

- Graphs of the Trigonometric Functions
- PreCalc1
- 7 Differentiating some Trig Functions.ppt
- Trigonometry_WS3.pdf
- Maths Common Error
- The Magic Calculator and the Sine Addition Formula
- KS3 Maths Complete Revision Practice Worksheets
- Contoh.docx
- Height
- h alg 2 t10 3 filled in
- Logbuilding News Issue No 40
- 0111ExamA2
- Mathematics - Harder Topics
- Trig 1 Notes
- February 1, 2019
- Trigonometric Eqn
- Trigonometry
- SPM AddMath2 Ans (Kedah)
- AQA Core 2 Revision Notes 2013
- hw1

You are on page 1of 21

Motion

Vectors

A study of motion will involve the introduction of a variety of quantities that are used to

describe the physical world. Examples ofsuchquantities includedistance,displacement,

speed, velocity,acceleration,force,mass, momentum,energy, work, power, etc. Allthese

quantitiescanbydividedintotwocategoriesvectorsandscalars.

vectorquantityisaquantitythatisfullydescribedbybothmagnitudeanddirection.

RepresentingVectors

Vector quantities are often represented by scaled vector diagrams. Vector diagrams

depict a vector by use of an arrow drawn to scale in a specific direction. The vector

diagramatthebottomdepictsadisplacementvector.

drawnvectordiagram.

ascaleisclearlylisted

a vector arrow (with arrowhead) is drawn in a specified direction. The vector

arrowhasaheadandatail.

the magnitude and direction of the vector is clearly labeled. In this case, the

diagramshows the magnitude is20 mandthedirectionis(30degreesWestof

North).

are directed northeast (at a 45 degree angle) and some vectors are even directed

northeast, yet more north than east. Thus, there is a clear need for some form of a

convention for identifying the direction of a vector that is not due East, due West, due

South, or due North.Thereareavarietyof conventions for describing the directionof any

vector.Twooftheconventionsare:

about its "tail" from east, west, north, or south. For example, a vector can be

said tohave a directionof40degreesNorthofWest(meaningavectorpointing

West hasbeenrotated40degreestowardsthenortherlydirection).Avectorcan

be said to have a direction of 65 degrees East of South (meaning a vector

pointingSouthhasbeenrotated65degreestowardstheeasterlydirection).

rotation of the vector about its "tail" from due East. Using this convention, a

vector with a direction of 30 degrees is a vector that has been rotated 30

degrees in a counterclockwise direction relative to due east. A vector with a

direction of 160 degrees is a vector that has been rotated 160 degrees in a

counterclockwisedirection relativeto dueeast.A vectorwith a directionof 270

directionrelativetodueeast.

The magnitude of a vector in a scaled vector diagram is depicted by the length of the

arrow. The arrow is drawn a precise length in accordance with a chosen scale. For

example, the diagram at the bottom shows a vector withamagnitude of20 miles. Since

the scale used for constructing the diagram is 1 cm = 5 miles, the vectorarrowis drawn

withalengthof4cm.Thatis,4cmx(5miles/1cm)=20miles.

Using the same scale (1 cm = 5 miles), a displacement vector that is 15 miles will be

represented by a vector arrow that is 3 cm in length. Similarly, a 25mile displacement

vector is represented by a 5cm long vector arrow. And finally, an 18mile displacement

vectorisrepresentedbya3.6cmlongarrow.Seetheexamplesshownbelow.

diagram, avectorarrowisdrawntorepresentthevector.Thearrowhasanobvioustailand

arrowhead. Themagnitude ofavector isrepresented bythelengthofthearrow.Ascaleis

indicated (such as, 1 cm= 5 miles)and thearrowis drawnthe properlengthaccordingto

the chosen scale. The arrow points in the precise direction. Directions are describedby

the use of some convention. Themostcommon convention isthatthedirectionofavector

isthecounterclockwiseangleofrotationwhichthatvectormakeswithrespecttodueEast.

AdditionofVectors

operation is the addition ofvectors.Two vectorscan be addedtogether todetermine the

result (or resultant). The simplest case is when adding vectors in the same (or the

opposite)directionasshownbelow:

are directed in directions other thanpurely verticalandhorizontaldirections.Forexample,

a vector directed up and to the right willbeadded to a vectordirectedupand totheleft.

Thevectorsum(resultantvector)istobedeterminedasshowninthediagramsbelow:

addingtwoormorevectors.:

theheadtotailmethodusingascaledvectordiagram

thePythagoreantheoremandtrigonometricmethods

ThePythagoreanTheorem

only two) vectors that make a right angle to each other. Themethod isnotapplicablefor

adding more than two vectors or for adding vectors that are not at 90degrees to each

other. The Pythagorean theorem is a mathematical equationthatrelatesthelength ofthe

sidesofarighttriangletothelengthofthehypotenuseofarighttriangle.

Toseehowthemethodworks,considerthefollowingproblem:

Ericleavesthe basecampandhikes11km,northandthenhikes11km

east.DetermineEric'sresultingdisplacement.

This problem asks to determine theresultof adding two displacement vectorsthatareat

rightanglestoeachother.Theresult(orresultant)of walking11kmnorthand11kmeastis

a vector directed northeast as shown in the diagram. Since the northward displacement

andthe eastwarddisplacement areatrightanglestoeachother,thePythagoreantheorem

canbeusedtodeterminetheresultant(i.e.,thehypotenuseoftherighttriangle).

Theresultofadding11km,northplus11km,eastisavectorwithamagnitudeof15.6km.

UsingTrigonometrytoDeterminetheDirectionofaVector

functions. Most students recall the meaning of the usefulmnemonicSOH CAH TOAfrom

their course intrigonometry. SOHCAH TOA isamnemonicthat helps one remember the

meaning ofthe three commontrigonometricfunctionssine,cosine,andtangentfunctions.

These three functions relate an acute angle ina righttriangle to theratioof the lengths of

two of the sides of the right triangle. The sine function relates the measure of an acute

angle to theratioofthelengthofthesideoppositetheangletothelengthofthehypotenuse

(i.e.opposite dividedbyhypotenuse). Thecosine function relatesthemeasureofanacute

angle to theratioofthelengthofthesideadjacenttheangletothelengthofthehypotenuse

(i.e.adjacent dividedbyhypotenuse). Thetangentfunctionrelatesthemeasureofanangle

to theratioof the lengthof the sideopposite theangleto thelengthofthesideadjacentto

threefunctionsinequationform.

Trigonometric

Function

Meaning

Mnemonics

sin =

o

h

cos =

a

h

tan = oa

equaltothelength isequaltothelength isequaltothelength

oftheoppositeside oftheadjacentside oftheoppositeside

dividedbythelength dividedbythelength dividedbythelength

ofthehypotenuse

ofthehypotenuse oftheadjacentside

SOH

CAH

TOA

These three trigonometric functions can be applied to the hiker problem in order to

determine the direction of the hiker's overall displacement. The process begins by the

selection of one ofthetwoangles(otherthantherightangle)ofthetriangle.Oncetheangle

isselected,any ofthe three functions can be usedto findthe measure ofthe angle.Write

the function and proceed with the proper algebraic steps to solve for themeasureof the

angle.

sin =

o

h

1

11km,E

15.6km

= 0.7051

= sin (0.7051) = 45

Note: The measure of an angle as determined through use of SOH CAH TOA is not

always the direction of the vector. Thefollowing vectoradditiondiagram is anexample of

such a situation. Observe that the angle within the triangle is determined to be 26.6

degreesusing SOHCAHTOA.Thisangleisthesouthwardangleofrotationthatthevector

R makes with respect to West. Yet the direction of the vector as expressed with the

counterclockwiseconventionis206.6degrees.

10km,W+5km,S

o

a

1

tan =

5km,S

10km,W

= 0.5

UseofScaledVectorDiagramstoDeterminetheResultant

use of an accurately drawn scaled vector diagram. Using a scaled diagram, the

headtotailmethodisemployedtodeterminethevectorsumorresultant.

Supposeyouwantedtoaddthreevectors(displacement):

The headtotail method is employed and its magnitude and direction is labeled on the

diagram.

Interestingly, the order in which three vectors are added has no effect upon either the

magnitudeor the directionof the resultant. Theresultant will still havethesamemagnitude

and direction. For example, consider the addition ofthesame three vectors in a different

order.

TheResultant

Theresultant is thevectorsumoftwoormorevectors.Itistheresultofaddingtwoormore

vectorstogether.Ifdisplacementvectors A,B,and C areaddedtogether,theresultwillbe

vectorR.As shown inthediagram,vectorRcanbedeterminedbytheuseofanaccurately

drawn,scaled,vectoradditiondiagram.

TosaythatvectorRistheresultantdisplacementofdisplacementvectorsA,B,andCis

tosaythatapersonwhowalkedwithdisplacementsA,thenB,andthenCwouldbe

displacedbythesameamountasapersonwhowalkedwithdisplacementR.

DisplacementvectorRgivesthesameresultasdisplacementvectorsA+B+C.Thatis

whyitcanbesaidthat

A+B+C=R.

The above discussion pertains to the result of adding displacement vectors. When

displacement vectors are added, the result is a resultant displacement. But any two

vectorscan be addedaslongasthey are the same vector quantity. Iftwoor morevelocity

vectors are added, then the result isaresultant velocity.Iftwoormore forcevectors are

added, then the result is a resultant force. If two or more momentumvectors are added,

thentheresultisaresultantmomentum,etc,etc.

vector, etc.) isthe result of adding theindividualvectors.ItisthesamethingasaddingA+

B+C+....

gets hit simultaneously by three playersonthe opposingteam (players A, B,and C).The

footballplayerexperiencesthreedifferentappliedforces.Eachappliedforcecontributesto

a total or resulting force. If the three forces are added together using methods of vector

addition, then the resultant vector R can be determined. In this case, to experience the

threeforcesA,BandCisthesameasexperiencingforceR.TobehitbyplayersA,B,and

Cwould result in the same forceasbeinghitbyoneplayerapplyingforceR."To doA+B

+CisthesameastodoR."VectorRisthesameresultasvectorsA+B+C.

result of combining the individual vectors together. The resultant can be determined by

adding the individual forces together using vector addition methods (parallelogram

method,triangle/polygonmethod,trigonometricmethods).

VectorComponents

In situations in which vectors are directed at angles to the customary coordinate axes,a

usefulmathematicaltrick will be employedtotransform thevector into twopartswitheach

part being directed along the coordinate axes. For example, a vector that is directed

northwest can be thought ofashavingtwoparts a northwardpartandawestwardpart.A

vector that is directed upward and rightward can be thought of as having two parts an

upwardpartandarightwardpart.

Any vector directed in two dimensions can be thought of as having an influence in two

different directions. That is, it can be thought of as having two parts. Each part of a

twodimensional vector isknown asacomponent. The components of a vector depictthe

influence of that vectorin a givendirection.Thecombinedinfluenceof thetwocomponents

is equivalent to the influence of the single twodimensional vector. The single

twodimensionalvectorcouldbereplacedbythetwocomponents.

AngledVectorsHaveTwoComponents

If Fido's chain is stretched upward and rightward and pulled tight by hismaster, then the

tension force in the chain has two components an upward component and a rightward

component.To Fido,the influence of thechain onhis bodyisequivalenttotheinfluenceof

two chains on his body one pulling upward and the other pulling rightward. If thesingle

chain were replaced by two chains.with each chain having themagnitudeanddirectionof

the components, then Fido would not know the difference. This is not because Fido is

dumb (a quickglanceat hispicturerevealsthatheiscertainlynotthat),butrather because

the combined influence of the two components is equivalentto the influence ofthe single

twodimensionalvector.

and horizontally. Each wire exerts a tension force upon the picture to support its weight.

Since eachwireisstretchedintwodimensions(bothverticallyandhorizontally),thetension

forceofeachwirehastwocomponentsaverticalcomponentandahorizontalcomponent.

Focusing on the wire on the left, wecouldsaythat thewire hasaleftwardand an upward

component. This is to say that the wire on the left could be replaced by two wires, one

pulling leftward and the otherpulling upward.Ifthe singlewire werereplaced by two wires

(each onehavingthe magnitudeanddirection of thecomponents),thentherewouldbeno

effect upon the stability of the picture. The combined influence of the two components is

equivalenttotheinfluenceofthesingletwodimensionalvector.

ParallelogramMethod

vectordiagram todeterminethe components ofthevector.Brieflyput,themethodinvolves

drawing the vectorto scaleintheindicateddirection,sketchingaparallelogramaroundthe

vector such that the vector is the diagonal of the parallelogram, and determining the

magnitude of the components (the sides of the parallelogram) using the scale. If one

desirestodetermine the components as directed along thetraditional xandycoordinate

axes, then theparallelogramisarectanglewithsidesthatstretchverticallyandhorizontally.

Astepbystepprocedureforusingtheparallelogrammethodofvectorresolutionis:

1. Selectascaleandaccuratelydrawthevectortoscaleintheindicateddirection.

2. Sketch a parallelogram around the vector: beginning at the tail of the vector,

sketchverticalandhorizontallinesthensketchhorizontalandverticallinesatthe

head of the vector the sketched lines will meet to form a rectangle (a special

caseofaparallelogram).

3. Draw the components of the vector. The components are the sides of the

parallelogram. The tail of the components start at the tail of the vector and

stretches along the axes to thenearest corner ofthe parallelogram. Be sure to

place arrowheads on these components to indicate their direction (up, down,

left,right).

4. Meaningfullylabelthecomponents of thevectors withsymbolstoindicatewhich

component represents which side. A northward force component might be

labeledFnorth.Arightwardvelocitycomponentmightbelabeledvxetc.

5. Measure the length of the sides of the parallelogram and use the scale to

determine the magnitude of the componentsin real units. Label themagnitude

onthediagram.

One can actually first draw two vectors first, make a parallelogram,utilizing the anglesof

eachvectors,andonlythendrawtheresultant.

Triangle/PolygonMethod

Inaddingtwovectors,thetrianglemethodisused,utilizingtheheadtotailtechnique:

If there are three or more vectors, however, the triangle method becomes the polygon

method:

Again, it doesnt matter which vector came first. The resultant vector will always be the

same:

resultant:

Trigonometric/AnalyticalMethod

determinethecomponentsofthevector.

If the vectors are perpendicular, you can arrange them so that they for one large right

triangle.Forexample:

Redraw the arrows so they form one large triangle (you dont need to draw in the

trigonometric method, butitishelpfulindeterminingwhichsideisadjacentandoppositeto

theangleyouwillhavetochoose):

Applythepythagoreantheoremtogettheresultant:

R = 100km2

R = 10km

If the vectors are nonperpendicular, then you have to solve for the components of each

individual vectors. If for example the given vectorsare: A = 2.65kmat 140degrees, B=

4.77kmat252degrees,andC=3.18kmat332degrees.Visually,thatwouldbe:

To determine the resultant, the three individual vectors are resolved into horizontal and

vertical components. The angle information about each vector is used to form a right

triangle in which the vector is the hypotenuse and the perpendicular sides are oriented

alongthexandyaxes:

yourtrigonometry.

cos40 = Ax/A

sin40 = Ay/A

Acos40 = Ax

Asin40 = Ay

sin18 = Bx/B

cos18 = By/B

Bsin18 = Bx

Bcos18 = By

cos28 = C x/C

sin28 = C y/C

C cos28 = C x

C sin28 = C y

whereA=2.65km,B=4.77km,andC=3.18km.

Aftercomputing(youcanpractice),theresultsare:

Ax = 2.03km

Ay = 1.70km

Bx = 1.47km

By = 4.54km

C x = 2.81km

C y = 1.49km

isnegative.Theycomponentthatisdownward(South)alsohasanegativevalue.

Thenaddallthecomponentsalongthexaxis.

i=3

Rx = six or,simply, Rx = Ax + Bx + C x

i=1

Rx = Ax + Bx + C x =2.03km+(1.47km)+2.81km=0.69km

Dothesamewiththecomponentsalongtheyaxis.

Ry = Ay + By + C y =1.70km+(4.54km)+(1.49km)=4.33km

downwards(becausethevalueisnegative)anditlookssomethinglike:

Thenyoucansolveforthemagnitudeoftheresultantusingthepythagoreantheorem:

R2 = ( 0.69km)2 + ( 4.33km)2

R = 19.225km

R = 4.38km

tocreatearighttriangle.

tan = 0.69/4.33

= tan1(0.69/4.33)

= 9.05

The angle of this right triangle is 9.05 degrees. Since the axis towards the South is270

degreescounterclockwisefromEast,then

East).

- Graphs of the Trigonometric FunctionsUploaded byJohn Joshua Montañez
- PreCalc1Uploaded byareddy_b
- 7 Differentiating some Trig Functions.pptUploaded bybruce almighty
- Trigonometry_WS3.pdfUploaded byTimothy Handoko
- Maths Common ErrorUploaded byHemantPanday
- The Magic Calculator and the Sine Addition FormulaUploaded bydigger_sc
- KS3 Maths Complete Revision Practice WorksheetsUploaded byAndreia Salgueiro
- Contoh.docxUploaded byTeohYongXiang
- HeightUploaded by555angel
- h alg 2 t10 3 filled inUploaded byapi-261379705
- Logbuilding News Issue No 40Uploaded byursind
- 0111ExamA2Uploaded byCarla Coelho
- Mathematics - Harder TopicsUploaded byYousef Yohanna
- Trig 1 NotesUploaded byMrs. Hedrick
- February 1, 2019Uploaded byWilliamAporbo
- Trigonometric EqnUploaded byPrashantcool1999
- TrigonometryUploaded byTushar Gawande
- SPM AddMath2 Ans (Kedah)Uploaded bySimPor
- AQA Core 2 Revision Notes 2013Uploaded byAli Arshad
- hw1Uploaded byapi-369964276
- Trigonometry ExercisesUploaded byGuilherme Oliveira
- Sol8_PolarAppsUploaded byMohamed Abdulla
- Calc Notes 0103Uploaded byNjoka Samuel K
- 3 5 14 trigonometry lpUploaded byapi-246712223
- AGI Data Sheets for Geology in the FieldUploaded byegrojr86
- Worksheet FunctionsUploaded bylian
- Phy for VectorsUploaded byAnjana Varanasi
- PC Chapter 7 SolutionsUploaded bycerda911
- phy 121 notes 01Uploaded byMetin Ağaya
- Topic 3 - TrigonometryUploaded byskyrunner31

- Cytogenetics Finals Notes 2014Uploaded bySmileCaturas
- lab.docUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Chapter 2. Lecture 4. Human Sexuality (1)Uploaded bySmileCaturas
- Chapter 2. Lecture 4. Human Sexuality (1)Uploaded bySmileCaturas
- Chapter 3. Lecture 2. the Reality of EvilUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Handouts 4 (Finals)Uploaded bySmileCaturas
- 1st LectureUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Chapter 2. Lecture 1C. IndividualityUploaded bySmileCaturas
- II. MotionUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Chapter 2. Lecture 3. LoverUploaded bySmileCaturas
- I. IntroductionUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Chapter 3. Lecture 1. Life is AbsurdUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Chapter 3. Lecture 3. the Philosophy of DeathUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Lipids First 20minsUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Edmodo NotesUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Chapter 1. Lecture 5. Sartre_s ExistentialismUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Final Sentence OutlineUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Reference PageUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Chapter 1. Lecture 2. Human Being According ToUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Chapter 1. Lecture 1. Know ThyselfUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Research Paper PagesUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Chapter 2. Lecture 1B. ResponsibilityUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Chapter 1. Lecture 6. Freud_s InstinctsUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Chapter 2. Lecture 1A. Person as Social BeingUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Chapter 1. Lecture 3. Karol Wojtyla. Concept of Human PersonUploaded bySmileCaturas
- SentenceOutlineUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Table of Contents PageUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Chapter 1. Lecture 4A. BodyUploaded bySmileCaturas
- Chapter 1. Lecture 4B. Theology of the BodyUploaded bySmileCaturas

- Industrial Protective Footwear MarketUploaded byRimpal Tyagi
- tum_ch4Uploaded byhappywhewmi
- FlowUploaded byWG GZ
- 1910 Table of ContentsUploaded byEsmeralda Merritt
- jvc brdv3000u.pdfUploaded bylamirada
- apch15_practest(1)Uploaded byAnaliaMertinez
- STUDY OF ENVIRONMENTAL FAVORABLE BIO-GAS TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY IN INDIA: REVIEW.Uploaded byIJAR Journal
- ME_2014-4Uploaded byالعلم نور
- NDB BrochureUploaded bydulli fitrianto
- Dem240128d Sbh Pw n d TouchUploaded byCatalin Pancescu
- TANK DATASHEET.xlsUploaded byAlvin Smith
- 501studyguide.pdfUploaded byHaider Usman Awan
- KSB Valves_for_water-data.pdfUploaded byPaul Maposa
- Hydrotest-Check-List.pdfUploaded bySaut Maruli Tua Samosir
- Olim Omeg1535smUploaded byВукашин Рашевић
- Guidelines for Hazardous Area and Equipment of Electrical Installations on Board ChemicalOil Tankers%2C 2010Uploaded byJavier Perez Huerta
- Compendium of Technologies APPROVED 2009-08-18Uploaded byazer24
- Measures of Impact of Science and Technology in IndiaUploaded byVikrant Raghuvanshi
- Regulations Relating to Maritime Electrical InstallationsUploaded byEdmilson Monteiro
- Transformerless UpsUploaded byKrishna Das
- Chemical EquilibriumUploaded byPriom Rashid
- Industrial Instrumentation Lec 01Uploaded byHaseeb Jatoi
- Fantech Systemair - Fan Installation Dos and DontsUploaded byem00105
- Filtros Kit FleetguardUploaded bywalsystem22
- Feasibility Analysis.pdfUploaded byOkta Lumakeki
- TechMemo004-2 Increased Efficiency of Steel Well Casing AndUploaded byMonica Urbieta
- Fast Motor Bus Transfer_PF00283Uploaded bykfali
- Report - Blended Wing BodyUploaded byRandula Lakshan
- Hap46 ManualUploaded byFernando
- 1-s2.0-S1877705812045183-mainUploaded byJavier Alejandro Rodriguez