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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

In previous years, machines and devices were developed and modernized


to promote comfort and simplicity for the humankind. Engineers and Scientists
develop and innovate in order to improve stuffs from heavy and bulky machines
to light and more sophisticated devices. One good example is the improvement
in terms of control systems. Lately, control systems depend on mechanical levers
and knobs. It had improved somehow by using push buttons and switches.
In our present generation, we utilize the benefits of using wireless
technologies such as infrared (IR) and radio frequency (RF) waves and other
advance technologies like Bluetooth and Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) to link and
control different devices and even use these advancements to connect and
communicate from distant places. Such technologies play an important role in the
modern control systems. Remote controllers exhibit the significance of IR waves
to transmit commands in a form of light waves to control different devices such
as stereos, televisions, DVDs and other remote-controlled devices wirelessly.
Remote controllers also limit the use of mechanical parts of a device such a
buttons and switches to avoid wear and tear of equipment and to provide
comfortable access to the device.
The researchers were considering of using one of those wireless
technologies to develop and also innovate current applications of such
technologies that can operate within a smaller area and exhibits seamless
communication between devices with the least requirement possible.
Bluetooth were common features on mobile and pocket devices
nowadays, the researchers consider this technology in the design of the study on
providing seamless control and innovative method of wireless control.

The researchers focus on security and accessibility in selecting the


suitable wireless technology that will be the essential component of the design
project.

Background/Setting of the Study

Filipinos were known to be family-oriented individuals all over the world.


Family bonding makes our weekends especially Sundays more relaxing and
recreational. One activity that will suit our relaxation time is to watch movies in
the expense of our own home with our televisions and DVD players.
Televisions and DVD players were normally controlled via remote
controllers with the aid of the infrared technology. Infrared requires line-of-sight in
order to communicate and transmit command to adjust parameters such as
channel switching and volume adjustments for televisions, playback features and
scene selections for the DVD players. Normally, we encounter some problems
regarding the use of IR remote controllers. One good example is the lost or
misplaced remote controls. If the remote control is lost, we do not have the option
to control our television specifically those televisions that do not have functional
buttons and rely on the remote control. It also requires line-of-sight which
demands users to build a direct connection between the remote and television.
Being aware of those drawbacks, the researchers were convinced to
commence a study regarding the development of an alternative process of
wireless remote control. Considering cost and advancement, Bluetooth
technology offers secured connections, unparalleled versatility and faster data
transfer. In comparison, Bluetooth surpasses infrared in faster data transfer,
communication range and omni-directional line of sight. Bluetooth also is more
accessible nowadays due to devices specifically mobile phones which enabled

Bluetooth connections. Bluetooth also have the ability to connect different


devices like personal computers, mobile phones and pocket devices together.
In accordance with this, the researchers will integrate the hardware with
the software installed on a Bluetooth enabled device as an alternative remote
controller for a television. A separate hardware component will be constructed to
serve as a median in order for the Bluetooth and the Infrared to communicate.
For the software part of the design, the researchers then decides to use one of
the latest mobile operating system available commonly known as the Android
OS. Most mobile devices were introduced and running under the Android OS
platform. Great advantages of using this software is it provides graphical user
interface that please Android users about their touch screen devices and it is an
open-source program where users can access the code listings of the programs
installed in their devices. This study will impose an innovative alternative for the
usual television remote controller. This will also maximize the potential of Android
devices which usually exhibits remarkable interface and stunning gaming display.
Generally, the study will not replace the typical infrared remote control;
instead it will be an innovative alternative solution for a remote control. The
design project will be just a substitute remote control in the event of lost or
misplacement, and even another fashion to appreciate your android device and
for a comfortable viewing experience.

RESEARCH FRAMEWORK
Theoretical Framework

In this part, concepts and established models were elaborated to serve as


a paradigm of ideas which will be essential in the development of the prototype.
According to Gilster (2002), Bluetooth is an open standard specification for
a radio frequency (RF)-based, short-range connectivity technology that promises
to change the face of computing and wireless communication. It is designed to
be an inexpensive, wireless networking system for all classes of portable
devices, such as laptops, PDAs (personal digital assistants), and mobile phones.
It also will enable wireless connections for desktop computers, making
connections between monitors, printers, keyboards, and the CPU cable-free.

Potential for Bluetooth applications is huge, because we transact business


and communicate more with people who are close by than with those who are far
away - a natural phenomenon of human interaction. The following list represents
only a small set of potential applications in future many more imaginative
applications will come along:

By installing a Bluetooth network in the office, workers can do away with the
complex and tedious taskof networking between the computing devices, yet have
the power of connected devices. Each Bluetooth device could be connected up
to 200 other devices making the connection of every device with every other
possible. Since it supports both point to point and point to multipoint it will
virtually make the maximum number of simultaneously linked devices unlimited.
The Bluetooth technology connects all office peripherals wirelessly. Connect
PC or notebook to printers, scanners and faxes without the ugly and troublesome
cable attachments. Users can increase their freedom by connecting the mouse or
the keyboard wirelessly to the computer.
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Bluetooth allows the users to have three way phones. At home, the phone
functions as a portable phone. When on the move, it functions as a mobile
phone. And when the phone comes within range of another mobile phone with
built-in Bluetooth wireless technology it functions as a walkie-talkie.
In meetings and conferences, users can transfer selected documents
instantly with selected participants, and exchange electronic business cards
automatically, without any wired connections.
It connects wireless headset to mobile phone, mobile computer or any
wired connection to keep hands free for more important tasks when users were
at the office or in the car.

Bluetooth-enabled Devices Schemes

A. Operating Frequency
Bluetooth networking transmits data via low-power radio waves. It
communicates on a frequency of 2.45 gigahertz (actually between 2.402 GHz
and 2.480 GHz, to be exact). This frequency band has been set aside by
international agreement for the use of industrial, scientific and medical devices
(ISM).
B. Power Requirements
One of the ways Bluetooth devices avoid interfering with other systems is
by sending out very weak signals of about 1 mill watt. By comparison, the most
powerful cell phones can transmit a signal of 3 watts. The low power limits the
range of a Bluetooth device to about 10 meters (32 feet), cutting the chances of
interference between your computer system and your portable telephone or
television. Even with the low power, Bluetooth doesn't require line of sight
between communicating devices. The walls in the house won't stop a Bluetooth
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signal, making the standard useful for controlling several devices in different
rooms.
C.

Range and Interferences


Bluetooth can connect up to eight devices simultaneously with all of those

devices in the same 10-meter radius. Bluetooth uses a technique called spreadspectrum frequency hopping that makes it rare for more than one device to be
transmitting on the same frequency at the same time. In this technique, a device
will use 79 individual, randomly chosen frequencies within a designated range,
changing from one to another on a regular basis. In the case of Bluetooth, the
transmitters change frequencies 1,600 times every second, meaning that more
devices can make full use of a limited slice of the radio spectrum. Since every
Bluetooth transmitter uses spread-spectrum transmitting automatically, its
unlikely that two transmitters will be on the same frequency at the same time.
D.

Network Architecture
When Bluetooth-capable devices come within range of one another, an

electronic conversation takes place to determine whether they have data to share
or whether one needs to control the other. The user doesn't have to press a
button or give a command -- the electronic conversation happens automatically.
Once the conversation has occurred, the devices -- whether they're part of a
computer system or a stereo -- form a network. Bluetooth systems create a
personal-area network (PAN), or piconet, that may fill a room or may encompass
no more distance than that between the cell phone on a belt-clip and the headset
on your head. Once a piconet is established, the members randomly hop
frequencies in unison so they stay in touch with one another and avoid other
piconets that may be operating in the same room.
(http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/bluetooth2.htm, 18 December 2011)
Bluetooth Pairing Procedures

Windows XP comes with a Bluetooth configuration utility that you can use
to help define a new device that we can connect to. We will use this utility to set
up a virtual serial port that we can use to communicate with the Bluetooth
enabled device.
This configuration utility can be found under the Windows Control Panel,
and then launch the Bluetooth Devices application.
Click the "Add" button to begin configuring the virtual serial link as shown
in Figure 1.

Figure 1 The initialization process of establishing a Bluetooth connection


Make sure your Bluetooth enabled device is turned on and set to
discoverable mode. The Wizard helps verify this question by requiring you to
check a box indicating the Bluetooth device is ready. Now, let the Wizard search
and discover any Bluetooth devices that are in Discoverable mode.

Figure 2 Discoverable Mode Configuration


If the device is properly configured and powered up, the device should be
found by the Wizard as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3 Discovered devices via Bluetooth connections


Select the device and click the Next button. This begins the process of
setting up the necessary information to define what needs to happen to pair a
host Bluetooth device with the Garcia.
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Figure 4 Setting up the passkey code


The default passkey value for the device Bluetooth adapter is "1234". You can
change this value if necessary for security purposes.
The Wizard will define COM ports on your machine for using the Bluetooth
wireless connection. In this example, the Wizard defined COM6 as a "Generic
Serial Port" as shown below.
(http://www.acroname.com/garcia/tutorials/bluetooth/connection/connection.ht
ml, 19 December 2011)

Figure 5 Final Phase of Bluetooth Pairing

Microcontroller and Bluetooth Communication


In order to develop functional hardware with use of Bluetooth technology,
one must consider the aid of a microcontroller. A microcontroller is an integrated
circuit which consists of a memory that holds its functions based on the program
loaded, different input and output pins and other pins for special purposes.
Programming of a microcontroller differs from one type to another. Some
microcontrollers were programmed using unique microcontroller programs such
as Arduino.
The pin configuration of an Arduino microcontroller is shown in Figure 6.
This type of microcontroller is based onan Atmega168 microcontroller which
composes of different functional pins.

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Figure 6 Atmega168 Pin Configuration


Interfacing Bluetooth modules with microcontrollers seems to be difficult to
most microcontroller programmers and enthusiasts. Some microcontrollers need
several external circuitries in order to interface the module to the microcontroller.
One benefit of the Arduino microcontroller is that it has shields or sets of
modules that has embedded circuitry to maximize the use of the preferred
modules. Its Bluetooth shield that acts as the Bluetooth module can be
connected directly without the need of external circuitry. The Arduino together
with its Bluetooth shield will be the core components of the prototype in order to
control the television through the Android phone. Basically, microcontrollers
usually connect via serial communication with the Bluetooth modules in order to
send information.
In order to develop an innovative remote controller, a microcontroller must
be employed into the design and will serve as the main control system of the
design project. It provides innovations as it offers cost efficiency, functionality and
different approach in wireless control.

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Conceptual Framework
The design of the project follows the set of frameworks illustrated on
Figure 7. The follow-up discussion elaborates the input, process and output
frameworks.
The INPUT is a Bluetooth-enabled mobile phone that will serve as the
alternative remote control for both the television and the DVD player. The mobile
phone that would be use should be operating and running under the Android
Operating System. A passkey will be required by the Bluetooth module in order to
pair the phone and the microcontroller. The Bluetooth module will serve as the
receiver while the Bluetooth-enabled mobile phone will act as the transmitter. The
phones Bluetooth must be turned on to communicate with the device. An
application should be installed to the phone to control the device and to have a
virtual remote control interface. The infrared remote controller of an appliance
can be decoded by an IR receiver circuit to decode its infrared signals and to
search for compatible codes stored in the microcontroller.
The PROCESS is handled by the microcontroller which will process most
of the function to control the television with a Bluetooth-enabled phone. The
Bluetooth modules main purpose to the design is to receive signals from the
phone and the receive signal will be the inputs on the microcontroller so that the
microcontroller can generate outputs based on the received command signal
from the phone. The microcontroller is also the one responsible for the security
measures of the pairing process for it stored the passkey needed to access the
device.The microcontroller then process the Bluetooth signal from the phone and
decodes each signal that represents unique commands with its respective
outputs generated by the microcontroller. The designated output pins of the
microcontroller based on the program loaded to it will have an infrared transmitter
to transmit infrared signals to the infrared receiver of the appliances. The
instruction from the phone will be translated to infrared signals by the
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microcontroller to perform the function of the usual remote controller to switch


channels, adjust volume and other features such as the brightness and to turn
on/off of the television and playback option as well as scene selection of the DVD
player. It also stores the preprogrammed codes for various types and brands of
both televisions and DVD players.
The OUTPUT will be the appliances. It will be the receiver of the
commands transmitted by the phone and generated by the microcontroller. Most
home appliancesavailable in the market such as televisions and home
entertainment systems were usually controlled via infrared signals.
INPUT

PROCESS

Android Phone

OUTPUT

Microcontroller

IR-based Appliances
- Transmits Bluetooth
- Requests
control
passkey
signal
code and establish Bluetooth connection
- Initializes device pairing
- Receives control signal from the remote control
- Generates outputs based on the input control signals
- Decodes remote control signals

- Performs its functions based on the instruction transmitted by th


- Controls appliance functions

Usual TV Remote Control


- Transmits infrared control signal

Figure 7 Conceptual Framework of Alternative IR-based Appliance Remote


Controller and Decoder via Bluetooth technology of Android Phone

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Statement of the Problem


Nowadays, remote control makes the manipulation of such devices for
people to find an easier and convenient way of using and controlling the devices
and appliances in the house.
Bluetooth technology allows transferring of data from mobile phones to
mobile phones, mobile phone to PC or vice versa. With this, the researchers
developed an Alternative IR-based Appliance Remote Controller and Decoder via
Bluetooth technology of Android Phone.
The propose design project must be able to answer the following questions:
1. How will theAlternative IR-based Appliance Remote Controller and
Decoder via Bluetooth technology of Android Phone perform the
corresponding function in terms of:
1.1.
1.2.
1.3.
1.4.

Accuracy;
Reliability;
Usability;
Security

2. How to establish a connection between Bluetooth and Infrared?


3. How to develop a functional system that enables the android phone to act
asan alternative IR-based appliance remote controller?

Objective of the Study

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Below are the lists of the following objectives for the proposed design
project:
1. To perform the functions of the Alternative IR-based Appliance Remote
Controller and Decoder via Bluetooth technology of Android Phone in
terms of:
1.1 Accuracy;
1.2 Reliability;
1.3 Usability;
1.4 Security
2. To establish a connection between Bluetooth and Infrared.
3. To develop a functional system that will enable the android phone to act as
an alternative IR-based appliance remote controller.

Significance of the Study


The following are the beneficiaries of the propose project:
Android Users.The proposed design project will aid for android users. By
using the Alternative Universal TV Remote Control using Android Phone, people
will be able to control the television within a range easily whenever the presence
of the remote control is absent, but still the usual remote control is applicable in
controlling the television.
Researchers.Based

on

the

information

that

they

gatheredwhile

developing the proposed design, the researchers are gaining great knowledge in
concepts, and theories which give them the strong ideas and fundamental in
building and designing the project. The problems that they are facing while doing
the design makes their thinking more straight forward to the things needed to
create the project.

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Future Researchers.The proposed design project will serve as reference


or basis to the future researchers in designing and developing similar alternative
ways of controlling devices and appliances via Bluetooth and android phone.

Scope and Limitation of the Study


The design project was developed for Alternative IR based appliances
remote controller and decoder via Bluetooth technology of android phone.It is
applicable for small offices, other establishments and houses that uses android
phone for communicating there appliances that can be reach through short
distances.
The prototype will work as a remote controller to any IR based appliances.
For establishing connection between Android Phone and to any IR based
appliances, user needs to decode the prototype in the specific IR based
appliances. Android Phone and the prototype were prepared in automated mode
connection. The signals in the Android Phone can be transmitted as long as it is
covered within the range of Bluetoothmodule which is 10 meters radius.
Users can operate any IR based appliances if he/she can distinguish the
designated password and if the program software is installed in the Android
Phone.The prototype has embedded codes and logic circuits which is produces
the process of transmitting data such as identifying connection, verifying
password, Android devices commands, and controlling the relay in the circuit.
The Android Phone needs Bluetooth capabilities. Connectivity of the
Android devices is required for accurate connection to the prototype and stay still
for as long as the Android Phone is power on.The design project is only
applicable in Android OS and it cannot be used in Symbian OS and other
operating system. The android application of the design project is limited to
control the power, volume, TV/AV selection and channel selection of the
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television and the power, eject, play, stop, next, previous, rewind and fast forward
feature of the DVD.
The prototype is only limited and applicable to specific brand of appliances
such as a television and a DVD player for the demonstration of the project. But it
is possible to apply in any IR based appliances by adding their respective
decoded control signals.
Definition of Terms
This part of the chapter is a collection of all terms used specifically those
terms which is unusual and needs deeper explanations and discussion in order
to be fully understood. These terms also clarifies its intended meanings based on
the usage in the study and to avoid confusion with terms which can be used in
different manners.
Android.It

is

an operating

system

for

mobile

devices such

as smartphones and tablet computers.


Arduino.Itis an open-source single-board microcontroller, descendant of the
open-source Wiring platform,designed to make the process of using electronics
in multidisciplinary projects more accessible.
Bluetooth.Itis a global short-range wireless standard that allows a broad range
of electronic devices to connect and communicate with each other.
Firmware.It is a combination of software and hardware. Computer chips that
have data or programs recorded on them are firmware.
Flow chart.It is a graphical or symbolic representation of a process. Each step in
the process is represented by a different symbol and contains a short description
of the process step.
Framework.It is a real or conceptual structure intended to serve as a support or
guide for the building of something that expands the structure into something
useful.

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Graphical User Interface.It is a program interface that takes advantage of


the computer's graphics capabilities to make the program easier to use.
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).It has advanced the
theory and application of electro-technology and allied sciences, served as a
catalyst for technological innovation and supported the needs of its members
through a wide variety of programs and services.
Infrared (IR) light.It is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength longer than
that of visible light, measured from the nominal edge of visible red light at
0.74 micrometers (m), and extending conventionally to 300 m.
Library.In programming, a library is a collection of precompiled routines that a
program

can

use.

The

routines,

sometimes

called modules,

are stored inobject format.


Microcontroller.It is a highly integrated chip that contains all the components
comprising acontroller. Typically this includes a CPU, RAM, some form
of ROM, I/O ports, and timers.
Modulation.It is the addition of information (or the signal) to an electronic or
optical signalcarrier.
Open Source.It refers to a program in which the source code is available to the
general public for use and/or modification from its original design free of charge.
Open source code is typically created as a collaborative effort in which
programmers improve upon the code and share the changes within the
community.
Operating System.It performs basic tasks, such as recognizing input from
the keyboard,

sending output to

of files and directories on

the disk,

the display
and

screen,

keeping

controlling peripheral

track

devices such

as disk drives and printers.


Piconet.It is an ad-hoc network by linking a group of users which uses blue tooth
technology protocols for allowing one master device to interconnect with up to
seven active slave devices.
Protocol.A standard set of regulations and requirements that allow two electronic
items to connect to and exchange information with one another.
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Syntax.It refers to the spelling and grammar of a programming language.


Television.It is a widely used telecommunication system for broadcasting and
receiving moving pictures and sound over a distance.
Transmitter.It is a device for sending electromagnetic waves; the part of a
broadcasting apparatus that generates and modulates the radiofrequencycurrent
and conveys it to the antenna.
Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN).It is an on-premise data communication
system that reduces the need for wired connections and makes new applications
possible, thereby adding new flexibility to networking.

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