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Faraday's Law

Faraday's Law is one of 4 basic equations of the theory of electromagnetism, called Maxwell's

Equations. We have said before that

This is the truth, but not the whole truth. Michael Faraday (British physicist, c.1850) showed

that there is a second way to make an electric field:

Around 1860, James Maxwell(Scottish physicist) showed that there is a second way to make a

magnetic field:

Definition: emf , E , is (roughly speaking) a voltage difference (V = E d ) capable of doing

continuous useful work.. Think of emf as a battery voltage. Batteries have an emf, but resistors

do not, even though a resistor R can have a voltage difference across it (V = I R )

Technically, the emf around a closed loop L is defined as

E =

K K

E

v d A

L

Recall that voltage difference was defined as V = E dr . For the case of E-fields created

A

by charges, the voltage difference when we go around a closed loop is zero, since voltage

K K

depends only on position, not on path: V = E dr = 0

A

B =

K K

B dA

=

if B const

and A flat

K K

B A = BA cos

B

B cos

A

area A

F-2

Faraday's Law (in words): An induced emf (E) is created by changing magnetic flux.

E(1 loop) =

loop of

wire

d M

dt

If B = constant emf = E = 0

If B is changing with time

V

B(in)

uniform

E=

voltmeter

E( N loops) = N

d

0.

dt

d

dt

N=2

2) change A (by altering shape of the loop)

3) change the angle between B and the area vector A (by rotating the loop, say)

= 10 cm 10 cm, perpendicular to a magnetic field B which is

dB

increasing at a rate

= + 0.1 T / s . What is the magnitude of the

dt

B

10 cm

V

10 cm

Answer:

E=

d

d(BA)

dB

=

= A

= (0.01m 2 )(0.1T / s) = 103 V = 1mV

dt

dt

dt

E = N

d(BA)

= 1000103 V = 1V

dt

F-3

Lenz's Law

The minus sign in Faraday's law is a reminder of ..

Lenz's Law: the induced emf E induces a current that flows in the direction which creates an

induced B-field that opposes the change in flux.

Example: a loop of wire in an external B-field which is increasing like so

induced B

B increasing

Bind

OR

??

induced I

Iind

Bind

B decreasing

Iind

Lenz's Law says "Change is bad! Fight the change! Maintain the status quo."

moving to the right enters a region where there is a

uniform B-field (in). What is the direction of the current

wire

loop

v

B (in)

here

The flux is increasing as the loop enters the field. In

B=0

here

out-of-the-page. An induced CCW current will produce a B-field

pointing out.

Does the magnetic field exert a net force on the loop as it enters

the field? Answer: Yes. The upward current on the right side of

the loop will feel a force to the left (from Fwire = ILB and

F-4

R.H.R.). Notice that the direction of the force on the wire loop will slow its motion.

Aside: There is a subtlety in this problem that we have glossed over. To get the direction of the

force on the right-hand side of the wire, we assumed that the direction of the (imaginary positive)

moving charges in the wire is upward, along the direction of the current, and not to the right,

along the direction of the motion of the entire loop. Now, it is really the negative conduction

electrons that are moving within the wire, but we still have the problem of understanding which

velocity v we should pick when we

apply the force law F = q v B.

Should we pick the direction of the

conventional

current I

B(in)

uniform

of the motion of the loop (to the

right), or some combination of

net force

on wire

of fixed positive ions in wire

electrons in the right half of our

wire are actually moving both

downward and to the right. But

electron

current

motion of

conduction electron in wire

matters, because the motion to the right is effectively canceled by the motion of the positive

charges within the wire. Remember that the wire is electrically neutral; there are as many fixed

positive ions in the wire as there are mobile negative electrons. The force on the electrons due to

their rightward motion is exactly canceled by the force on the positive charges, which have

exactly the same rightward motion. But the force on the conduction electrons due to their

downward motion is not canceled out, and this is the cause of the net force on the wire.

F-5

Electrical Generators

Convert mechanical energy (KE) into electrical energy (just the

crank

by a magnet) is turned by a crank. The changing magnetic flux in

the loop produced an emf which drives a current.

light

bulb

Eddy Currents

If a piece of metal and a B-field are in relative motion in such a way as to cause a changing

through some loop within the metal, then the changing creates an emf E which drives a

current I. This induced current is called an eddy current. The relative direction of this eddy

K

K K

current I and the B-field are always such as to cause a magnetic force ( F = I L B ) which

slows the motion of the metal .

Again, if metal moving in a B-field makes a changing

(Faraday)

I

N

Fon metal (= I L B)

eddy current

If the eddy current force did not slow the motion, but instead aided the motion, then we would

have runaway motion free energy violation of energy conservation.

Motional emf

Consider the following contraption. A metal bar sliding on metal rails.

rails

I

I

with constant speed v

B = uniform, constant

x=vt

(v = x / t)

F-6

The bar+rails form a wire loop of area A = Lx = Lv t. The magnetic flux = BA is

increasing, which produces an emf, which drives a current I (an eddy current!) which is CCW by

|E| =

Lenz' Law.

d

d(BA)

d(B L v t)

=

=

= BL v

dt

dt

dt

This is an example of a "motional emf". The motion of the bar creates the

emf.

F(up)

+

q

There is another way to see why there is current in the circuit with the

current flowing upward in the bar: The charges in the bar are moving in a B-

B(in)

K

K K

( Recall Fon wire = I L B ). An external force Fext must act on the bar to

balance the magnetic force FB and keep the bar moving with constant

I

FB

speed v: Fext = FB. The power delivered by Fext must equal the

Fext

B

as heat in the resistance of the rails+bar.

Pext =

dW

d

=

(Fext x) = Fext v , Pelectrical = E I

dt

dt

(Recall P = I V)

?

Fext v = E I FB v = E I I L B v = B L v I

(it checks!)

Faraday's Law E =

v

L

d

can be written:

dt

K K

d K K

E d A = B da

d t S

Written this way, we see that Faraday's Law says that a changing B-field makes an E-field.

In electrostatics, there is no current, and so, no B (since no I to make B), and, so, no changing B.

K K

So, in the case of stationary charges (electrostatics) we have

v E d A = 0 , for any loop L.

L

F-7

Edl > 0

(+) part cancels () part

K K

v EdA = 0

loop L

+

Q

Edl < 0

By contrast, when there are moving charges that make a changing B-field, then the changing BK K

field makes an E-field, which has

E

v d A 0 , says Mr. Faraday.

L

B increasing E CCW

B decreasing E CW

B(in)

v E d A

1) E-fields due to stationary charges. For this kind of E-field, we can define a voltage:

K K

V = E d A . It is only possible to define a voltage if the line-integral of the E-field

B

v E d A =

charge moves around any closed loop, the work done by the E-field is zero.

K K

2) E-fields due to changing B-fields. For this kind of E-field, E =

E

v d A 0 , and we

L

cannot define a voltage. In this case, when a charge moves around a closed loop, the Efield does non-zero work on the charge, just like a battery does.

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