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Experiment 2:

Mechanical Energy Losses due to Straight


Pipes and Fittings in a Viscous Pipe Flow

CAPILI, Mark Lorenz


SAN MIGUEL, John Andre
SILVESTRE, Ces Angelin
VALENCIA, Camille Ann

Introduction
The term pipe flow is used to describe flow
through round pipes, ducts, nozzles,
sudden expansion, and contractions,
valves, and other fittings.
Viscous dissipation

http://www.eng.fsu.edu/~alvi/EML4304L/webpage/experiment_5.htm

Introduction
Fluid Flow

Laminar
happens when dealing with small
pipes , low flow velocities and with
highly viscous fluids
At low velocities fluids tend to flow
without lateral mixing,and adjacent
layers slide past one another
http://solve.nitk.ac.in/dmdocuments/Chemical/theory_pipes.pdf

Introduction
Fluid Flow
Turbulent
the fluid moves erratically in the form
of cross currents and eddies.
happens in general at high flow rates
and with larger pipes
http://solve.nitk.ac.in/dmdocuments/Chemical/theory_pipes.pdf

Introduction
Fluid Flow
Transitional
a mixture of laminar and turbulent
flow, with turbulence in the center of
the pipe, and laminar flow near the
edges
http://solve.nitk.ac.in/dmdocuments/Chemical/theory_pipes.pdf

Introduction
When a gas or liquid flows through a pipe,
there is a loss of pressure
frictional loss
loss through fittings
to overcome frictional losses
pump providing power to the fluid
arranging for the fluid to fall under gravity
from a higher to a lower elevation (potential
energy is reduced)
http://www.eng.fsu.edu/~alvi/EML4304L/webpage/experiment_5.htm

Introduction
Steady-State, Viscous Pipe Flow

Pipe flow in a constant-diameter pipe may


be driven by gravity and/or pressure forces
For horizontal pipe flow, gravity has no
effect
Pressure difference forces the fluid through
the pipe
7

Objectives
The objectives of the experiment are:
To measure the energy losses through the
straight pipe and fittings in a pipe flow
system.
To determine the relation of energy losses
to the volumetric flow rate in a pipe flow
system from the actual data.

Objectives
To measure the performance of the fluid
flow system in the lab by computing the
design calculations with the experimental
data

Materials Needed
Fluid Flow Apparatus
U-tube Manometer
-Pipes
20mm Tee connection
20 mm elbow
25 mm straight pipe
-Pump
-Valves
-Hose
Water and lastly patience
10

Procedure
Before doing the experiment:
Choose 10 flow rates (100-1000 gal/hr) and
calculate for its Reynolds Number. The
flow of the water within the system should
be turbulent (>2100)
Formula to be used: Re = 4q/D
where: = 995.647kg/m3
= 8.222x10-4

Procedure
Close drain valve and pour
water into the feed tank
(3/4 full)

Open all isolating valve


before switching the pump
on

Procedure
Slowly increase the degree
of opening of the entry valve
until bubble formation
becomes minimal

Set the opening of the entry


valve to the designated
degree/flow rate

Procedure
Measure the Pressure head
using the U-tube manometer
and record these pressure for
at least 3 trials

Use another flow rate


setting

Data
Flow Rate gal/hr
o 20mm Tee connection:
Flow Rate

RM mmHg

1000

940

900

860

840

Trial 1

25

25

20.325

15.625

15.625

Trial 2

26.5625

25

31.875

18.75

15.625

800

760

740

700

680

Trial 1

14.0625

14.0625

9.375

9.375

4.6875

Trial 2

14.0625

12.5

10.9375

9.375

6.25

Flow Rate

Data
Flow Rate gal/hr
o 20mm elbow:
Flow Rate

RM mmHg

520

500

440

420

380

Trial 1

40.625

34.375

32.8125

31.25

28.125

Trial 2

42.5

35.9375

32.8125

29.6875

25

Flow Rate

340

300

260

220

180

Trial 1

21.875

12.5

8.3

6.2

4.6875

Trial 2

18.75

13.5625

10.9375

6.25

3.90625

Data
Flow Rate gal/hr
o 25mm Straight Pipe:
Flow Rate

RM mmHg

520

500

440

420

380

Trial 1

68.75

64.0625

56.25

53.125

46.875

Trial 2

65.625

65.6

57.8125

51.5625

48.4375

Flow Rate

340

300

260

220

180

Trial 1

37.5

31.25

28.125

21.875

20.3125

Trial 2

35.156

33.6

26.5625

24.22

22.66

Sample Calculation
Formula to be used: Re = 4q/D
where: = 995.647kg/m3
= 8.222x10-4Pas
Data chosen: 180 gal/hr at 25mm straight pipe

1 3.785 13

4(180
)(
)(
)(
)(995.647 3 )
3600 1 1000

1
4
(8.2222 10
)(25)(
)
2
1000

Re=11671.71 >2100

Sample Calculation
Manometer Reading
in mmHg
= 92 78
= 14

Rm

Recommendation
Start the pump only when the water level in
the tank is almost full.
Make sure that the U-tube manometer has
no water added into it
Place the manometer in the ground level
Timing and Patience is a key factor
Slowly adjust the flow rates and operate
only in a set of range.

Recommendation
Keep all unused valves closed.
Hoses that connect the pipe and
manometer must be observed carefully
and bending must be avoided.
Bring plastic cover or paper.
Be sure that the one who measures
doesnt have eye problems
Extra clothes is a must!

Always keep your workplace


clean

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