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ABB PowerED Power Education Webinar Series: July 24, 2015

Take the wind out of the next SuperStorm


Strategies for storm preparedness and
quick recovery to improve grid reliability
and resiliency
ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 1

Taking the wind out of the next SuperStorm


Todays experts

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 3

Brian Friedrich, PE,


Vice President, US Service Sales,
ABB Inc.

John Boggess,
Principal Project Engineer, Power Systems Substations,
ABB Inc.

Craig Stiegemeier,
Business Development and Technology Director,
Transformer Remanufacturing and Engineering
Services (TRES), ABB Inc.

Parag Parikh,
Industry Solution Executive, Power Systems Network
Management, ABB Enterprise Software

Introduction
Stuff happens

Natural disasters happen

Hurricanes, floods, tornados

2015 AccuWeather Atlantic Hurricane Forecast

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 4

Introduction

Space weather (geomagnetic storms)


affect the earth and power grid system
Solar flares, solar storms / wind

Monitoring and forecasting space


weather is a national priority
Use ground and space-based
sensors and imaging systems, past
conditions, and numerical models.

Able to predict space weather on


time scale of hours to days.

Recent activity
June 22 G4 - severe geomagnetic
storm

ABB
July 24, 2015

June 25 enormous geomagnetic


storm (2 days)
Slide 5

Credit: NASA/SDO/AIA/LMSAL

Agenda

Pre-Storm
Substation analysis and
hardening

Substation first
responders

Power transformer
evaluations

Repair parts

Replacement equipment

Field services

Rapid transformer
replacement

Slide 6

Proactive outage
support agreements

During the storm

ABB
July 24, 2015

PostStorm

Monitoring

Substation hardening
John Boggess,
Principal Project Engineer, Power
Systems Substations, ABB Inc.

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 7

Storm hardening of substations


U.S. 2012 BILLION-DOLLAR WEATHER AND CLIMATE DISASTERS
Recent Superstorms have increased pressure on utilities and governmental agencies to harden
critical infrastructure for improved grid system reliability during major storm events.
Top 5 US Costliest
Storms
$125B - Katrina
(2005)
$68B - Sandy (2012)
$38B - Ike (2008)
$29B - Wilma (2005)
$27B - Andrew
(1992)
Tertiary Source: Wikipedia, for
background purposes only

Source: NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)


ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 8

Storm hardening of substations


Flood inundation impacts to substations
Impacts to substations can range from minor to
catastrophic:

Loss of HVAC system


Loss of AC station service
SCADA & communications failure
Loss of DC battery system(s)
Water damage to protection, automation &
control equipment (i.e. control house)
Damage to high voltage equipment from
flooding in switchyard
De-energization of a substation
Fire and catastrophic loss

Substation owners must evaluate the risk of


loss for specific equipment and/or systems to
determine the scope of the flood mitigation.
ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 9

Storm hardening of substations


Developing a flood mitigation strategy

After identifying critical substations with


vulnerability to storm surge (as per FEMA
FIRM maps) or high flood zones, different
levels of flood mitigation can be
employed.
ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 10

Innovative substation solutions can


provide early warning capabilities,
mitigate potential outages, and reduce
restoration times during weather events.

Storm hardening of substations


Substation flood monitoring
Float switches can be strategically
installed at locations throughout a
substation. The output contacts from the
float switches can then be hardwired into
the substations SCADA system and
monitored via status points to alert
operations of flood events.

Critical
Initial

Multiple float switches, at different


elevations, can notify operators of initial
flood conditions, as well as higher water
events at critical flood levels.
ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 11

Storm hardening of substations


Elevating substation equipment

For distribution substation applications, a


proven approach has been to combine the
cost-effectiveness of modular equipment
solutions with the storm hardening concept of
elevated substations.

At medium voltage levels, many modular


substation designs are available that can be
installed on elevated foundations, platforms or
stilts.

Dedicated protection & control/bulk


power protection enclosures

Standby generator; aux power in storm-prone


or remote environments
ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 12

Storm hardening of substations


Elevated substations
Elevating an entire transmission substation is more challenging due to the amount of
space required for increased electrical clearances at higher voltages.

Elevated substations, integrated with GIS, provide reliable, reduced-footprint


replacement solutions with environmental immunity.
Based on prior installations & case studies, elevating substations with indoor GIS
(gas-insulated switchgear) has proven to be an excellent solution to flood-prone
substation areas.
According to the U.S. DOE, per August 2013 Report - U.S. Energy Industry
Response to Recent Hurricane Seasons, Common hardening activities to protect
against flood damage include elevating substations and relocating facilities to areas
less prone to flooding.

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 13

Storm hardening of substations


Keys to elevated GIS substation design
Typically utilizes an enclosed cast-in-place (CIP) basement/cable vault, partially
below grade, with water-proofing, sloped-floor, and sumps to manage water
intrusion. For severe flood loading, stilt designs or breakaway walls can be
incorporated into the foundation design per ASCE 7-10 flood loading guidelines.
HV apparatus, protection & control, and other major equipment is located on the
first floor concrete diaphragm with an elevation above projected flood levels.
A pre-engineered metal building, with increased galvanizing and specified with
HDG or stainless steel materials are used to withstand the corrosive environment.

Excellent flexibility can be provided with SF6-to-Cable connections.

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 14

Storm hardening of substations


Keys to enclosed substation design

Completely enclosed substation


Use of all dead-front equipment
All connections via plug-in cables

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 15

No exposed HV/MV conductors in entire


substation
Superior Safety by Design solution

Storm hardening of substations


Examples of elevated and/or enclosed substations

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 16

Storm hardening of substations


Summary

Significant storm surge and flood events are relatively rare. However, recent
superstorms have caused catastrophic property damage and loss of life.

The U.S. DOE estimated outage costs to range from $18 to $33 billion dollars per
year (in the last ten years). Paramount to the significant costs related to these
power outages is their potential hindrance to emergency responders.

Infrastructure hardening with substation upgrades at strategic locations can reduce


the impacts of flooding & wind at critical substations during severe weather events.

Innovative substation solutions and new technologies can improve grid storm
hardening by detecting floods early or building substations with environmental
immunity to withstand flooding, corrosion & wind.

Storm & flood hardening of critical substations vulnerable to flooding can provide
improved reliability, life cycle costs, security and most importantly public safety.

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 17

A layered approach for power


equipment
Craig Stiegemeier,
Business Development and
Technology Director, Transformer
Remanufacturing and Engineering
Services (TRES), ABB Inc.

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 18

A layered approach for power equipment


Transformer resiliency, geomagnetic storms and
recovery transformers
Agenda:

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 19

Assessment of critical stations and equipment to the impact


of regional challenges

Storms hurricanes, tornadoes, and solar storms

Seismic exposure

Build in hardening or modify to improve equipment


resiliency

Geomagnetic storms

Effects of geomagnetic storms on power transformers

Impact of transformer reaction on the grid

Ability to quickly recover from major damage

Protect your grid to minimize downtime


A layered approach for power equipment
Assess risk, harden, monitor, automate, rapidly repair or replace
1. Assess the asset risk to natural and physical disturbances
2. Harden equipment against extreme environments
3. Monitor the asset and surroundings and automate response
to abnormalities
4. Rapidly repair lightly damaged equipment
5. Rapidly replace severely damaged equipment

Strategy must flex to address a diversity of failure modes


ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 20

Harden (new designs or modify existing equipment)


Example: relocation of key equipment to less
vulnerable locations

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 21

Harden (new designs or modify existing equipment)


Take advantage of material advancements, such as dry
bushings (and porcelain-free arresters)

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 22

Solid (oil free) construction reduces risk of fire

Non-porcelain shed minimizes possible damage to people


and equipment and increases resiliency to contamination

High-seismic zone rated

Hardening has its limitations must prepare for rapid


repair or replacement of damaged equipment
Train personnel for rapid recovery

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 23

1.

Develop trained rapid response teams

2.

Response team has access to standardized spare parts &


systems designed for rapid installation

3.

Emergency response for storms or disasters with preestablished order process to expedite reaction

4.

Coordinated training with federal, state and local first


responders
1.

Focus on field safety performance

2.

Familiarization with tools and equipment

3.

Technical support for Fusion Center

5.

Include transportation logistics supporting move of large


equipment to critical locations

6.

Consider a life-cycle support process

Geomagnetic disturbance (GMD)

Strong solar flare activities => Sends plasma beams to earth

Changes the magnetic field of Earth => GMD

By NASA
ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 24

Mechanism of generation of Geomagnetically Induced


Currents (GIC)

Change of earths magnetic field =>


Voltage in transmission circuits
Transmission line / Power
transformers / Ground
Fraction of a volt to several volts/km
Ground currents flow into neutrals of
power transformers
Magnitude of GIC in a transmission
circuit is a function of:
Magnitude & orientation of GMD,
location on earth, proximity to large
bodies of water, resistance of the
soil, & direction / height / length of
the transmission line
Highest for > 500 kV transmission
K Scale

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 25

DC causes part cycle saturation of the core

Non linearity of the core


material limits core from fully
saturating
ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 26

% Imag of 1 phase Transformer under effect of DC

Per Phase Currents

High Peak pulse


One per Cycle
Small mean width
1/8th 1/12th of Cycle
RMS = 15 20 % of peak

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 27

VAR consumption vs. magnitude of GIC


50
45
40

% MVA Rating

35
30
25
20

15
10
5
0
0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

GIC, Amps/Phase

Utilities use this data to plan their VAR resources during GMD events
ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 28

Current harmonics associated with DC / GIC

Harmonic Spectrum of Magnetizing Current under different levels of GICs

% Harmonic Amplitude (% of Rated Load Current)

6%

Idc = 25 Amps/Phase

5%
Idc = 50 Amps/Phase

4%

3%

2%

1%

0%
60

120

180

240

300

360

420

480

540

600

660

Harmonic Frequency, Hz

Utilities use this data to optimize protection during GMD events


ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 29

Signature / profile of GIC


50

40

GIC, AmpsADC

30

Low / moderate magnitudes of GIC


sustained for several hours;
interrupted by short duration / high
peak pulses

20

10

-10

-20

-30

7 hr signature of GIC
-40

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 30

Effect of GIC on winding hot spot temperature


Winding Hot Spot Temperature vs Time, 1-Phase Transformer
124

122

Wdg Hot Spot Tempt, Degree C

120

118

116

114
Idc = 50 Amps

112

Idc = 30 Amps
Idc = 20 Amps

110

108
0

10

15
Time, Minutes

20

25

30

Actual temperature rise is much lower for the short duration of high GIC peaks
For a 2 minute duration: Rise is 3, 4, and 6 C for GIC of 20, 30, and 50 Amps
ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 31

Evaluation of total susceptibility of transformers to


effects of GIC

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 32

To determine which transformers:

Are susceptible to damaging overheating

Are susceptible to core saturation and only moderate


overheating

Have low level of susceptibility to either effects of GIC

Are not susceptible to effects of GIC

Total susceptibility to effects of GIC is determined by:

Transformer design based susceptibility

GIC level based susceptibility

Results of GIC susceptibility study on large power


transformer fleet > 500 kV

Orange: Susceptible to both core saturation and possible damaging winding and/or structural
parts overheating
Yellow: Susceptible to core saturation and only moderate overheating
Green: Low susceptibility to both core saturation and overheating
Blue: Not susceptible to core saturation or overheating
ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 33

FERC Order 779

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 34

In May 2013, FERC issued


Order 779 which directs
NERC to submit reliability
standards that address the
impact of GMD on the
reliable operation of the
bulk-power system

Stage 1 operating
procedures

Stage 2 detailed
assessments (planning
studies)

Standards project 2013-03


(GMD mitigation) began in
June 2013

TPL 007 summary

Requires a GMD Vulnerability Assessment of the system


for its ability to withstand a benchmark GMD event without

causing a wide area blackout, voltage collapse, or damage


to transformers, once every five years. Applicability:
Planning Coordinators, Transmission Planners

Requires a Transformer thermal impact assessment to


ensure that all high-side, wye grounded transformers
connected at 200kV or higher will not overheat based on
the Benchmark GMD Event. Applicability: Generator
Owners, Transmission Owners

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 35

GIC effects

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 36

Studies needed for GIC concerns

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 37

Geo-electric field determination

DC system modeling

GIC calculation

Calculation of transformer reactive power absorption and


harmonics

Planning type studies with added reactive power


absorption, considering contingencies.

Conduct harmonics studies and determine the effects

Identify limit violations and system issues

Conduct thermal assessment of a portion of transformer


fleet

Determine mitigations and study their effects

Emergency Storm Response Program

Program focuses on power products and services for substations

HV breakers and equipment, MV switchgear and equipment, power transformers

Types of support - personnel and equipment

ABB
July 24, 2015

Proactive - preplanned program for disaster support

Research vendors now and set up blanket PO (in advance of storms) for defined
responsibilities: scope of work, work locations, manpower requirements, equipment
requirements, timing

Assessments, hardening

Reactive just had an unexpected disaster - need help now

Work with vendors that have a quick PO, standard terms and conditions of sale

Look for OEMs who have the drawings and schematics

Look for vendors with full coverage areas and a network of resources

Slide 39

First responders

Advance team to perform initial


assessment of substations to quickly
identify rough work scope required

What are the priorities

Quick-fix versus fully restore

Outage restoration priority changes

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 40

Initial assessments

Flooding of control cabinets as shown in a control relay from


an 115 kV SF6 circuit breaker control cabinet
ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 41

Success story
SuperStorm Sandy

Reactive Quick PO with major NE utility

Quick to site 1 day for first responders

Team came in right after approximately 100


techs within 2 weeks as need dictated.

Initial focus get people back on-line Band-Aids

Work scope

ABB
July 24, 2015

Substation overhauls (13 substations)

Transformers, HV breakers, and MV switchgear

Cleaning, testing, repairs, replacements

Replacement breakers and components


(surplus / used market)

Slide 42

Rapid response example


Recovery Transformer (RecX) Program

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 43

Began before 9/11 with EPRIs


Infrastructure Security Initiative (ISI)

ABB was asked to examine feasibility of a


fast-to-install transformer design

DHS became involved after the project


created a <1 week storage to transformer
energization concept

Prototype 500/230kV and 345/138kV


designs were developed, focused on
transportation ease & installation speed

Utility host supported a trail deployment

Concept demonstration exercise was


completed in March 2012

3-phase, 600MVA bank still providing


reliable service

Versatile recovery transformer RecX Project


Challenges and limitations
Mobile transformers are not a new concept, but have traditionally been limited to
less than 100 MVA and 230 kV

Why are they limited?

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 44

Large power drives physical size

Heavy weights (hundreds of tons)

Transportation difficulties

Inability to fit equipment into complex


site locations

Versatile recovery transformer


RecX Program
How can we overcome
these limitations?

Size and
Weight
High
temperature
insulation

Separate
into singlephase units

Distributes
weight

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 45

Transportation

Reduces
weight

Longer
lifetime

Shipment
via truck

Higher
overload
capacity

Rapid
delivery to
site

Flexibility

Transformer
mounted on
steel frame

Easy lifting
and setting

Acts as
transformer
pad

Remote
cooling
system
Flex
connections,
easy to place

Recovery Transformer (RecX) Program


Rapid deployment using truck transportation

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 46

Recovery Transformer (RecX) Program


Rapid deployment Assembly using pre-configured
subassemblies

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 47

Recovery Transformer (RecX) Program


Rapid deployment Storage to energization: 5 days,
10 hours, 10 minutes (no overtime)

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 48

Outage Lifecycle Management


Enabled Storm Preparedness
Parag Parikh,
Industry Solution Executive,
Power Systems Network
Management,
ABB Enterprise Software

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 49

Challenges of grid reliability & resiliency


The main historical issues have remained the same

ABB
July 24, 2015

Reliability

Operational
complexities

Regulatory
compliance

Health & safety

Slide 50

OPEX + CAPEX
management

Customer
engagement

Super storms
A Strategic Surprise for the Power Sector
Super storm Sandy constituted a
strategic surprise for me and much of the
Department of Defense. Paul Stockton

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 51

Difficult logistics and poor


communication between utilities,
defense officials, state planners and first
responders.

Inadequate communication to
customers, inadequate planning in
vulnerable areas, poor visibility on the
grid.

Lack of attention on future black sky


events worse than Sandy.

Changing the game from Centralized to Distributed Grid

TRADITIONAL GRID

DISTRIBUTED GRID

Centralized generation

One-directional power flow

Generation follows load

Top-down operations planning

Centralized and distributed generation

Intermittent renewable generation

Multi-directional power flow

Operation based on real-time data

Demand Response for economics and reliability

Energy Management
EMS SCADA
Market Operations

Distribution SCADA
Transformers
Reclosers & Switches
Wireless Infrastructure

PV Solar complete
Panel-to-Grid solutions
Asset Health

Outage Lifecycle Mgmt;


OMS, Mobile, Analytics

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 52

Storm Preparedness
Opportunities for Improvement

Improving Outage Communications


5 of 6 major New York IOUs cited
for inadequate communications
capabilities during Sandy.

Fault Location to identify fault


location

FLISR to reduce impact of an


outage

Slide 53

During overtime workers typically


make between 200% and 300% of
average hourly base salary.

Regulatory innovation

Automation

ABB
July 24, 2015

Reducing Overtime

Damage Assessment
automation to improve ETR
and Restoration Plans

Evolution of Outage Lifecycle


Historical

Integrated Outage Management

Event Management

Outage Management System

Proactive Distribution
Management

Mobile Workforce Management

Asset Health Management

Outage Management 1.0

Organizational Visibility

ABB
July 24, 2015

Enterprise Asset Management

Enterprise Resource Planning

Slide 54

Outage Management 2.0

Optimizing the Outage Lifecycle


Connecting the Pieces

Outage Management System

Distribution Management System

SCADA

Distribution Automation

Mobile Workforce Management

AVL

AMI

DERMS

EAM/ERP

GIS

CIS/CRM

IVR

Grid Analytics

External Communications

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 55

The lifecycle of an outage


1

Planning
4

Repair +
Closeout

Forecast, plan and prepare


resources with full visibility
and scenario-based
planning

OLM

Compliance, reporting
and review helps build
plan for next outage

Assessment +
Restoration
Isolate, auto restore , deploy
right crew to safely and
efficiently restore remaining
customers while keeping
stakeholders informed
Slide 56

Prediction +
Preparation
Schedule and prioritize
resources and keep
stakeholders informed

ABB
July 24, 2015

Outage Lifecycle Management


Storm Preparedness
Planning

Prepare

Projection model for impeding storm


Assess resource needs and location
Prepare for mutual assistance call outs and on-boarding

Library of storm models


What-if analysis
Customer notification preferences
Asset Health Solution enabled asset review

Assess &
Restore

Closeout

Post event analysis and reports to identify crew work, outage areas
and issues
Build data for future preparation, planning and grid hardening tasks

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 57

Damage Assessment and Outage Analysis


Enable self-healing whenever possible
Prioritize work and dispatch crew
Notify stakeholder

ABB Outage Lifecycle Management & Grid Optimization Solution


Data Historian & Business Analytics
Mobile Workforce
Management

Asset Health Center

DRMS &
DERMS

Asset & Work


Management

Advanced Distribution Management System

IT/OT Convergence

Common Operator Graphical User Interface

OMS Applications
Trouble Call Management
Outage Analysis
Operations Management
Crew Management
Referral Work Orders
Switch Order Management

DMS Applications

Load Flow Analysis


Short Circuit Analysis
Fault Detection and Location
Automated Switching
Overload Reduction Switching
Volt/VAR Optimization

Common Network Model and Training Simulator

Data Acquisition
SCADA
Monitoring & Event Processing
Supervisory Control & Interlocking
Data Archiving

Calculation & Reports


Human Machine Interaction
Inter-Center Communication

Communication Front-Ends (Protocol Conversion)

Communication Infrastructure
Field Devices DA Devices, Sensors and DER
ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 58

Enterprise IT
Systems

IVR
AMI/MDM
GIS
AVL

CIS

Enterprise
Integration

Storm Preparedness
Asset Health - Risk of Failure and Criticality

Location

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 59

Uses all available real-time and


historical data on assets

Online monitoring/sensors

SCADA/historian

Inspections and testing

Work orders

Risk of failure and criticality is


continuously assessed

Current picture of asset health


always available especially during
storm planning and preparation

Drives optimal storm planning and


maintenance decisions

Storm Preparedness & Recovery


Advanced Distribution Management System
Assess
System State

Operational
Preparedness

System
Reliability

System
Restoration

System
Analysis
Reliability
Improvement

Simulation
Case Studies

Real-Time
Analysis

FLISR

Restoration
Switching

System
Planning

Outage
Analysis

Load Transfer

Crew
Dispatch

Validate and
plan system
control actions

Save simulation
for contingency
planning

Balance load

Prepare switch
order template

Improve grid
resiliency

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 60

Outage
prediction and
ETR generation
Real-time power
flow analysis to
improve
confidence in
Switching
decisions

Fault Location
calculation

Restoration
Switching Plans

Self-healing
Automatic
Switching

ETR Updates

Cold-load Pickup

Manage field
activities

Normalize feeder
configuration

Customer
Notification

Minimize outage
impact

Prepare system
planning and
reliability
enhancement
studies

Compare actual
operational actions
against simulated
scenario

Storm Recovery
Damage Assessment & ETR
Assessment Information
ID: 32
Area: West

Lat, Long: 41.876789, 71.3996124


Date Assessed: 08/26/13 3:04
PM

Assessment Details
Assessor Name: Tom Hill
Hazard Level: High
Equipment: Poles / Lines
Customers: 5
Critical: 1
Emergency Onsite: Yes
Work: Replace 3 poles.
Move lines.

ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 61

Click here to enlarge

Storm Recovery
Outage Communication

Source:

ABB
July 24, 2015

ComEd

Slide 62

Provide accurate and consistent and


timely outage communications to
internal and external stakeholders

Increase customer satisfaction

Increase situational awareness

Support multiple communications


channels (text, smartphone, web, etc.)

Storm Preparedness & Recovery


Outage Lifecycle Management Benefits
Same tools to be followed in blue sky days and major
events

Improves situational awareness, in the control room, out


in the field and across the organization
Improved resource planning that saves time and money

Common data across platform ensures accurate data is


communicated to stakeholder and customers
Ensure compliance with regulatory requirements with
full audit trail throughout the event.
Reduced outage duration and improved reliability
leading to improved customer satisfaction
ABB
July 24, 2015

Slide 63

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