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# B.E./B.Tech.

## Degree Examinations, November/December 2010

Regulations 2008
Fourth Semester
Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
EC2252 Communication Theory
( Common to PTEC 2252 Communication Theory for B.E.(Part
-Time)
Third Semester ECE - Regulations 2009)
Time: Three Hours Maximum: 100 Marks
Answer ALL Questions
Part A - (10 x 2 = 20 Marks)
1. How many AM broadcast stations can be accommodated in a
100 kHz bandwidth
if the highest frequency modulating a carrier is 5 kHz?
2. State the applications of FDM.
3. Illustrate the relationship between FM and PM, with block
diagrams.
4. Compare the transmission bandwidth required for
Narrowband FM and Wide band FM.
5. Define a random variable. Specify the sample space and the
random variable for a coin tossing experiment.
6. What is white noise? Give its characteristics.
7. Define threshold effect in AM receiver.
8. Define pre-emphasis and de-emphasis.
9. A source generates 3 messages with probability 0.5, 0.25,
0.25. Calculate source entropy.
10. Define Rate Bandwidth and Bandwidth efficiency.
Part B - (5 x 16 = 80 Marks)
11. (a) (i) With the help of a neat diagram, explain the
generation of DSB-SC using Balanced modulator. (8)
(ii) Write about the coherent detection method in detail for
DSB-SC and SSB-SC. What happens when there is phase
mismatch? (8)
OR
11. (b) (i) Explain the concept of Frequency Translation. (4)
(ii) With aid of block diagram explain the principle of FDM. (8)
(iii) Illustrate the formation of Basic group and super group. (4)
12. (a) (i) Define frequency modulation. Draw the FM waveform.
Derive an expression for single tone frequency modulation.
(2 + 2 + 6)

## (ii) Compare Narrowband and Wideband FM. (6)

OR
12. (b) (i) A 20 MHz is frequency modulated by a sinusoidal
signal such that the maximum frequency deviation is 100 kHz.
Determine the modulation index
and approximate bandwidth of the FM signal for the following
modulating
signal frequencies,
(1) 1 kHz (2) 100 kHz and (3) 500 kHz. (8)
(ii) Derive the time domain expressions of FM and PM signals.
(8)
13. (a) (i) List the different types of random process and give
the definitions. (10)
(ii) Write short notes on shot noise. (6)
OR
13. (b) (i) A mixer stage has a noise figure of 20 dB and this i s
preceded by an
amplifier that has a noise figure of 9 dB and an available power
gain of 15
dB. Calculate the overall noise figure referred to the input. (8)
(ii) A receiver has a noise figure of 12 dB and it is fed by a low
noise amplifier
that has a gain of 50 dB and a noise temperature of 90 K.
Calculate the
noise temperature of the receiver and the overall noise
temperature of the
receiving system. Take room temperature as 290 K. (8)
14. (a) Derive the expression for figure of merit of a AM receiver
using envelope detection. What do you infer from the
expression? (16)
OR
14. (b) Define and explain FM Threshold effect. With suitable
diagram, explain
threshold reduction by FMFB demodulator. (16)
15. (a) (i) An Analog signal i s band limited to `B' Hz and
sampled at Nyquist rate.
The sampled signals are quantized into 4 levels. Each level
represents
one message. The probability of occurrence of the four
messages are
p1=p3=1/8; p2=p4=3/8. Find out information rate of the
source. (6)

## (ii) Five source messages are probable to appear as m1 = 0:4,

m2 = 0:15,
m3 = 0:15, m4 = 0:15, m5 = 0:15. Find coding efficiency for (1)
ShanonFano coding, (2) Huffman coding.
(10)
OR
15. (b) (i) Derive the channel capacity for Binary Symmetric
channel.
(6)
(ii) Derive the channel capacity for band limited, power limited
Gaussian
Channel. (10)
B.E./B.Tech.Degree Examinations,Apr/May 2010
Regulations 2008
Fourth Semester
Electronics and Communication Engineering
EC2252 Communication Theory
Time: Three Hours Maximum: 100 Marks
Answer ALL Questions
Part A - (10 x 2 = 20 Marks)
1. How many AM broadcast stations can be accommodated in a
100 kHz bandwidth
if the highest frequency modulating a carrier i s 5 kHz?
2. What are the causes of linear distortion?
3. Draw the block diagram of a method for generating a
narrowband FM signal.
4. A carrier wave of frequency 100 MHz i s frequency
modulated by a signal
20 sin(200 103t):
What is bandwidth of FM signal if the frequency sensitivity of
the modulation i s
25kHz=V .
5. When i s a random process called deterministic?
6. A receiver connected to an antenna of resistance of 50 has
an equivalent noise
resistance of 30. Find the receiver noise gure.
7. What are the characteristics of superheterodyne receivers?
8. What are the methods to improve FM threshold reduction?
9. Dene entropy function.
10. Dene Rate Bandwidth and Bandwidth eciency.

Part B - (5 x 16 = 80 Marks)
11. (a) (i) Draw an envelope detector circuit used for
demodulation of AM and explain its operation. (10)
(ii) How SSB can be generated using Weaver's method?
Illustrate with a neat block diagram. (6)
OR
11. (b) (i) Discuss in detail about frequency translation and
frequency division multiplexing technique with diagrams. (10)
(ii) Compare Amplitude Modulation and Frequency Modulation.
(6)
12. (a) (i) Using suitable Mathematical analysis show that FM
modulation produces infinite sideband. Also deduce an
expression for the frequency modulated output and its
frequency spectrum. (10)
(ii) How can you generate an FM from PM and PM from FM? (6)
OR
12. (b) (i) A 20 MHz i s frequency modulated by a sinusoidal
signal such that the maximum frequency deviation is 100 kHz.
Determine the modulation index and approximate bandwidth of
the FM signal for the following modulating signal frequencies,
(1) 1 kHz (2) 100 kHz and (3) 500 kHz. (8)
(ii) Derive the time domain expressions of FM and PM signals.
(8)
13. (a) (i) Give a random process, X(t) = Acos(!t+), where A
and ! are constants and is a uniform random variable. Show
that X(t) is ergodic in both mean and autocorrelation. (8)
(ii) Write a short note on shot noise and also explain about
power spectral
density of shot noise. (8)
OR
13. (b) Write the details about narrow band noise and the
properties of quadrature components of narrowband noise. (16)
14. (a) Derive an expression for SNR at input (SNRc) and output
of (SNRo) of a coherent detector. (16)
OR
14. (b) (i) Explain pre-emphasis and De-emphasis in detail. (10)
(ii) Compare the performances of AM and FM systems. (6)

15. (a) (i) Find the code words for ve symbols of the alphabet
of a discrete memoryless source with probability f0.4, 0.2, 0.2,
0.1, 0.1g, using Huffman coding and determine the source
entropy and average code word length. (10)
(ii) Discuss the source coding theorem. (6)
OR
15. (b) (i) Derive the channel capacity of a continuous band
limited white Gaussian noise channel. (10)
(ii) Discuss about rate distortion theory. (6)