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You are on page 1of 23

2015

Title: Linear

Programming

Student: Chin Pei Foo

Class: 5N

Page | 1

Content

Index

Title

Content

Pierre de Fermat

Definition

Method of quadratic equation

Sheep farming

Box

Rush Hours

Linear Programming

Daily life example of LP

Further exploration

Graph

Cabinet

Conclusion

Page

1

2

3

4

5

8

9

10

12

14

16

17

18

21

Pierre de Fermat

Page | 2

January 1665) was a French lawyer at the Parlement of Toulouse, France,

and a mathematician who is given credit for early developments that led

to infinitesimal calculus, including his technique of adequality. In

particular, he is recognized for his discovery of an original method of

finding the greatest and the smallest ordinates of curved lines, which is

analogous to that of the differential calculus, then unknown, and his

research into number theory. He made notable contributions to analytic

geometry, probability, and optics. He is best known for Fermat's Last

Theorem, which he described in a note at the margin of a copy of

Diophantus' Arithmetica.

Pierre de Fermat developed the technique of adequality (adaequalitas in Latin) to calculate

maxima and minima of functions, tangents to curves, area, center of mass, least action, and

other problems in mathematical analysis. According to Andr Weil, Fermat "introduces the

technical term adaequalitas, adaequare, etc., which he says he has borrowed from

Diophantus. As Diophantus V.11 shows, it means an approximate equality, and this is indeed

how Fermat explains the word in one of his later writings." (Weil 1973).[1] Diophantus coined

the word (parisots) to refer to an approximate equality.[2] Claude Gaspard Bachet

de Mziriac translated Diophantus's Greek word into Latin as adaequalitas.[citation needed] Paul

Tannery's French translation of Fermats Latin treatises on maxima and minima used the

words adquation and adgaler.[citation needed]

Fermat used adequality first to find maxima of functions, and then adapted it to find tangent

lines to curves.

To find the maximum of a term

and

and after doing algebra he could cancel out a factor of and then discard any

remaining terms involving To illustrate the method by Fermat's own example, consider the

problem of finding the maximum of

. Fermat adequated

with

to

Removing the terms that contained Fermat arrived at the desired result that the maximum

occurred when

Fermat also used his principle to give a mathematical derivation of Snell's laws of refraction

directly from the principle that light takes the quickest path

Page | 3

Definiti

on

ii)Global maximum

A global maximum, also known as

an absolute maximum , the

largest overall value of a set ,

function , etc , over its entire

range

Global minimum

A global minimum , also known as

an absolute minimum , is the

smallest overall value of a set ,

function , etc , over its entire

range .

a)i)mathematical

optimization

An act, process or

methodology of making

something ( as a design ,

system , or decision ) as fully

perfect , functional , or

specifically : the

mathematical procedure ( as

finding the maximum of a

function

It is the least value that locates

within a set of points which may or

may not be global minium and it is

not the lowest value in the entire

set. It can also be termed a

Relative Minimum

Local Maximum

It can also be expressed as

Relative Maximum . It is a

greatest value in a set of points but

not hihest when compared to all

values in a set . The set of points

can be global maximum

Page | 4

Page | 5

minimum value. It's either one or the other, you're not going to find

both. The maximum or minimum value of a quadratic function occurs at

its vertex.

For y = ax2 + bx + c,

(c - b2/4a) gives the y-value (or the value of the function) at its vertex.

vertex will be minimum value

vertex will be maximum value

otherwise we woudnt be dealing

with a quadratic equation

Example

f(x)

F(x)=x^2+x+1

A=1 b=1 c=1

a>0 , therefore y is a minimum value

ymin=c-b^2/2a

Ymin

ymin=1-1^2/2

ymin=3/4

Page | 6

is in the form

y = a(x-h)22 + k

For y = a(x-h)2

+ k,

k is the value

of the

function at its

vertex.

k gives us the

maximum or

minimum value

of the quadratic

accordingly as

a is negative or

positive

respectively.

3)Using

differentiation

when the

quadratic is in

the form

y = ax^2 +

bx + c

1

1)Differentiat

e y with

respect to x.

dy/dx = 2ax +

b

2)Determine

the

differentiation

point values

in terms of

dy/dx.

3)Substitute

this value of x

into y to get

the

minimum/max

imum point.

Other

metho

ds

Page | 7

Example

Method 2

F(x)=x^2+x+1

F(x)=(x-1/2)^2-1/4+z

F(x)=(x-1/2)^2+3/4

Minimum value =3/4

Method3

F(x)=x^2+x+1

Dy/dx=2ax+b

Dy/Dx=2X+1

Dy/Dx=0 (because minimum value gradient = 0)

2X+1=0

X=1/2

Substitute x into equation

Y=3/4

Conclusion

I never know there are so many ways to find the maximum value of a

quadratic equation especially the differentiate part . It is happy to find the

more uses of differentiating . In these 3 methods , they are equally useful ,

I may want to try to use the differentiating method because it could help

me master differentiate topic .

Page | 8

Part 2(a)

y

Length ,x

Width ,y

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

47.5

45

42.5

40

37.5

35

32.5

30

27.5

25

22.5

20

17.5

15

12.5

10

7.5

5

2.5

0

Perimeter(2X+4

y)

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

200

Area , m^2

237.5

450

637.5

800

937.5

1050

1137.5

1200

1237.5

1250

1237.5

1200

1137.5

1050

937.5

800

637.5

450

237.5

0

From this table , we can see dimension that can maximize the barn is 50 m x 25

m which gives total area of 1250 m

Or

2X + 4 y = 200

-X + 50

Y=25

Y=(200 2 X ) / 4

-X + 50

A= XY

(1)

=((200 2 X ) / 4 ) X

dy/dx=

0=

= ( -2X^2 + 200X ) / 4

X=50

= - X^2 +50X

sub x

Page | 9

b)

h

30-

30-2h

= (30-2h) x (30-2h) x h

= h(4h^2 120h + 1900)

= 4h ^3 120 h^ 2 + 900 h

Differentiate the volume

Dv/Dh = 12 h ^2 240 h + 900

Let Dv/ Dh = 0

12 h ^2 240 h + 900=0

H^2-20 h + 75 = 0

(h-15) ( h 5) = 0

H = 15 ( rejected ) h =5 ( accepted )

Volume

Substitute h = 5 into V = = 4h ^3 120 h^ 2 + 900 h

V=4(5)^3-120(5)^2 + 900 (5)

V max = 2000 cm ^ 3

Page | 10

Part 3

P(t)=-1800 cos ( n/6 x t) + 1800

P(t) = visitor , t= time

1.graph function of p(t)

t

P(t

)

093

0

0

0

103

0

1

241.

2

113

0

2

900

123

0

3

180

0

133

0

4

270

0

143

0

5

335

9

153

0

6

360

0

163

0

7

335

8

173

0

8

269

9

183

0

9

179

9

193

0

10

899

203

0

11

240

213

0

12

0

223

0

13

242

233

0

14

901

4000

3500

3000

2500

P(t)

2000

1500

1000

500

0

0

10

12

14

16

Hours

Page | 11

003

0

15

180

2

II)The peak hour reach at 1530 / 3.30 p.m , number of visitor on that hour

are 3600 visitor

P(10) = -1800 cos ( n/6 x 10 ) + 1800

P(10) = 900 Visitor

IV)P(t) = 2570

-1800 cos ( n/6 x T ) + 1800 = 2570

-1800 cos ( n /6 x T) = 770

Cos ( n/6 x T) = -77/180

n/6 x T = 2

T=2x6/n

T = 3.84 hours

3.84 hours = 3 hour + ( 0.84 x 60)

=3 hour 50 min

0930 + 3 hour 50 min = 1320

Page | 12

Linear programming

Linear programming (LP; also called linear optimization) is a method to achieve the best

outcome (such as maximum profit or lowest cost) in a mathematical model whose

requirements are represented by linear relationships. Linear programming is a special case of

mathematical programming (mathematical optimization).

More formally, linear programming is a technique for the optimization of a linear objective

function, subject to linear equality and linear inequality constraints. Its feasible region is a

convex polytope, which is a set defined as the intersection of finitely many half spaces, each

of which is defined by a linear inequality. Its objective function is a real-valued affine

function defined on this polyhedron. A linear programming algorithm finds a point in the

polyhedron where this function has the smallest (or largest) value if such a point exists.

Linear programs are problems that can be expressed in canonical form:

where x represents the vector of variables (to be determined), c and b are vectors of (known)

coefficients, A is a (known) matrix of coefficients, and

is the matrix transpose. The

expression to be maximized or minimized is called the objective function (cTx in this case).

The inequalities Ax b and x 0 are the constraints which specify a convex polytope over

which the objective function is to be optimized. In this context, two vectors are comparable

when they have the same dimensions. If every entry in the first is less-than or equal-to the

corresponding entry in the second then we can say the first vector is less-than or equal-to the

second vector.

Linear programming can be applied to various fields of study. It is used in business and

economics, but can also be utilized for some engineering problems. Industries that use linear

programming models include transportation, energy, telecommunications, and manufacturing.

It has proved useful in modeling diverse types of problems in planning, routing, scheduling,

assignment, and design.

Page | 13

History

The problem of solving a system of linear inequalities dates back at least as far as Fourier,

who in 1827 published a method for solving them,[1] and after whom the method of Fourier

Motzkin elimination is named.

The first linear programming formulation of a problem that is equivalent to the general linear

programming problem was given by Leonid Kantorovich in 1939, who also proposed a

method for solving it.[2] He developed it during World War II as a way to plan expenditures

and returns so as to reduce costs to the army and increase losses incurred by the enemy.

About the same time as Kantorovich, the Dutch-American economist T. C. Koopmans

formulated classical economic problems as linear programs. Kantorovich and Koopmans later

shared the 1975 Nobel prize in economics.[1] In 1941, Frank Lauren Hitchcock also

formulated transportation problems as linear programs and gave a solution very similar to the

later Simplex method;[2] Hitchcock had died in 1957 and the Nobel prize is not awarded

posthumously.

During 1946-1947, George B. Dantzig independently developed general linear programming

formulation to use for planning problems in US Air Force. In 1947, Dantzig also invented the

simplex method that for the first time efficiently tackled the linear programming problem in

most cases. When Dantzig arranged meeting with John von Neumann to discuss his Simplex

method, Neumann immediately conjectured the theory of duality by realizing that the

problem he had been working in game theory was equivalent. Dantzig provided formal proof

in an unpublished report "A Theorem on Linear Inequalities" on January 5, 1948.[3] Postwar,

many industries found its use in their daily planning.

Dantzig's original example was to find the best assignment of 70 people to 70 jobs. The

computing power required to test all the permutations to select the best assignment is vast;

the number of possible configurations exceeds the number of particles in the observable

universe. However, it takes only a moment to find the optimum solution by posing the

problem as a linear program and applying the simplex algorithm. The theory behind linear

programming drastically reduces the number of possible solutions that must be checked.

The linear-programming problem was first shown to be solvable in polynomial time by

Leonid Khachiyan in 1979, but a larger theoretical and practical breakthrough in the field

came in 1984 when Narendra Karmarkar introduced a new interior-point method for solving

linear-programming problems.

Page | 14

A Diet Problem

Suppose the only foods available in your local store are potatoes and steak. The

decision about how much of each food to buy is to made entirely on dietary and

economic considerations. We have the nutritional and cost information in the

following table:

Per unit

of potatoes

Per unit

of steak

Minimum

requirements

Units of carbohydrates

Units of vitamins

19

Units of proteins

Unit cost

25

50

The problem is to find a diet (a choice of the numbers of units of the two foods) that meets all

minimum nutritional requirements at minimal cost.

a. Formulate the problem in terms of linear inequalities and an objective

function.

b. Solve the problem geometrically.

c. Explain how the 2:1 cost ratio (steak to potatoes) dictates that the solution

must be where you said it is.

d. Find a cost ratio that would move the optimal solution to a different choice

of numbers of food units, but that would still require buying both steak and

potatoes.

e. Find a cost ratio that would dictate buying only one of the two foods in

order to minimize cost.

a) We begin by setting the constraints for the problem. The first constraint represents the

minimum requirement for carbohydrates, which is 8 units per some unknown amount of time.

3 units can be consumed per unit of potatoes and 1 unit can be consumed per unit of steak.

The second constraint represents the minimum requirement for vitamins, which is 19 units. 4

units can be consumed per unit of potatoes and 3 units can be consumed per unit of steak. The

third constraint represents the minimum requirement for proteins, which is 7 units. 1 unit can

be consumed per unit of potatoes and 3 units can be consumed per unit of steak. The fourth

Page | 15

and fifth constraints represent the fact that all feasible solutions must be nonnegative because

we can't buy negative quantities.

constraints:

{3X + Y 8, 4X+ 3Y 19, X+ 3Y 7, X 0, Y 0};

Next we plot the solution set of the inequalities to produce a feasible region of possibilities.

c) The 2:1 cost ratio of steak to potatoes dictates that the solution must be here since, as a

whole, we can see that one unit of steak is slightly less nutritious than one unit of potatoes.

Plus, in the one category where steak beats potatoes in healthiness (proteins), only 7 total

units are necessary. Thus it is easier to fulfill these units without buying a significant amout

of steak. Since steak is more expensive, buying more potatoes to fulfill these nutritional

requirements is more logical.

d) Now we choose a new cost ratio that will move the optimal solution to a different choice

of numbers of food units. Both steak and potatoes will still be purchased, but a different

solution will be found. Let's try a 5:2 cost ratio.

d) Now we choose a new cost ratio that will move the optimal solution to a different choice

of numbers of food units. Both steak and potatoes will still be purchased, but a different

solution will be found. Let's try a 5:2 cost ratio.

d) Now we choose a new cost ratio that will move the optimal solution to a different choice

of numbers of food units. Both steak and potatoes will still be purchased, but a different

solution will be found. Let's try a 5:2 cost ratio.

Thus, the optimal solution for this cost ratio is buying 8 steaks and no potatoes per unit time

to meet the minimum nutritional requirements.

A Blending Problem

Bryant's Pizza, Inc. is a producer of frozen pizza products. The company makes a

net income of $1.00 for each regular pizza and $1.50 for each deluxe pizza

produced. The firm currently has 150 pounds of dough mix and 50 pounds of

topping mix. Each regular pizza uses 1 pound of dough mix and 4 ounces (16

ounces= 1 pound) of topping mix. Each deluxe pizza uses 1 pound of dough mix

and 8 ounces of topping mix. Based on the past demand per week, Bryant can

sell at least 50 regular pizzas and at least 25 deluxe pizzas. The problem is to

determine the number of regular and deluxe pizzas the company should make to

maximize net income. Formulate this problem as an LP problem.

Let X and Y be the number of regular and deluxe pizza, then the LP formulation is:

Page | 16

Maximize X + 1.5 Y

Subject to:

X + Y 150

0.25 X + 0.5 Y 50

X 50

Y 25

X 0, Y 0

b) Further exploration

Cabinet X

Cabinet Y

Cost (RM)

100

200

Space(M^2)

0.6

0.8

Volume ( M^2)

0.8

1.2

X:2

Y:3

X/Y 2/3

Y 3 /2 X

X + 2Y 14

Page | 17

3X + 4Y 36

Graph

Page | 18

Page | 19

We need to find the value of x and y that maximize the space of cabinet

First method = simultaneous equation

Let x + 2y = 14 (2)

X = 14 2y

3x + 14 y = 36 (1)

(3)

3(14 2y) + 4y = 36

x= 14 2 (3)

42 6y + 4y = 36

x= 8

2y = 6

Y =3

(4)

Area = 0.8(8) + 1.2 (3)

= 10 m^3

Page | 20

Area = 0.8(8) + 1.2 (3) = 10 m^3

III) Area = 0.6 X + 0.8 Y

Page | 21

Volume = 0.8 x + 1.2 y

Combination

Area(m^2)

Volume ( m^2)

Cost (RM)

6.4

9.2

1400

6.2

8.8

1300

6.8

9.6

1400

6.6

9.2

1300

7.2

10.0

1400

7.0

9.6

1300

the cost RM 1400 and it also maximize the area 7.2m ^ 2 and volume 10

m ^ 3 with high number of combination of cabinet 11

Conclusion

Page | 22

I learn a lot from doing this project especially in linear programming . After

learning linear programming , I learnt there are actually ways to help in

deciding my daily option . Linear programming could help me decide the

best choice under the best condition . I also learnt that nowadays there

are technology called graphic calculator that can help generate a graph by

just typing some few equation . If I did not do this project , I will never

know the existence of this fascinating creation . It could help me solve

some graphic question in both math and add maths .I also learned the

history and hard works of mathematician in investigating to find all these ways to

solve question. Hence , I find the usefulness of internet. A lot of information can

be found through internet. In this project , I feel like I am an investigator to find

treasure on the internet .

Resource

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pierre_de_Fermat

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adequality

http://www.meta-calculator.com/online/

http://www.wikihow.com/Find-the-Maximum-or-Minimum-Value-of-a-QuadraticFunction-Easily

http://home.ubalt.edu/ntsbarsh/opre640a/partviii.htm#rdietproblem

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Linear_programming

Page | 23

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