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1.

0 INTRODUCTION

A country that is advanced, depending on the rapid development. With the


development, the need for road infrastructure as the road is a link between one place to
another place. When the situation deteriorated pavement at a certain point, it must be repaired
in order to maintain service levels. The type of maintenance required depends on the levels of
distress and damage caused by road pavement. To overcome these problems, various efforts
undertaken such studies on bituminous materials with the aim of ensuring the quality of
construction of roads is guaranteed and can reduce maintenance costs.

Road pavement damage usually occurs due to traffic load, temperature, moisture content
or the movement of the sub grade and it can be divided into six categories: pavement crack,
surface deformation, surface defects, edge defects, pothole and patch. In overcome the
problem of damage to the road paving, several methods have been introduced to facilitate the
implementation of the parties involved. More efficient maintenance measures will be chosen
to ensure the comfort and safety to the user and to ensure a benefit in the management.

In addition, the failure of the pavement can be classified according to survey any damage
which occurs at the site are classified according to the damage that can be viewed. The failure
are determine and can record in the condition survey data sheet. Research conducted to
determine the Pavement Condition Index (PCI) on the road, whether it is in a nice rating or
not. Numerical rating of the pavement condition that ranges from 0 to 100, with 0 being the
worst possible condition and 100 being the best possible condition.

2.0 BACKGROUND OF STUDY

Site selection for this project in Jalan Parit Sempadan Laut along 200 meters of where
along the road has damages such as alligator cracking, bleeding, corrugation and others. The
road pavement damage can be classified into two types, function damage and structural
damage where the damage occurred due to the increasing traffic load through the area, the
environment and road pavement layer thickness itself.

Furthermore, the function of pavement which like we knew are providing a flat
surface for the movement of vehicles that are more comfortable and safe, receive and
distribute the load of the vehicle below, other than that protect the sub grade from being
exposed to the weather. Studies conducted on the road to investigate the road pavement index
is in good condition or not, and this damage can be done by minor or major maintenance.

3.0 OBJECTIVE
1. Find out the type of damage to the road pavement
2. Identify the extent of damage through counting
3. Find out method of repair on the pavement

4.0 METHODOLOGY
4.1 Materials And Equipment
1. Hand Odometer Wheel
2. Traffic Cone
3. Measuring Tape
4. Survey data sheet

4.2 Method Measurement


1. Choose a suitable site and have damage.
2. Put traffic cone for easy surveying and minimize the traffic when work is in
progress.
3. Next, start the measurement using the hand wheel odometer 200 meters long and
marking every 100 meters.
4. Any types of damage is measured by length, width, depth, diameter and area and
use hand odometer wheel and measuring tape while measure.
5. Make bookkeeping and record the data each types of damage based on the degree
of damage that is low, medium and high.

4.3 Method Of Classification Of Failure


Road pavement damage is :
1. Alligator cracking
Alligator or fatigue cracking is a series of interconnecting cracks caused by
fatigue failure of the asphalt concrete surface under repeated traffic loading such
as wheel paths. Alligator cracking is measured in square meters ( length x width ).
2. Bleeding
Bleeding is a film of bituminous material on the pavement surface that creates a
shiny, glass like, reflecting surface that usually become quite sticky and its caused
by excessive asphaltic tars. Bleeding is measure in square meters of surface area
( length x width ).

3. Corrugation
Corrugation is regular transverse undulations, closely spaced alternate valleys and
crests with wave lengths. This type of distress usually caused by traffic action
combined with an unstable pavement surface

4. Edge cracking
Edge defects occur along the interface of flexible pavement and the shoulder, and
are most significant where the shoulder is unsealed.

5. Patching and Utility Cut Patching


A patch is an area of pavement that has been replaced with new material to repair
the existing pavement and the measurement in m of surface area.

6. Polished Aggregate
This distress is caused by repeated traffic application when the aggregate in the
surface become smooth, adhesion with vertical tires is considerable reduce. Polish
aggregate is measure m2 of surface area.

7. Potholes
Pothole is a bowl-shaped cavity in the pavement surface resulting from the loss of
wearing course and binder course materials. Measuring the pothole by counting
the number.

8. Slippage Cracking

Slippage cracking are crescent or half-moon shaped cracks, usually transverse to


the direction of travel and is measure m2 of surface area.

5.0 CALCULATION OF PAVEMENT CONDITION INDEX (PCI)


1. 1 Add up the total quantity of each distress type at each severity level, and record them
in the Total Severities section. For example, Fig. 4 shows five entries for the
Distress Type 1, Alligator Cracking: 5L, 4L, 4L, 8H, and 6H. The distress at each
2
severity level is summed and entered in the Total Severity section as 13 ft

m2 ) of low severity and 14 ft 2

(1.2

2
(1.3 m ) of medium severity. The units for the

quantities may be either in square feet (square meters), linear feet (meters), or number
of occurrences, depending on the distress type.
2. Divide the total quantity of each distress type at each severity level from1 by the total
area of the sample unit and multiply by 100 to obtain the percent density of each
distress type and severity.
3. Determine the deduct value (DV) for each distress type and severity level combination
from the distress deduct value curves in Appendix X3.
4. Determine the maximum corrected deduct value (CDV).
The procedure for determining maximum CDV from individual DVs is identical for both AC
and PCC pavement types.
5. The following procedure must be used to determine the maximum CDV.
i.

9.5.1 If none or only one individual deduct value is greater than two, the total
value is used in place of the maximum CDV in determining the PCI; otherwise,

ii.

maximum CDV must be determined using the procedure described at below.


List the individual deduct values in descending order. For example, in Fig. 4 this

iii.

will be 25.1, 23.4, 17.9, 11.2, 7.9, 7.5, 6.9, and 5.3.
Determine the allowable number of deducts, m, from Fig. 5, or using the following
formula (see Eq 4):

( 989 ) (100HDV ) 10 eq . 4

m=1+

Fig.4 example of a Flexible Pavement Survey Data Sheet

Fig.5 Adjustment of Number of Deduct Values

Where:
m = allowable number of deducts including fractions (must be less than or equal to ten), and
HDV = highest individual deduct value. (For the example in Fig. 4, m= 1 + (9/98)(100-25.1)
= 7.9).
iv.

The number of individual deduct values is reduced to the m largest deduct values,
including the fractional part. For the example in Fig. 6, the values are 25.1, 23.4,
17.9, 11.2, 7.9, 7.5, 6.9, and 4.8 (the 4.8 is obtained by multiplying 5.3 by (7.9 7 =

v.

0.9)). If less than m deduct values are available, all of the deduct values are used.
Determine maximum CDV iteratively, as shown in Fig. 6.
a. Determine total deduct value by summing individual deduct values. The total
deduct value is obtained by adding the individual deduct values in 9.5.4, that
is, 104.7.
b. Determine q as the number of deducts with a value greater than 2.0. For
example, in Fig. 6, q=8.
c. Determine the CDV from total deduct value and q by looking up the
appropriate correction curve for AC pavements in Fig. X4.15 in Appendix X3.
d. Reduce the smallest individual deduct value greater than 2.0 to 2.0 and repeat a

to c until q=1
e. Maximum CDV is the largest of the CDVs.
6. Calculate PCI by subtracting the maximum CDV from 100: PCI = 100-max CDV.
7. Fig. 6shows a summary of PCI calculation for the example AC pavement data in Fig.
4. A blank PCI calculation form is included in Fig. 2.

Appendix X3 Alligator Cracking

FIG. X4.15 Railroad Crossing

Fig 6 Calculation of Corrected PCI ValueFlexible Pavement

FIG. 2 Flexible Pavement Condition Survey Data Sheet for Sample Unit

6.0 Analysis data


Pavement condition survey is used as a pavement rating method that is based on visual
inspection of pavement distress. The survey will define the Pavement (PCI) which is
Numerical rating of the pavement condition that range from 0 100, with 0 being the worst
possible condition and 100 being the best possible condition.
The activity of this survey begins with carrying out the inspection for pavement distresses to
the sample unit that has been selected. The measurement of the distress includes its length,
width, depth, diameter and area. The severity of the distresses is when defined according to
low, moderate of high level. Field condition survey sheets are shown in FIG 2 and FIG 6.
6.1 Pavement Condition Index
For the standard procedures in determining the Pavement Condition Index (PCI), refer to the
Standard Practice for Roads and Parking Lots Pavement Condition Index Surveys (ASTM
6433 - 07). Figure below show maintenance activity and time for each level of Service based
on PCI.

JALAN PARIT SEMPADAN LAUT (ASPHALT SURFACED ROAD)


CONDITION SURVEY DATA SHEET
BRANCH: TRAFFIC LABORATORY UTHM
DATE:
SURVEYED BY:
SECTION:
01. Alligator Cracking
(m2)
02. Bleeding (m2)

SAMPLE UNIT: (KM 0.462 0.562)


SAMPLE AREA: 100m x 3.5m = 350 m2
2
06. Depression (m )
11. Patching & Utility
16. Shoving (m2)
2
Cut Patching (m )
07. Edge Cracking (m) 12. Polished Aggregate 17. Slippage Cracking
(m2)
(m2)
08. Joint Reflection
13. Potholes (no.)
18. Swell (m2)
Cracking (m)
09. Lane/Shoulder
14. Railroad Crossing
19. Weathering/
Drop Off (m)
(m2)
Ravelling (m2)
2
10. Longitudinal &
15. Rutting (m )
Transverse Cracking
(m)
DENSITY DEDUCT
QUANTITY
TOTAL
%
VALUE

03. Block Cracking


(m2)
04. Bumps and Sags
(m)
05. Corrugation (m2)
DISTRES
S
SURVEY
01 L

1.8

01 H

1.1
7

3.97

1.13

11

136.
5

136.5

39

79

02 L

15.4

15.4

4.4

05 H

66.3

66.3

18.94

70

07 L

63.8

63.8

63.8

14

11 L

1.14

12

0.57

13 L

0.57

49

13 M

0.29

58

13 H

0.29

80

17 M

1.14

12

SKETCH:

Maximum allowable number of deducts, m


Highest deduct value, HDV = 80
m = 1 + (9/98)(100 HDV)
= 1 + (9/98)(100 79)
= 2.8
Deduct values in descending order: 80, 79, 70, 58, 49, 14, 12, 11, 2, 1, 0
Number of deduct values = 11
Since the maximum allowable number of deducts is 2.8, therefore only the first 2 and 0.8 of
the 3th deduct value are selected, i.e. 80, 79 and 0.8*70 = 56.

Maximum corrected deduct value, CDV


Number of deduct values greater than 2, q = 3
Total deduct value = 80 + 79 + 56 = 215
From Figure X4.20(ASTM D6400 07), CDV = 100
Reduce the smallest individual deduct value to 2 (q is now 2) and determine the CDV.
Repeat until q reaches 1.
No
.
1
2
3

Deduct Values

Total

CDV

80

79

56

251

100

80

79

161

99

80

84

84

Maximum CDV = 100


Determine the Pavement Condition Index
PCI = 100 CDVmax
= 100 100
=0
Based on the rating for PCI value of 100 (FIG. 1 Pavement Condition Index (PCI), Rating
Scale, and Suggested Colors), this section (KM 0.462 0.562) having Level of Service (LOS)
F of pavement is in failed condition and need to reconstruction.

JALAN PARIT SEMPADAN LAUT (ASPHALT SURFACED ROAD)


CONDITION SURVEY DATA SHEET
BRANCH: TRAFFIC LABORATORY
DATE:
UTHM
SURVEYED BY:
SAMPLE UNIT: (KM 0.562 0.662)
SECTION:
SAMPLE AREA: 100m x 3.5m =350 m2
2
01. Alligator
06. Depression (m )
11. Patching & Utility 16. Shoving (m2)
2
Cracking (m )
Cut Patching ((m2)
02. Bleeding (m2)
07. Edge Cracking(m) 12. Polished
17. Slippage Cracking
Aggregate (m2)
(m2)
03. Block Cracking
(m2)
04. Bumps and Sags
(m)
05. Corrugation (m2)

08. Joint Reflection


Cracking (m)
09. Lane/Shoulder
Drop Off (m)
10. Longitudinal &
Transverse
Cracking (m)

DISTRES
S
SURVEY
01 L
01 M
09 L
10 L
10 M
10 H
11 L
12

SKETCH:

13. Potholes (no.)

18. Swell (m2)

14. Railroad Crossing


(m2)
15. Rutting (m2)

19. Weathering/
Ravelling (m2)

TOTAL

DENSIT
Y
%

DEDUCT
VALUE

11.47

11.47

3.27

22

10.2

10.2

2.91

33

43.6

43.6

16

9.6

9.6

9.6

17

6.3

6.3

6.3

25

7.5

7.5

7.5

55

19.5

19.5

5.57

11

147.2
5

147.25

42.07

10

QUANTITY

40.3

3.3

Maximum allowable number of deducts, m


Highest deduct value, HDV = 55
m = 1 + (9/98)(100 HDV)
= 1 + (9/98)(100 55)
= 5.1
Deduct values in descending order: 55, 33, 25, 22, 17, 16, 11, 10
Number of deduct values = 8
Since the maximum allowable number of deducts is 5.6, therefore only the first 5 and 0.1 of
the 6th deduct value are selected, i.e. 55, 33, 25, 22, 17 and 0.1*16 = 1.6.
Maximum corrected deduct value, CDV
Number of deduct values greater than 2, q = 6
Total deduct value = 55 + 33 + 25 + 22 + 17 + 1.6 = 153.6
From Figure X4.20(ASTM D6400 07), CDV = 73
Reduce the smallest individual deduct value to 2 (q is now 5) and determine the CDV.
Repeat until q reaches 1.
No
.
1
2
3
4
5
6

Deduct Values
55
55
55
55
55
55

33
33
33
33
33
2

25
25
25
25
2
2

22
22
22
2
2
2

17
17
2
2
2
2

1.6
2
2
2
2
2

Total

CDV

153.6
154
139
119
96
65

6
5
4
3
2
1

73
79
78
73
68
64

Maximum CDV = 79
Determine the Pavement Condition Index
PCI = 100 CDVmax
= 100 79
= 21
Based on the rating for PCI value of 21 (FIG. 1 Pavement Condition Index (PCI), Rating
Scale, and Suggested Colours), this section (KM 0.562 0.662) having Level of Service
(LOS) F of pavement is in failed condition and need to reconstruction.

7.0 Estimation of Construction Cost

8.0 CONCLUSION

Results of the study have been made and there are various problems that occur on
Jalan Parit Sempadan Laut. This pavement damage can interruptions to consumer. Damage
and failure contributed to the disorder and lead to consumer concerns. Among the most
common failure is identified malfunction and failure of the structure. Therefore, maintenance
work should be carried out.

From the data record that have been taken there are various types of damage that
involves damage to the pavement like alligator cracking, edge cracking and so on. Data were
collected and analyzed at the level or index on the road. Furthermore, the calculations have
been made along 200 meters of the damage and the extent of damage is proved that during the
0 to 100 meter rating for PCI section (KM 0462-0562) having Level of Service (LOS) F of
pavement is in failed condition and need to reconstruction , While, on the road 100 meter to
200 meter rating for PCI section (KM 0562-0662) having Level of Service (LOS) F of
pavement is in failed condition and need to reconstruction. Then along Jalan Parit Sempadan
Laut about 200 meters requires the reconstruction of the road pavement. The construction cost
estimation has been made along the 200 meters of the road. The reconstruction of the road
along the 200 meter estimated total of RM 31993.00 and including 6% GST is RM 33,912.58.

Finally, the construction of the highway is a road structure that largely contributed to
human comfort where it is frequently used by all users. Therefore, the parties involved and the
authorities should always notice the quality of the construction of rural roads or even roads to
user satisfaction can be achieved.

9.0 REFERENCE

1. ASTM D6433 - Standard practice for Roads and Parking Lots Pavement Condition
Index Surveys.
2. JKR 20709-2060-92 A Guide To The Visual Assessment of Flexible Pavement Surface
Conditions.