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A new approach based on least square fit method is proposed to estimate damping. Noise resistance
of the proposed method and half-power bandwidth method are analyzed and compared by plenty of simulations
with different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The proposed method is more accurate and stable than half-power
bandwidth method in all SNRs, especially when the noise level is high. If SNR 30dB , the proposed method
should be used for damping estimation instead of half-power bandwidth method. A damping estimation
experiment is carried out with both methods, and the results indicate and verify that there is smaller variability
for the proposed method.

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2015

American Journal of Engineering Research (AJER)

e-ISSN: 2320-0847 p-ISSN : 2320-0936

Volume-4, Issue-7, pp-205-209

www.ajer.org

Research Paper

Open Access

Jintao Gu1, Meiping Sheng2

School of Marine Science and Technology, Northwestern Polytechnical University, P. R. China

Abstract: A new approach based on least square fit method is proposed to estimate damping. Noise resistance

of the proposed method and half-power bandwidth method are analyzed and compared by plenty of simulations

with different signal-to-noise ratios (SNR). The proposed method is more accurate and stable than half-power

bandwidth method in all SNRs, especially when the noise level is high. If S N R 3 0 d B , the proposed method

should be used for damping estimation instead of half-power bandwidth method. A damping estimation

experiment is carried out with both methods, and the results indicate and verify that there is smaller variability

for the proposed method.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Since damping is a valuable parameter for resonant response of structures or systems, damping is of

great significance for structural dynamics. It is difficult to obtain damping through a theoretical method so that

the universal way for damping estimates is experimental investigation[1,2]. Half-power bandwidth method[3,4],

which calculates resonant damping with frequency bandwidth for vibration energy decreases 3dB and the

resonant frequency, is a widely used approach for damping estimation. Half-power bandwidth method is

introduced as main method for damping estimates in the American test standard ASTM E756-05. Bertha[5]

obtained damping of a system that does not possess real modes with half-power bandwidth method. Guo[6]

improved the half-power bandwidth method and proposed a new method based on integral opinion. Badsar [7]

determined the material damping ratio in shallow soil layers with the half-power bandwidth method.

As the half-power bandwidth method uses only three data points, its accuracy will be affected by the

signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). When some of the three data points are seriously affected by noise, a large error will

appear and cannot be neglected. The aim of this work is to put forward a new method which has high accuracy

and strong noise resistance by using the amplitude of frequency response.

II.

A widely used method, namely half-power bandwidth method, is introduced as follows. The damping

loss factor can be obtained by the quotient of half-power bandwidth and the resonant frequency, as shown in

equation (1). The diagrammatic sketch of the method is shown in Fig. 1.

f0

Half-power

Bandwidth

(1)

f0

w w w. a j e r. o rg

Page 205

2015

The half-power bandwidth method is a classical and widely used method, but there is a fatal short

coming that if the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is not high enough. It is difficult to recognize the half-power

bandwidth, seen in Fig. 2.

Dimensionless amplitude

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.95

1

Dimensionless frequency

1.05

It can be seen in Fig. 2 that the half-power bandwidth is hard to decide because there are more than two

frequencies related to half-power response.

III.

The parameter of damping is often estimated with data near the resonant frequency. The widely used

half-power bandwidth method for damping investigation only uses three data points of frequency response so

that it will cause a large error when the experimental data is affected by noise. It is expected to obtain a more

accurate damping if more data points of frequency function are used. Therefore, a new approach based on least

square fit method is proposed in which a numbers of data points near resonant frequency are used.

The amplitude of frequency function is

F K

2

0

(2)

where F is excitation force, K the stiffness, 0 natural circle frequency, and the loss factor.

It is obvious that the maximum amplitude can be obtained

H

m ax

(3)

H

H =

=

H

(4)

2

1 2

0

m ax

1

2

2

1

=1 2 1 2

0

(5)

Make that

x 1 2

0

(6)

and

y f

x ,

(7)

response. The residual error is defined as

w w w. a j e r. o rg

1, 2 ,

,n

Page 206

n

e r r

y i f

x i ,

2015

(8)

i 1

The damping identification can be transferred into getting a proper value of to make the residual

error the most minimum. Gauss-Newton iterative method is used to find the optimal parameter of damping.

Expand f x i , to Taylor series at point of initial value 0 as

f

x i ,

x i , 0

f ' x i , 0

where

df

f ' x i , 0 0

x i ,

0

(9)

n

e r r

y i f

x i , 0

f ' x i , 0 0

i 1

where

x i , 0

g x i , 0 0 , g x i , 0

A A A b

T

where A

g x

y i g x i 0

(10)

i 1

yi yi f

f ' x i , 0

(11)

1

, 0 , g x 2 , 0 ,

, g x n , 0

,

T

y 1 , y 2 , ... , y n .

After 1 is obtained, 0 will be replaced by 1 and repeat the above step to get the estimated value 2

for the second generation. The iteration will be finished if the difference between the neighbor generations of

is small enough for satisfactory demand. The last generation of is the estimated damping. The experimental

and fitting response are shown in Fig. 3 and damping can be obtained in the fitting process.

Dimensionless amplitude

0.9

0.8

0.7

experimental response

fitting response

0.6

0.5

0.95

1

Dimensionless frequency

1.05

IV.

RESISTANCE TO NOISE

This simulation is conducted to illustrate the noise sensitivity of the proposed methods. A singledegree-of-freedom system is adopted to verify the validity of least square fit method. A comparison is made

between least square fit method and half-power bandwidth method. Gaussian random noise is applied to the

simulated frequency response, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is defined as

S N R 2 0 lo g 1 0

where

s ig n a l

H

H

s ig n a l

n o is e

(12)

is amplitude of noise.

n o is e

simulated on 1000 samples with the SNR in the range from 10 dB to 50 dB. Errors of estimated damping with

the two methods are shown in Fig. 4.

In Fig. 5, each method is tested for 41 noise levels, which is from 10dB to 50dB with 1dB interval,

with 1000 samples in each noise level. The average error is calculated by equation (13).

a v e ra g e e rro r

1

N

i 1

i exact

exact

of samples.

w w w. a j e r. o rg

(13)

is the exact loss factor set in the simulation, N is the number

Page 207

60

60

40

40

20

20

error%

error%

-20

-40

-60

10

20

30

SNR/dB

40

-20

-40

-60

(a)

-80

2015

-80

50

(b)

10

20

30

SNR/dB

40

50

Error%

Fig. 4. Error of the estimated damping versus SNR: (a) proposed method, (b) half-power bandwidth method.

40

Half-power bandwidth

Proposed method

30

20

10

0

10

30

40

50

SNR/dB

Fig. 5. Average error for the two methods

It can be seen in Fig. 4 that identified damping by the two methods are more and more accurate with

the increased SNR. The accuracy of proposed method is more than half-power bandwidth method at all SNRs. It

may also be noticed that there is considerable variability of half-power bandwidth method especially in the

lower SNR.

As seen in Fig. 5, both methods are of satisfied accuracy if S N R 3 0 d B . But if S N R 3 0 d B , error

of half-power bandwidth is much larger than proposed method. It is clear that the proposed method should be

used to estimate damping instead of half-power bandwidth if S N R 3 0 d B

V.

20

EXPERIMENT

as shown in Fig. 6. Fig. 7 is the dimensionless response of the third mode. Fig. 5 is the estimated damping

obtained from six repeat experiment results by the two methods.

Multi-analyzer

Vibration

exciter

Accelerometer

specimen

Electronic amplifier

Power amplifier

Fig. 6. Experimental setup

w w w. a j e r. o rg

Page 208

Normalized Amplitude

2015

1.000

0.100

0.010

0.001

505

510

515

520

525

530

535

540

545

Frequency (Hz)

10-4

5.0

Damping

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0

Half-power

Proposed method

As seen in Fig. 8, it is clear that there is smaller variability for the proposed method than half-power

bandwidth method. Thus, damping estimated by the proposed method is more accurate than half-power

bandwidth method.

VI.

CONCLUSION

A noval method based on least square fit is proposed to estimate damping in this paper. There is smaller

variability for the proposed method than half-power bandwidth method. The proposed method is more accurate

than half-power bandwidth method, especially in the lower SNR circumstances. The proposed method should be

used instead of half-power bandwidth method for damping estimation if S N R 3 0 d B .

REFERENCE

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

[5]

[6]

[7]

O. Guasch. A direct transmissibility formulation for experimental statistical energy analysis with no input power measurements.

Journal of Sound and Vibration, 330(25), 2011, 6223-6236.

M. Rak, M. Ichchou, and J. Holnicki-Szulc. Identification of structural loss factor from spatially distributed measurements on beams

with visoelastic layer. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 310(4), 2008, 801-811.

G. A. Papagiannopoulos, and G. D. Hatzigeorgiou. On the use of the half-power bandwidth method to estimate damping in building

structures. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering, 31(7), 2011, 1075-1079.

P. W. Wang, W. W. Zhong, and J. F. Hsu. Investigation of multi-layer sandwich beams through single degree-of-freedom

transformation. Applied acoustics, 74(4), 2013, 521-525.

B. A. Olmos, and J. M. Roesset. Evaluation of the half-power bandwidth method to estimate damping in systems without real modes.

Earthquake Engineering & Structural Dynamics. 39(14), 2010, 1671-1686.

Z. W. Guo, M. P. Sheng, J. G. Ma, and W. L. Zhang. Damping identification in frequency domain using integral method. Journal of

Sound and Vibration, 338(3), 2015, 237-249.

S. A. Badsar, M. Schevenels, W. Haegeman, and G. Degrande. Determination of the material damping ratio in the soil from SASW

tests using the half-power bandwidth method. Geophysical Journal international, 182(3), 2010, 1493-1508.

w w w. a j e r. o rg

Page 209

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