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T

2T
2
t
x

1. Discretize the following one-dimensional equation


using explicit
scheme, implicit scheme and Crank-Nicholson scheme. Discuss the stability
and accuracy of each approach. (10)
2. Derive the Reynolds average Navier-Stokes equation for an incompressible
fluid flows.
3. Discretize using finite volume method, one dimensional convection-diffusion

u
x



x x

equation
, where
represents any fluid property and u
represents velocity, using (a) central-difference scheme and (b) upwind
scheme. Discuss with suitable example at what situation central-difference
and upwind scheme are applicable.
4. Explain the steps involved for solving Navier-Stokes equations using
fractional-step method?

2T 2T
T

2
2
t
y
x

5. Discretize 2-D unsteady heat conduction equation


, is
thermal diffusivity using ADI scheme and write down the order of accuracy of
the scheme and its stability criteria.
n

Ti , j 2 Ti ,nj Ti 1, 2j 2Ti , j 2 Ti 1, 2j Ti ,nj 1 2Ti ,nj Ti ,nj 1

2
2
t
x
y
2
n

Ti ,nj1 Ti , j 2 Ti 1, 2j 2Ti , j 2 Ti 1, 2j Ti ,nj11 2Ti ,nj1 Ti ,nj11

2
2
t
x
y
2
2
2
O t , x

6. Explain the SIMPLE procedure for solving incompressible fluid flows?


Sequence of operations for SIMPLE algorithm
(i)
Guess the pressure field p*.
(ii)
Solve the momentum equations to obtain u*, v* and w*.
(iii)
Solve the pressure correction equation to obtain p.
(iv)
Calculate p from p = p+ p*.
(v)
Calculate u, v and w from velocity correction formulas.
(vi)
Treat the corrected pressure p as a new guessed pressure p* and
return to step 2, and repeat the whole procedure until a converged
solution is obtained.

7. Explain the advantages of staggered grid over collocated grid. Draw a neat
sketch of u-, v- and p-control volumes and indicate the storage points clearly
for both staggered and collocated grid?
The checker-board pressure yield non-zero pressure gradient terms in
staggered grid arrangement. A further advantage of the staggered grid
arrangement is that it generates velocities at exactly the locations where
they are required for the scalar transport- convection-diffusion-computations.
Hence, no interpolation is needed to calculate velocities at the scalar cell
faces.

Explain the significance of substantial derivative and the physical meaning of divergence
with respect to a moving fluid element.

1. By applying a suitable fundamental physical principle to a flow model, derive the momentum
equation along y direction.
2. Explain the method of elliptic grid generation.
1. Discuss SIMPLE algorithm used to solve incompressible flow problems.
2. Examine using Lax method the stability characteristics of the first order wave equation

u
u
c 0
t
x

where, c is the wave speed, u is the wave amplitude and x, t are spatial

and time parameters, respectively. Comment on the Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy (CFL)


condition.

0
x y
2

3. Transform

the

( x, y )

Laplaces

equation,

x, y

from

( x, y )
and

4. Briefly describe the various errors in numerical computations. (5)

to

),

where