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Solutions Chapter 3

3.1.1

Boundary:

Around both pumps and include the soil at the end of the pipes.
Its an open system.
Its at steady-state except at startup (note system boundary limits fluid), or
if fluid enters, unsteady state.

3.1.2

Either open (flow) or closed (batch) is acceptable if explanation is given


(1)

flow material comes in and out continuously over a suitably long


period of time

(2)

batch material is injected into the system, and then in a short period
of time, a reaction occurs with the system valves closed.

(a)

open if you have to replace water, and water evaporates; otherwise closed

(b)

open

3.1.3

3.1.4

If the overall flows in and out over a time period for several batches are
considered, and the local batches ignore, the process can be treated as continuous.

3.1.5

a) closed
b)open
c)open
d)closed

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Solutions Chapter 3

3.1.6

The system is the radiator.


Open System

Closed System

Steady-State

Unsteady State

a)

b)

c)

X (Before filling)

d)

X (After filling)

X (After filling)

X (Before Filling)

3.1.7

system
contains
ice + H2O

Ice

boundary

boundary
(c)

Unsteady state for any assumptions

b
open
assume water (melted ice) leaves the system
a
flow
b
closed
assume water stays in sytem because the ice and water
a
batch
remain on melting

3.1.8

F1

F
2

unsteady state
open

P
unsteady state
open

steady state
open

(a)

(b)

(c)

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Solutions Chapter 3

3.1.9

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
(f)
(g)
1.
x
x
2.
x
x
____________________________________________________
3.
x
x
4.
Depends on the time period considered
____________________________________________________
5.
x
x
6.
x
x
x
____________________________________________________
7.
x
x

3.1.10

If the overall flows in and out over a time period for several batches are
considered, and the local batches ignore, the process can be treated as continuous.

3.1.11

Basis: 1 minute
Accumulation (kg)

mfinal 0

In (kg)
= 300 + 100

Out (kg)

380

n final = 20 kg
20 kg 60 min
= 1200 kg
min 1 hr

3.1.12

Basis: 600 kg solution


Accumulation (kg)

n final 0

In (kg)
= 100 + 500

Out (kg)

300

n final = 300 kg if no water evaporates in which case less than 300 kg


would remain

33

Solutions Chapter 3

3.1.13

(c)

27.0 g

3.1.14

Based on the process measurements, there are 5,000 lb/h more flow for the
process leaving the heat exchanger than the feed rate to the heat exchanger; therefore, the
material balance for the process fluid does not close. The reason for this discrepancy
could be faulty flow sensor readings or possibly a leak of the condensate or steam into the
process stream.

3.1.15

Basis: Data shown on flowsheet units are MTA


In
2.5 106

Out
404 103
228 103
152 103
101 103
67 103
36 103
100 103
1190 103
2,278 103

mass in does not equal to mass out


Reasons:

(1) Some of the material was burned as fuel


(2) Some of the material formed gases that were exhausted to atmosphere
(such as H2O, CO2).
(3) errors in measurement.
(4) Some process streams are not shown.

34

Solutions Chapter 3

3.1.16

In = 250,000 ton/yr.
In (ton/yr)
250,000

Out = 244,500 ton/yr.


Out (ton/yr)
Combustibles
Combustibles
Polyethylene
Polystyrene
PVC
Acrylonitorile
DB
Phenol
Acetone
Rubber
LPG
Aromatics
Total

3,800
39,500
30,000
5,000
40,000
20,000
8,000
10,000
5,750
10,000
24,000
48,000
244,050

Balance is not exact but very good for an operating plant.

3.1.17

Basis: 1 week
in (tons) = 920 + 0.6 = 920.6
out (tons) = 3.8 + 620 + 0.01 + 0.01 + 0.08 + 1.1 + 275 + 20 = 920
Yes

35

Solutions Chapter 3

3.1.18

The density of the crystalline silicon in the cylinder is 2.4 g/cm3.


Basis: 62 kg silicon
The system is the melt, and there is no generation or consumption. Let mt be the
accumulation.
Accumulation
mt

Input
0

Output
0.5(62 kg)

m t = 31 kg

Let t be the time in minutes to remove one-half of the silicon


2.4 g (17.5cm)2 0.3 cm t min 1
= (62,000 g)
cm3
4
min
2

t = 179min

3.1.19

Basis: 1 hr
Overall material balance (kg): 13,500 + 26,300 ? 39,800
Yes. The balance is satisfied
NaC1 balance: 0.25 (13,500) + 0.05 (26,300) ? 0.118 (39,800)
4690 4696
The balance is closely satisfied but not exactly.
The closure is good for industrial practice.

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Solutions Chapter 3

3.1.20

Basis: 1 hour
The overall material balance is
In (lb)
106,000

Out (lb)
74,000 + 34,000 = 108,000

The error in the overall material balance is 2000 lb/h or 1.9%; therefore, the overall
material balance is within the expected error for industrial flow sensors.
Propylene balance:

0.7 106,000 ? (0.997) (74,000) + (0.1) (34,000)


74,200 ? 73,778 + 3,400 = 77,178 (3.8% error)

Propane balance:

0.4 106,000 ? (0.003) (74,000) + (0.9) (34,000)


31,800 ? 222 + 30,600 = 30,622 (3.8% error)

Note that the relative error for the component balances are twice as large as the relative
error for the overall material balance, indicating that there is additional error in the
composition measurements used for the component balances.

3.1.21

Basis: 100 kg wet sludge


The system is the thickener (an open system). No accumulation, generation, or
consumption occur. The total mass balance is
In
Out
=
100 kg
70 kg + kg of water

Consequently, the water amounts to 30 kg.

3.2.1

(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)

water and air.


Insulation, air and what is in the atmosphere.
Yes (cold water in, hot water out)
Yes

37

Solutions Chapter 3

3.2.2

Four balances are possible, 3 components plus 1 total.

0.10F1 + 0.50F 2 + 0.20F 3 = 0.35P


0.20F1 + 0F2

+ 0.30F 3 = 0.10P

0.70F1 + 0.50F 2 + 0.50F 3 = 0.55P


Total balance F1 + F2 +F3 = P
Only 3 of the equations are independent.

3.2.3

If you specify F, P, W, you can calculate all of the stream variables.


a)

Unknown: three stream values F, P, W (plus two compositions if you take into
account all of the variables).

b)

The two known compositions are not given but may be calculated from xi = 1,

c)

Two components exist; hence two independent material balances can be written.
The problem cannot be solved unless one stream value is specified.

3.2.4

(a)

No. The equations have no solution they are parallel lines.


The rank of the coefficient matrix is only 1 because the
1 2
det
=0
1 2
The rank of the augmented matrix is 2

1 2 1
Largest non zero det. of
is of order 2
1 2 3
Thus, although the 2 equations are independent and the number of variables is 2
(the necessary conditions), the sufficient conditions are not met.

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Solutions Chapter 3
x2
x +2x =1
1
2

x + 2x = 3
1
2

x1

(b)

x2

(x1 1)2 + (x2 1)2 = 0


No; 2 solutions

The equations are independent


x1
x1 + x 2 = 1

Two solutions exist as can be seen from the plot hence no unique solution exists.

3.2.5

The number of independent equations is just 3. The number of unknown


quantities is 3, hence a unique solution is possible.

3.2.6

a)

No for both
1 1 1
1 2 3 rank of coefficient matrix is2.
3 5 7 rank of augmented matrix is2.
r = 2, n = 3

b)

multiple solutions exist

1 0 1
5 4 9 3d column issum of1st two columns,so rank is2.
2 4 6 rank of augmented matrix is2, also.
r = 2, n = 3

multiple solutions exist

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Solutions Chapter 3

3.2.7

(a) F; (b) F; (c) F (the maximum can be more than the number of independent
equations).

3.2.8
P = 16 kg

F = 10 kg
F1= 0.10
F2= ?
F3= 0 (assumed)

P1= 0.175
P2= ?
P3= ?

A = 6 kg
A1= 0.30
A2= ?
A3= 0.20

Unknowns (4): 2F ,2A ,2P ,3P


Equations:
Mass balances:
(1):
F(0.10) + A(0.30) = P(0.175)
or
10(0.10) + 6(0.30) = 16(0.175)
(2):
F ( 2 F ) + A ( 2 A ) = P ( 2 P )
or

10 ( 2 F ) +6 ( 2 A ) = 16 ( 2 P )

(3):

F(0)

+A(0.20) = P ( 2 P )

or

10(0)

+ 6(0.20) = 16 ( 2 P )

redundant

2 F , 2 A , 2 P ,3P
10

6 -16 0

0 -0 16

coeff. matrix

Two independent material balances exist (the rank of the coefficient matrix is 2).
In addition three sum of mole fraction equations exist. The total number of equations is
5, hence the degrees of freedom = -1. The problem is overspecified, and will require at
least squares solution.

310

Solutions Chapter 3

3.2.9

Examine the row of C3H8. None of the concentrations are greater than the desired
50% so 50% is not achievable by any combination of A, B, or C. Or look at the CH4 row.
3.2.10

A
x1

Basis: D =100 lb

B
x2

C
x3

0 M 1.4
5.0 0
90.0 10.0 0 M 31.2

Coefficient matrix is 5.0 85.0 8.0 M 53.4

0 5.0 80.0 M 12.6


0
0 12.0 M 14

No unique solution exists with 5 equations and 4 variables. A least squares solution
could be determined, or the 4 equations with the most accurate data solved.
The rank of the coefficient matrix is 3
The rank of the augmented matrix is 4
Hence no unique solution exists.

3.2.11

You can see by inspection that no combination of tanks 1,2 and 3 will give a mole
fraction of 0.52 for the mixture.
Basis: 2.50 mol of tank 4
Let xi = be the total moles of tank i
The balances are

0.23x1 + 0.20x2 + 0.54x3 = 0.25(2.5) = 0.625


0.36x1 + 0.33x2 + 0.27x3 = 0.23(2.5) = 0.575
0.41x1 + 0.47x2 + 0.19x3 = 0.52(2.5) = 1.300

The coefficient matrix has a rank of 3 as does the augmented matrix so the set of
equations has a solution. However, the solution is

x1 = 4.00
x 2 = 6.36
x 3 = 0.327
The values of x1and x3 are not physically realizable!
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Solutions Chapter 3

3.2.12

Number of unknowns:
F, W, P and 9 compositions:
Equations
W
Specifications: x CF
=0
Sum of mole fractions = 1
Material balances (3 species)

12

1
3
3

Degrees of freedom =

7
5

You can make any set of measurements that results in independent equations (assuming
equal accuracy). For example, you cannot use all the flows, or all the compositions in
one stream, as the resulting set of material balances will not consist of 5 independent
balances, but a lesser number.

3.2.13

The inerts are treated as a compound.


Unknowns: 5 compounds 5 streams plus 5 streams =

30

Equations: Specifications:
Concentrations not shown in diagram assumed
to be zero
8
Concentrations with % given
7
E = 11 kg
1
Material balances: 5
5
Implicit equations ( i = 1)
5
26
a.

Degrees of freedom (additional specifications) =

You must make 4 measurements that result in independent equations


b.

No.

312

Solutions Chapter 3

3.2.14a

a.

b.

The remaining gas is 100% minus the N2, and was put on the figure as R.

c.

Basis: 100 mol A

d.

Unknowns: A, B, C
Equations: N2 and R material balances
Basis = A = 100 mol
Note: You could treat the values of R as unknowns in each stream,
and then there would be 3 more unknowns and 3 more independent
equations ( x i = 1 or mi = total mass flow i )

100(0.90) + B(0.30) = C(0.65)


e. & f. N2:
R:
100(0.10) + B(0.70) = C(0.35)
Total:
100 + B
=C
Two of the above equations are independent
g.

Solution:

B = 71.4 mol

C = 171.4 mol

A
100
=
= 1.40
B
71.4

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Solutions Chapter 3

3.2.14b

a.

DT = dry timber
b.

The DT is the balance of each stream.

c.

Basis: F = 100 kg

d.

Unknowns: F, W, P

OR

Equations:
Basis: F = 100 kg
Material Balances: Water, DT
(total); 2 independent

Degrees of freedom = 0

F, W, P, DTF, DTW, DTP, H2OF,


H2 OP , H2 OW
Equations:
F = 100 kg
Material Balances: Water, DT,
(total); 2 independent
Specifications: 3 for water
Implicit equations: 3 of i = 1
Degrees of freedom = 0

e.&f. Introducing the specifications and basis into the material balances:
Water: (0.201)100 = (1)W + (0.086)P
DT:
(0.80) 100 = 0
+ (0.914)P a tie element
Total:
100 = W + P
g.

W = 12.5 kg

P = 87.5 kg

W 12.5 kg
=
= 0.125kg/kg
F
100 kg

314

Solutions Chapter 3

3.2.14c

a. & b.
A N2 1.00

mol. fr.
N2 0.70
CH4 0.30
1.00

d.

CH4 n CH 4
C 2H 6 n C 2 H 6
N2
n
N2

c.

or

N2
C 2H 6

0.90
0.10
1.00

=P

x CH 4
x C2 H 6
x N2
=1.00

Basis: B = 100 mol

Unknowns:
Assume all of the variables except those that are specified as zero are
included in the analysis.
F
A
P
B

stream variable
1
1
1
1
4
+

component variables
2
1
3
2
8
=
12

Equations:
Basis:
Material balances:
N2, CH4, C2H6
Specified ratio: n CH4 /n C2H6 = 1.3
Specified values of n: 2 + 1 + 0 + 2 =
Implicit equations ( xi = 1 in P)
(Note: the implicit equations of streams
F, A, and B are redundant with the
specifications)
Total
Degrees of freedom =

1
3
1
5
1

11
1

More information is needed to solve the problem uniquely.

315

Solutions Chapter 3

3.2.15

Here are some possibilities. Consult the tables at the end of the Chapter for more
suggestions.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Rephrase the problem to make sure you understand it?


Draw a simple diagram of what was happening?
Think about what was going into the tank and what was coming out?
Imagine yourself inside the tank, and ask what was going on around you?
Ask whether there were any physical laws to consider (such as conservation
of matter or energy)?
Try to imagine the answer as a number, graph, table, or whatever?
Try to identify essential variables?
Choose a notation?
Look for a ready-made formula for the answer?
Look for simplifying assumptions?
Try to find an easier version of the problem?
Look for bounds (simple models that would definitely underestimate
or overestimate the answer)?

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