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OTC 23704

Steel Catenary Jumper for Single Hybrid Riser in Deepwater Applications


G. Rombado, ExxonMobil Development Company; B. Yue, 2H Offshore; and C. Rueda, Saipem sa

Copyright 2012, Offshore Technology Conference


This paper was prepared for presentation at the Offshore Technology Conference held in Houston, Texas, USA, 30 April3 May 2012.
This paper was selected for presentation by an OTC program committee following review of information contained in an abstract submitted by the author(s). Contents of the paper have not been
reviewed by the Offshore Technology Conference and are subject to correction by the author(s). The material does not necessarily reflect any position of the Offshore Technology Conference, its
officers, or members. Electronic reproduction, distribution, or storage of any part of this paper without the written consent of the Offshore Technology Conference is prohibited. Permission to
reproduce in print is restricted to an abstract of not more than 300 words; illustrations may not be copied. The abstract must contain conspicuous acknowledgment of OTC copyright.

Abstract
The Single Hybrid Riser (SHR) concept has been used successfully in industry on floaters such as Floating Production,
Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessels in deepwater applications. This concept is especially effective with floaters in areas
where challenging metocean environments result in severe vessel motions. The flexible jumper connecting the vessel to the
rigid steel riser effectively isolates the dynamic vessel motions from the top-tensioned steel riser section. This results in
lower strength and fatigue demand in the steel pipe section as compared to other riser concepts such as a Steel Catenary Riser
(SCR). However, the SHR concept also reaches the design limits of the flexible jumper as pressure, temperature, and sour
service operating conditions become more severe.
ExxonMobil has demonstrated the feasibility of using a Steel Catenary Jumper (SCJ) as an alternative to the flexible jumper
for extending the operational limits of the SHR concept. This paper presents the results and design considerations for a SHR
with a SCJ in 10,000 ft. Water Depth (WD) and pressures up to 10 ksi. The SHR/SCJ configuration was determined
iteratively by assessing its strength performance in response to wave and current loading, vessel offset, internal content and
pressure. Satisfactory strength and fatigue performance is achieved under harsh North Atlantic and West Africa environments
with a predominant fatigue condition. As is the case for SHRs with flexible jumpers in similar conditions, vessel heading
control is required to maintain acceptable response during extreme and long term environmental loading. Installation of the
SHR/SCJ concept is determined to be within the present market capability of heavy lift vessels, new generation J-lay vessels
and FPSO pull-in facilities. A fabrication and installation procedure for the SHR/SCJ configuration is presented.
Introduction
The SCJ was investigated as an alternative to the conventional flexible jumper for connecting a SHR to a turret moored FPSO
vessel. The primary advantage of using a SCJ is higher pressure and temperature service limits. Increased resistance to sour
service can also be achieved using Corrosion Resistant Alloy (CRA) lined pipe. The SHR/SCJ configuration was adapted
from an existing 9-in ID flexible jumper SHR conceptual design sized for a design pressure of 10 ksi and 10,000 ft. WD.
Modest increases to the air (buoyancy) can depth, jumper length and distance between the FPSO turret and SHR base were
made to the flexible jumper SHR configuration to arrive at the nominal SHR/SCJ configuration. The SCJ was connected to
the FPSO vessel and SHR using typical flexible joints with tapered extensions. The SHR comprises a buoyancy can, rigid
structural tether, Top Riser Assembly (TRA) with goose neck, dual thickness riser section with tapered steel stress joints at
each end, offtake spool assembly and roto-latch assembly.
Strength analyses were performed to North Atlantic extreme storm conditions and fatigue analyses were performed to both
North Atlantic and West Africa motion responses. The harsher North Atlantic environment required an internal turret while
the milder West Africa environment permitted an external turret. Production, water injection and gas injection riser
applications were assessed for feasibility. The SCJ and SHR were designed to standards API-RP-2RD [1], API-RP-1111[2],
and DnV RP-F109 [3].

OTC 23704

Metocean Data
North Atlantic extreme 10-year wave and 100-year wave conditions are described in Table 1. The 100-year current and
associated wave condition are described in Table 2 and Table 3, respectively. These data and the North Atlantic and West
Africa sea state scatter diagrams are documented in Reference 4.
Table 1 - North Atlantic 10-Year and 100-Year Wave
Waves
Recurrence
Hs (m)
Tp (s)
10 year
14.1
15.4 15%
100 year
16.4
16.6 15%

Depth, m
0
200
400
600
800
2990
3000

Table 2 100-Year Current


100 Year Current Profile
Speed, m/s
2.2
2.2
1
1
0.5
0.5
0

Table 3 Associated Wave for 100-Year Current


Waves
Recurrence
Hs (m)
Tp (s)
Associated
4
9

SHR/Steel Jumper Configuration


The SHR/SCJ configuration was determined iteratively by assessing its strength performance in response to wave and current
loading, vessel offset, internal content and pressure. The final nominal SHR/SCJ configuration is shown in Figure 1 in the
absence of environmental load and vessel offset. The key component parameters of the system are also presented. The
distances shown in the figure are approximate and vary slightly depending on the internal fluid.
The 2.0-in wall thickness selected for the SCJ was driven by the high operating pressure (10ksi) for the gas injection SCJ and
the relatively low allowable stress/yield ratio (0.67) for the 10-year operating condition. The jumper wall thickness is not
considered optimized. Further design iterations of the jumper configuration, higher strength steel pipe, and floater
optimization may yield a lower wall thickness. Although beyond the current offshore riser experience for dynamic risers
(e.g. 1.6-in wall thickness used for Semi/SCR in the Gulf of Mexico), the 2-in wall thickness is within current pipe mill
manufacturing capabilities.
With respect to the baseline flexible pipe SHR configuration, the depth at the top of the air (buoyancy) can was increased
from 250m to 470m below the Mean Water Line (MWL) to avoid large drag forces during high current events. To
accommodate vessel offsets and large bending curvature at the SCJ sag bend, the jumper length was increased from 1100m to
1600m and the distance between SHR foundation and SCJ attachment at the turret was increased from 650m to 1120m.

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Component

Parameter
Pipe Material
Pipe ID
Wall Thickness
Flex Joint Extension Length
FJ Extension Thick OD
Insulation Thickness
Insulation Density
Strake Coverage
Total Length
Hang-off Angle at Turret
Hang-off Angle at SHR (to
Vertical)
Hang-off Angle at SHR (to
TRA)
Distance below MWL
Height
Outer Diameter
Net Up Thrust
Length
Height
Length
Thick End OD
Length
OD
Length
OD
Length
Thick End OD

Value
X65
9in
2in
12m
17.6in
70mm
720kg/m3
100%
1600m
10.7

Off take
Spool

Length

3m

All SHR Pipe

Pipe Material
Inner Diameter
Insulation Thickness
Insulation Density
Buoyancy Thickness
Buoyancy Density
Strake Coverage

X65
9in
75mm
770kg/m3
100mm
441kg/m3
100%

SCJ

Air Can
Tether
TRA
Upper TSJ
Upper SHR
Lower SHR
Lower TSJ

20.6
25.9
470m
38.4m
6.4m
710 tonne

15m
10m
12m
17.6in
685m
12.4in
1771m
11.75in
10.5m
15.7in

Figure 1 - SHR/SCJ Nominal Configuration and Key Parameters

Strength Load Case Screening (North Atlantic)


The objective of the strength screening exercise was to identify the most onerous SCJ among production, gas injection, and
water injection applications. The SCJ hang-off can be at any location around the turret. Significant wave heights in different
weather conditions are provided in Table 1 and Table 3, however, the 10-year and 100-year wave peak periods are given as a
range. To ensure that the most onerous riser hang-off location and wave period were used in the analysis, load case screening
was based on the maximum downward heave velocity for various wave peak periods and SCJ hang-off locations.
The schematic model used in the screening process is shown in Figure 2. Eight SCJ porch locations were assessed around the
turret at 45 intervals. The porches are named according to their angular position counter-clockwise from the vessel surge
axis. During extreme storm conditions, it is anticipated that passively controlled FPSO vessels can maintain wave headings
up to 30 of head seas while FPSO vessels with heading control can maintain wave headings up to 15 of head seas. For
conservatism, the vessel bow was orientated 30 counter clockwise from the oncoming wave direction. Random waves were
used in a three-hour simulation.

OTC 23704

Porch90

10-Year: Hs=14.1m, Tp=13.1~17.7s interval 0.1s


100-Year: Hs=16.4m, Tp=14.1~19.1s interval 0.1s

Porch0
Porch270

Wave Incidence Angle 30

Figure 2 Schematic Model for Strength Load Case Screening

The porch heave velocity screening results are shown in Figure 3. The peak period resulting in the most onerous porch heave
velocity is 17.5s for the 10-year wave and 17.4s for the 100-year wave, irrespective of porch location. The most onerous
porch location is Porch315 which is located 45 clockwise from the bow porch. For this analysis, Porch270 was selected for
ease of modeling and because the heave velocity at this location is within 1% of Porch315 at the critical wave period. The
maximum downward heave velocity is 4.11m/s for the 10-year wave and 5.11m/s for the 100-year wave.
ExxonMobil Riser Technology Development
PORCH MAXIMUM DOWNWARD HEAVE VELOCITY
Incidence Angle -30 Head Sea
10 Year Random Wave Hs=14.1m; North Atlantic
-2

Heave Velocity (m/s)

-2.5

-3

-3.5

-4

-4.5
13.1

13.6

14.1

14.6

15.1

15.6

16.1

16.6

17.1

17.6

Peak Period (s)


Porch0

Porch45

Porch90

Porch135

Porch180

Porch225

Porch270

Porch315

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PORCH MAXIMUM DOWNWARD HEAVE VELOCITY
Incidence Angle -30 Head Sea
100 Year Random Wave Hs=16.4m; North Atlantic
-3

Heave Velocity (m/s)

-3.5

-4

-4.5

-5

-5.5
14.1

15.1

16.1

17.1

18.1

19.1

Peak Period (s)


Porch0

Porch45

Porch90

Porch135

Porch180

Porch225

Porch270

Porch315

Figure 3 Load Case Screening Results for 10-Year and 100-Year Waves

The associated wave condition for the 100-year current was not screened for the worst period because of its minimal dynamic
effect on the SCJ. The direction of the 100-year current was selected as from SHR toward turret, which pushes the air can
closer to SCJ hang-off resulting in the most conservative sag bend curvature.

OTC 23704

Strength Results (North Atlantic)


The loading conditions selected for the strength assessment are shown in Figure 4 and the complete load case matrix is
presented in Table 4. The vessel is offset in near, far, and transverse directions. The vessel moves toward the SHR in near
offset, further away from the SHR in far offset, and perpendicular to the SHR/SCJ plane in transverse offset.
Random Wave Incidence Angle 30
10Yr Wave: Hs=14.1m, Tp=17.5s
100Yr Wave: Hs=16.4m, Tp=17.4s
100Yr Current: Hs=4.0m, Tp=9.0s

SCJ

100Yr current

Figure 4 Loading Conditions for Strength Assessment

Table 4 Load Case Matrix for Strength Assessment


10-Yr
100-Yr
100-Yr
10-Yr
100-Yr
Environment
Wave
Wave
Current
Wave
Wave
Pressure at MWL
Operating
Shut in
Shut in
Operating
Shut in
(ksi, Gas/Oil/Water)
(10/5/7.5) (8.1/6.3/5.6) (8.1/6.3/5.6) (10/5/7.5) (8.1/6.3/5.6)
6% Water
6% Water
6% Water
8% Water
8% Water
Vessel Offset Distance
Depth
Depth
Depth
Depth
Depth
Load Category
Operating
Extreme
Extreme
Extreme
Survival

100-Yr
Current
Shut in
(8.1/6.3/5.6)
8% Water
Depth
Survival

The gas injection SCJ is identified as the critical application because it produces the maximum stress and minimum effective
tension distributions along the SCJ, Figure 5. The governing loads are 10-year wave, 100-year wave, and 100-year current
conditions with 6% WD of vessel offset (intact condition). Also included are the stresses for the static conditions in the atrest position. The following observations are made:

Stresses at the ends of the SCJ are low in all cases due to the presence of flexible joints and tapered extensions;

Near offset results in maximum stresses at the sag bend and far offset results in minimum stresses. This is because near
offset brings the two ends of SCJ closer which creates large bending curvature at the sag bend, whereas far offset
stretches the SCJ which results in large bending radius;

Because the transverse offset condition produces minimal changes the sag bend curvature from the static position, the
stress difference between transverse offset and static position can be attributed to the vessel dynamic motion. The stress
differences in the 10-year and 100-year wave cases are relatively small so it can be concluded that vessel dynamic
motion does not dominate the SCJ stress;

The maximum SCJ stress for the gas injection SCJ in operating mode with a 10-year wave is more than that in shut in
mode with 100-year wave. This is attributed to the operating internal pressure which is larger than the shut in pressure;

The sag bend stress with the 100-year current is large. This is a result of the air (buoyancy) can being pushed by the
current toward SCJ hang-off which results in large sag bend curvature;

Compression within the sag bend region of the SCJ occurs regardless of vessel offset direction during the 100-year wave.
The largest observed compression is 45kN.

OTC 23704

ExxonMobil Riser Tech Development


VON MISES STRESS / YIELD STRESS
Gas Injection Riser; 10 Year Wave; Offset=180m; North Atlantic

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VON MISES STRESS / YIELD STRESS
Gas Injection Riser; 100 Year Wave; Offset=180m; North Atlantic

0.65

0.60

von Mises Stress/Yield Stress

0.60
von Mises Stress/Yield Stress

Allowable=0.80

Allowable=0.67

0.55
0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30

0.55
0.50
0.45
0.40
0.35
0.30

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

200

400

600

Static

Near Offset

Transverse Offset

Static

Far Offset

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VON MISES STRESS / YIELD STRESS
Gas Injection Riser; 100 Year Current; Offset=180m; North Atlantic

1000

1200

1400

1600

Near Offset

Transverse Offset

Far Offset

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MINIMUM EFFECTIVE TENSION
Gas Injection Riser; 100 Year Wave; Offset=180m; North Atlantic
1.8E+06

0.75
Allowable=0.80

0.70

1.6E+06

0.65

Min Effective Tension (N)

von Mises Stress/Yield Stress

800

Arc Length from Vessel (m)

Arc Length from Vessel (m)

0.60
0.55
0.50
0.45
0.40

1.4E+06
1.2E+06
1.0E+06
8.0E+05
6.0E+05
4.0E+05
2.0E+05

0.35

0.0E+00

0.30

-2.0E+05

200

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

200

Static

Near Offset

Transverse Offset

400

600

800

1000

1200

1400

1600

Arc Length from Vessel (m)

Arc Length from Vessel (m)


Far Offset

Near Offset

Transverse Offset

Far Offset

Figure 5 SCJ Stress/Effective Tension Distribution for Gas Injection Riser

The stress and effective tension distributions for the production and water injection SCJ are similar. Result summaries are
given in Table 5 and Table 6 for all SCJ for all loads cases. The results also present the maximum stress utilization among
the three vessel offset directions (shaded entries). Stress utilization is defined as the ratio between the von Mises stress and
allowable yield stress. The maximum stress utilization for each of the weather condition is highlighted. It is observed that
stress utilizations in all load conditions are below 100% which indicates that the stress performance of the SCJ is acceptable.
The maximum stress utilization (93.1%) occurs when the gas injection SCJ is in the operating mode under 10ksi pressure at
the MWL, 10-year wave conditions and a 600 ft. vessel offset from its nominal location toward the SHR.
It is also observed that all of the three weather conditions are significant to the SCJ strength performance:

10-year wave results in high jumper stress utilization because of high operating pressure and lower allowable stress;
100-year current results in high jumper stress due to large sag bend curvature resulting from air can displacement;
100-year wave does not drive stress utilization but results in compression at the sag bend.

OTC 23704

Environment

Table 5 Maximum Stresses of Steel Catenary Jumper


10-Yr
100-Yr
100-Yr
10-Yr
100-Yr
Wave
Wave
Current
Wave
Wave
Operating
Shut in
Shut in
Operating
Shut in
6%
6%
6%
8%
8%

Internal Pressure
Vessel Offset
Allowable von Mises
Stress/Yield
Near
Trans.
Gas Injection
Stress/Yield
Far
Utilization
Near
Trans.
Production
Stress/Yield
Far
Utilization
Near
Water
Trans.
Injection
Far
Stress/Yield
Utilization

100-Yr
Current
Shut in
8%

0.67

0.8

0.8

0.8

1.0

1.0

0.624
0.553
0.515
93.1%
0.508
0.415
0.365
75.8%
0.591
0.507
0.459
88.2%

0.571
0.491
0.448
71.4%
0.555
0.464
0.414
69.4%
0.550
0.455
0.403
68.8%

0.700
0.550
0.475
87.5%
0.721
0.545
0.456
90.1%
0.733
0.547
0.452
91.6%

0.654
0.550
0.504
81.8%
0.546
0.410
0.353
68.3%
0.626
0.503
0.446
78.3%

0.606
0.487
0.436
60.6%
0.592
0.459
0.400
59.2%
0.589
0.451
0.388
58.9%

0.765
0.542
0.455
76.5%
0.795
0.536
0.431
79.5%
0.811
0.538
0.425
81.1%

Table 6 Minimum Effective Tensions of Steel Catenary Jumper (kN)


100yr
100yr
100yr
10yr Wave
Environment
10yr Wave
Wave
Wave
Current
Vessel Offset
6%
6%
6%
8%
8%
109
-26
253
98
-25
Near
Gas
134
-45
368
132
-50
Trans.
Injection
178
-38
478
190
-39
Far
130
-1
245
117
-2
Near
160
-10
360
158
-14
Production Trans.
206
2
468
220
3
Far
137
8
241
124
7
Near
Water
170
3
355
169
-1
Trans.
Injection
217
16
464
231
18
Far

100yr
Current
8%
222
376
523
214
368
513
210
364
508

The maximum rotation angle is 19.5 at the turret connection for the gas injection SCJ during 100-year current, 8% WD near
offset and 7.2 at the TRA connection for the water injection SCJ during 100-year current, 8% WD near offset. These values
are considered to be within the flexible joint response limit (20). The SHR stress is found to be acceptable for all load
conditions. A maximum SHR stress of 65.8% of yield occurs where the steel riser section changes wall thickness for the gas
injection SCJ during 10-year wave, 8% WD far offset. A maximum roto-latch rotation angle of 20.3 occurs for the water
injection SCJ during 100-year current, 8% WD far offset (survival mode). This rotation slightly exceeds the 20 response
limit that can be achieved by the manufacturers. This rotation reduces to 19.7 for the 100-year wave case (extreme mode),
6% WD far offset.
With the exception of some compression, the SCJ is found to be acceptable from a strength perspective under all load
conditions. The maximum 93.1% stress utilization also indicates that the 2-in wall thickness selected for the SCJ is not too
excessive. The SCJ flexible joint rotations are also within manufacturer operating limits. The SHR stress is found to be
acceptable under all load conditions with only the roto-latch rotations slightly exceeding manufacturer limits. Additional air
(buoyancy) can up thrust or roto-latch optimization may address this issue.
Strength Sensitivity Studies
Three sensitivity studies were performed on the gas injection SCJ to assess robustness.
Multiple Random Wave Study
Rather than using ten seeds/realizations for ten three-hour random waves, the same wave seed was used with a thirty-hour
simulation. The time trace in each three hour period was equivalent to a three-hour wave with different seed number. The
strength results are summarized in Table 7. The response from the ten realization approach shows that compression is

OTC 23704

observed in 3 of the 10 realizations with a maximum compression is 78kN. However, the average minimum tension during a
100-year wave event remains above zero. Extreme value statistics estimate improvements were not attempted due to the
available vessel heading control option.

Table 7 Gas Injection SCJ Stress Summary (10 Realizations)


Von Mises Stress/Yield
Min Effective Tension (kN)
Seed No.
10-Year
100-Year
10-Year
100-Year
Wave
Wave
Wave
Wave
1
0.623
0.581
109
-25
2
0.622
0.579
156
41
3
0.622
0.579
143
42
4
0.623
0.578
140
30
5
0.622
0.578
140
66
6
0.622
0.582
157
-18
7
0.621
0.584
187
-78
8
0.622
0.580
193
39
9
0.622
0.578
162
65
10
0.622
0.578
147
60
Max
0.623
0.584
193
66
Min
0.621
0.578
109
-78
Max-Min
0.002
0.006
84
144
Average
0.622
0.580
153
22

Relative Vessel-to-Wave Heading


The wave incidence angle which results in the typical FPSO operational roll limit of 15 was investigated. It is observed that
a wave incidence angle of 30 produces a vessel roll of 8 while a wave incidence angle of 45 achieves the 15 vessel roll
limit. For the 100-year wave case, changing the wave incidence angle from 30 to 45 has little effect on stress (57.1% to
59.2% of yield) but has significant impact on the sag bend compression (45kN to 258kN).
Vessel Heading Control
Reducing the wave incidence angle decreases the vessel dynamic motion and SCJ dynamic response. The objective of this
sensitivity assessment was to establish the maximum wave incidence angle that results in no sag bend compression. The
results show that the wave incidence angle which eliminates sag bend compression is 24.4. This condition could be
achieved with a heading controlled FPSO vessel.
Riser Screening for West Africa Fatigue
The objective of the fatigue screening exercise was to identify the most onerous SCJ among production, gas injection, and
water injection applications. This was performed by evaluating the fatigue response of the SCJ with different internal fluids
using a single sea state. A wave height with an exceedance value greater than 50% and a period close to the RAO peaks for
all vessel headings was investigated. Examining the West Africa sea state scatter diagram, a sea state with Hs=1.625m and
Tp=11s was selected. The layout for this riser screening is shown in Figure 6. The screening results show that the water
injection SCJ experiences the highest fatigue damage and is approximately 10% higher than the gas injection SCJ with the
least damage. Thus, the motion fatigue assessment was performed for the water injection SCJ.
Wave:
Hs=1.625m, Tp=11s
SCJ
Figure 6 Vessel, Riser, and Weather Layout for SCJ Fatigue Screening

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Fatigue Results for West Africa


The water injection SCJ was assessed to West Africa motion fatigue response for different vessel headings. The waves are
assumed to all occur in a single direction in line with the SHR/SCJ plane. At different vessel headings relative to the wave
direction, the SCJ fatigue response was assessed for the complete condensed sea states (i.e. 100% wave occurrence). Vessel
heading direction of 0 is defined as wave travels from FPSO stern to bow. The results are reported for vessel headings from
0 to 180 degrees at 22.5 intervals. The SCJ required service life is 25 years. Using a factor of safety of 10 and a 5%
installation fatigue allowance, the target fatigue life is calculated to be 263 years.
The fatigue life at the outer fiber along the length of SCJ is shown in Figure 7 for different vessel headings assuming a D
curve and SCF of 1.3. The fatigue response at the sag bend and vessel hang off is shown for various vessel headings in the
polar plot. The graph shows that vessel headings that are close to beam seas (from 67.5 to 112.5) result in sag bend fatigue
life lower than 263 years. Vessel headings within 45 from wave heading will keep the sag bend fatigue life higher than 263
years.
The SCJ end that is attached to the vessel turret is most fatigue critical while the end attached to the SHR is not fatigue
critical. This is because it is directly connected to the vessel and is subjected to higher dynamic motions. The first weld
between flexible joint extension piece and regular SCJ pipe is where the hang off fatigue damage is reported. Vessel headings
that are close to beam seas (from 67.5 to 112.5) result in lower hang off fatigue life. Vessel headings of 45 from wave
heading generate hang off fatigue life close to but less than 263 years. It can be concluded that if a D curve is qualified for all
welds, the SCJ fatigue life is higher than the target life of 263 years when maintaining a vessel heading to within
approximately 40 from wave heading.
ExxonMobil Riser Tech Development
WEST AFRICA LONG TERM MOTION FATIGUE RESULTS
Water Injection Riser, Different Vessel Headings
SCF=1.3, D '84 Curve, OD

1.0E+06

Fatigue Life (Years)

1.0E+05
1.0E+04
1.0E+03
1.0E+02
1.0E+01
1.0E+00
0
VH0

VH22.5

200

400

VH45

VH67.5

600
800
1000
Arc Length from Hang off (m)
VH90

VH112.5

VH135

1200

1400

VH157.5

VH180

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WEST AFRICA LONG TERM MOTION FATIGUE RESULTS
Water Injection Riser, Different Vessel Headings
SCF=1.3, D '84 Curve, Pipe OD
180
203 10000

Turret

158

1000

225
Wave

Fatige Life (yr)

135

100

248

113

10
270

90

SCJ

293
Vessel Heading

67.5
315

45
338

22.5
0

Sag Bend

Hang off

Vessel Heading
Target

Figure 7 Fatigue Life with Different Vessel Headings (West Africa)

1600
Target

10

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The results for different fatigue curves and vessel headings are summarized in Table 8. Fatigue life is shown in red text if the
response is below the target life. This demonstrates that vessel heading can be widened if a C curve can be qualified for use
and that an E curve can be used if the vessel heading can be controlled within a narrower wave heading range. The table also
shows that in order to have wider vessel heading range, the sag bend may not need such high quality welds whereas the
single first weld at the hang off requires a high quality weld detail. For instance, the vessel can be operated by maintaining
45 from wave heading by using C curve at the single hang-off weld, and D/E curve at all other welds. In summary, the
SHR/SCJ system attached to external turret moored FPSO in West Africa is feasible in terms of long term fatigue
performance with the following design and operational conditions:

The vessel heading must remain within 45 from wave heading throughout the life of the field;

For the hang-off weld between flexible joint extension piece and regular SCJ pipe, either achieves a SCF=1.3 and C
curve weld, or achieve a SCF=1.27 and D curve weld;

At all weld locations other than the hang off, E curve or better weld can be used with SCF=1.3.

Table 8 West Africa SCJ OD Fatigue Life Summary (SCF=1.3)


Sag Bend
Hang-off
Vessel Heading
()
C Curve
D Curve
E Curve
C Curve
D Curve
0
23382
2390
1648
13707
1771
22.5
12362
1392
960
7501
1080
45
4656
594
410
1405
247
67.5
1806
255
176
374
78
90
901
139
96
243
55
112.5
823
129
89
765
137
135
3747
483
333
1442
249
157.5
13370
1440
993
6171
920
180
21504
2176
1500
10597
1466

E Curve
1221
745
171
54
38
94
172
634
1011

The above results were calculated assuming that the vessel heading remains in one direction 100% of the time. A realistic
fatigue life assessment was performed by hypothetically applying heading distribution from an existing West Africa field [4].
Using these probabilities and the fatigue responses given in Table 8, the fatigue life at hang off and sag bend with different
weld curves was calculated and is presented in Table 9. The fatigue life at both hang-off and sag bend is higher than the
target life of 263 years with E curve welds, which clearly demonstrates the fatigue feasibility of the riser system.

Table 9 Existing West Africa Field SCJ OD Fatigue Life (SCF=1.3)


Sag Bend
Hang-off
C Curve
D Curve
E Curve
C Curve
D Curve
E Curve
7488
945
652
2438
448
309
Fatigue Results for North Atlantic
The same water injection SCJ was assessed to North Atlantic motion response for different vessel headings. A similar
approach was taken as that for the West Africa environment. In this case, the FPSO requires an internal turret. The fatigue
life at the outer fiber along the length of SCJ is shown in Figure 8 for different vessel headings. The fatigue response at the
sag bend and vessel hang off is shown for various headings in the polar plot. The trends are similar to those for West Africa.
It can be concluded that if D curve is qualified for all welding, the SCJ fatigue life is higher than the target life of 263 years
when maintaining a vessel heading to within approximately 30 from wave heading.

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ExxonMobil Riser Tech Development


NORTH ATLANTIC LONG TERM MOTION FATIGUE RESULTS
Water Injection Riser, Different Vessel Headings
SCF=1.3, D '84 Curve, OD

1.0E+06

Fatigue Life (Years)

1.0E+05
1.0E+04
1.0E+03
1.0E+02
1.0E+01
1.0E+00
0
VH0

VH22.5

200

400

VH45

VH67.5

600
800
1000
Arc Length from Hang off (m)
VH90

VH112.5

VH135

1200

1400

VH157.5

VH180

1600
Target

ExxonMobil Riser Tech Development


NORTH ATLANTIC LONG TERM MOTION FATIGUE RESULTS
Water Injection Riser, Different Vessel Headings
SCF=1.3, D '84 Curve, Pipe OD
180
203 10000

Fatige Life (yr)

1000

225

158
135

100

248

113

10

Turret

270

90

Wave

293

67.5
315

45
338

SCJ

0
Sag Bend

Hang off

22.5
Vessel Heading
Target

Vessel Heading

Figure 8 Fatigue Life with Different Vessel Headings (North Atlantic)

The results for different fatigue curves and vessel headings are summarized in Table 10 for the pipe OD. Fatigue life is
shown in red if below the target life. It can be concluded that the SHR/SCJ system attached to the internal turret moored
FPSO in the North Atlantic is feasible in terms of long term fatigue performance with the following design and operational
conditions:

The vessel heading must remain within 22.5 from wave heading throughout the life of the field, and E curve or better
welds must be used with SCF=1.3 for all welds, or;

The vessel heading must remain within 45 from wave heading throughout the life of the field with a C curve weld,
SCF=1.3 at the hang-off weld between flexible joint extension piece and regular SCJ pipe, and a D curve, SCF=1.24 for
the rest of the SCJ. In practice, most C curve welds achieve a SCF= 1.1 or better.

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Table 10 North Atlantic SCJ OD Fatigue Life Summary (SCF=1.3)


Sag Bend
Hang-off
Vessel Heading
()
C Curve
D Curve
E Curve
C Curve
D Curve
E Curve
0
20314
2502
1725
10193
1726
1190
22.5
7639
1019
702
4747
910
628
45
1384
233
161
532
122
84
67.5
627
110
76
65
20
14
90
214
40
28
23
8
6
112.5
758
127
88
113
31
22
135
2393
350
241
643
145
100
157.5
11977
1531
1056
4645
831
573
180
11432
1434
988
8080
1312
904

Installation
The SHR/SCJ concept is foreseen to be installed using existing SHR and modified SCR installation methods with the
following details:
The TRA design of the SHR needs to incorporate guiding and connection systems to receive the SCJ riser end. These
systems may require specific designs of tethers and buoyancy tank(s) to accommodate the approach and set-up of the
SCJ riser end on the SHR top assembly;
The SCJ is deployed vertically from the installation vessel. The FPSO end is first transferred to the FPSO and then the
SHR end is pulled, approached and set-up on the top assembly of the SHR.
During both the installation of the SHR and SCJ, the anticipated installation static loads remain within the present market
capacity of Heavy Lift Vessels, new generation J-Lay Vessels and FPSO pull-in facilities:
Less than 200 tonne (300 tonne with SHR accidentally flooded) during SHR construction in J-Lay Tower (JLT) or
during transfer from JLT to Hang-Off Platform (HOP) with the vessel crane;
Less than 750 tonne (850 tonne with SHR accidentally flooded) during complete SHR overboarding with air can
suspended in air under the vessel crane;
Less than 380 tonne (450 tonne with SCJ accidentally flooded) during the full deployment and transfer of the SCJ from
JLT Abandonment & Recovery (A&R) winch to the FPSO turret pull-in equipment.
A total of 19 days is estimated to completely fabricate and install the SHR (12 days) and the SCJ (7 days). The following
items require special consideration when developing fabrication and installation engineering plans:

Air can collapse resistance at water depths of 470m to 509m will require design optimization to avoid excessive wall
thickness and internal pressure. The capacity of the pumping equipment and the volume of Nitrogen required to deballast
the air can compartments will need to be carefully estimated. Air can fabrication and deballasting issues may be
significant;
SHR and SCJ may require pipe wall thicknesses beyond current offshore experience which demands careful selection of
welding and NDT processes. Wall thicknesses between 1.5-in and 2-in may also require AUT development and/or
qualification;
The connection between the SCJ and SHR top assembly will require a detailed assessment of the guiding and connection
systems and ROV friendly access / robustness. Any potential clash between installation vessel A&R cable and air can /
air can tether should be identified through detailed dynamic installation analysis.

A fabrication and installation procedure for the SHR/SCJ configuration is illustrated in Figures 9 through 12. The 100% steel
jumper concept has been developed and patented in 1999, Reference 5. The technology is known as "SHR'ewd" which is the
acronym for "Steel Hybrid Riser" for "extended water depth".

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13

Conclusions
The SCJ concept for connecting a SHR to a turret moored FPSO in 10,000 ft. water depth has been shown to be feasible from
a strength and fatigue perspective. Production, gas injection and water injection applications (9-in ID, 10,000 psi design
pressure) were assessed to harsh North Atlantic environments and all demonstrated satisfactory strength performance
provided the vessel heading is maintained to approximately 30 of head seas. The SHR/SCJ configuration requires only
modest increases in jumper length, distance between SHR base and turret, and air (buoyancy) can depth as compared to a
conventional flexible pipe SHR configuration.
West Africa long term fatigue (100% wave occurrence per each wave direction) is shown to be feasible provided the vessel
heading remains within 45 from wave heading when achieving a SCF of 1.27 and D curve welds for the entire SCJ.
Applying a set of West Africa field specific vessel heading probabilities to the calculated fatigue responses achieves the
target life of 263 years for the entire SCJ with a SCF of 1.3 and E curve welds. The North Atlantic long term fatigue is
shown to be feasible provided the vessel heading remains within 22.5 from wave heading when achieving a SCF of 1.3 and
E curve or better welds for the entire SCJ. Increasing the vessel heading to within 45 requires a C curve weld (SCF=1.3) at
the hang off first weld and D curve welds (SCR=1.24) for the remainder of the SCJ.
Installation of the SHR/SCJ concept is shown to be feasible using existing SHR and modified SCR installation methods.
Special attention should be given to the SCJ connection to the SHR, air (buoyancy) can collapse resistance and deballasting,
welding and NDT processes/qualifications. Installation of the SHR and SCJ is within the present market capacity of heavy
lift vessels, new generation J-Lay vessels and FPSO pull-in facilities.
Nomenclature
AUT Automated Ultrasonic Testing
FPSO Floating Production Storage & Offloading
Hs Significant Wave Height, L, (m)
ID Inner Diameter, L, (in)
JLT Jay Lay Tower
MWL Mean Water Line
NDT Non Destructive Testing
OD Outer diameter, L, (in)
RAO-Response Amplitude Operator
ROV Remotely Operated Vehicle
SCF Stress Concentration Factor
SCJ Steel Catenary Jumper
SCR Steel Catenary Riser
SHR Single Hybrid Riser
Tp Peak Period, T, (sec)
TRA - Top Riser Assembly
TSJ Tapered Stress Joint
WD Water depth, L, (ft.)
Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank K. Doynov, ExxonMobil Development Company, for providing technical guidance during
the SHR/SCJ feasibility study.

References
[1] American Petroleum Institute Design of Risers for Floating Production Systems (FPS) and Tension-Leg
Platforms (TLP), API RP 2RD, First Edition, June 1998.
[2] American Petroleum Institute Design, Construction, Operation, and Maintenance of Offshore Hydrocarbon
Pipelines (Limit State Design), API RP 1111, Third Edition, July 1999.
[3] Det Norske Veritas - DnV RP F109, On-bottom Stability Design of Submarine Pipelines.
[4] ExxonMobil Development Company, FPSO-Steel Jumper/SCR Feasibility Study Design Basis, 3873-RPT-0001,
February 2011.
[5] Saipem sa (ex BOUYGUES-OFFSHORE) US Patent 6461083, Method and Device for Linking Surface to the
Seabed for a Submarine Pipeline Installed at Great Depth, October 8, 2002.

14

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Figure 9 SHR Foundation Installation, Production, Deployment, Air Can Installation and Docking

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15

Figure 10 SCJ Fabrication, Deployment and Transfer from JLT to FPSO

16

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Figure 11 SCJ Riser End Recovery, Pull-in to SHR, End Approach, Docking and Connection to SHR Top Assembly

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Figure 12 SCJ Tension Release and Final Configuration