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Teacher Support Material

First and Second Year Science and Technology Students

OIL SPILL AND


ITSADVERSE EFFECTS

Produced
by the Philippines-Australia Hastening the Impact of PROBE (PA-HIP)
under the AusAID Vulnerable Groups Facility (VGF)
Philippines-Australia Hastening the Impact of PROBE (PA-HIP)
Regional Learning Materials Center VII (RLMC VII)

Published by the
PHILIPPINES - AUSTRALIA PROJECT IN BASIC EDUCATION (PROBE)
REGIONAL LEARNING MATERIALS CENTER (RLMC VII)
Department of Education
Region VII, Central Visayas
Cebu City
Copyright 2002

Adopted 2009 by LRMDS

COPYRIGHT NOTICE
Section 9 of Presidential Decree No. 49 provides:

No copyright shall subsist in any work of the Government of the Republic of


the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office
wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for
profit.
This material has been developed within the Project in Basic Education (PROBE)
implemented by the Educational Development Projects Implementing Task Force
(EDPITAF) of the Department of Education (DepEd) in collaboration with the Bureau of
Elementary Education, Bureau of Secondary Education and the Commission on Higher
Education. Prior approval must be given by the PROBE Management Unit lodged at
EDPITAF and the source must be clearly acknowledged.

SALVACION O. ROILES
ISF - Secondary Science
Mandaue City Division
Writer

The production of this Teacher Support Material (TSM) has been made possible with the assistance
of the PA-PROBE HIP VGF RLMC VII Staff.
This TSM package has been adopted for online distribution through the Learning Resource Management Development System (LRMDS) Portal by Region VII under Project STRIVE for BESRA, a
project supported by AUSAID.

Teacher Support Material


First and Second Year Science and Technology Students

OILSPILLANDITSADVERSEEFFECTS

CONTENTS

Description

Target Audience

Subject Matter / Learning Competencies

Duration

Objectives

Procedure

Teaching Hints

Evaluation

Enrichment Activities

Resource List

ANSWER KEY

Activity Card No. 1

Far and Wide

Activity Card No. 2

Poor Eggs!

Activity Card No. 3

The Pretty - Ugly Feathers

Activity Card No. 4

Poster It!

References

Description
This material is in the form of Student Activity Cards. The activities included here simulate the
hazards brought about by oil spill upon the environment . This environmental issue stimulates deep
concern by highly advanced countries in the global community. Our country however, is still lukewarm
and have not made tangible efforts to minimize or control this problem either through proper legislation
or strict implementation of existing laws.
The accompanying activities in this material can help students develop their mathematical skills such
as converting one unit of measurement to another and improve their problem- solving skills. Their
values and attitude with regard to the preservation of our environment will also be heightened.
Teaching strategies such as Carousel Brainstorming, Laboratory Method and the 5 Es Approach
are utilized in the activities.
Teachers may refer to the INSET The Adverse Effects of Oil Spill - The Workshop on the mechanics
of the suggested strategies.

Target Audience
First and Second Year Science and Technology Students

Subject Matter / Learning Competencies


PSSLC R-BEC Integrated Science I
Unit IV
Living Things And Their Environment Second Grading Period
2.
Interactions between living things and nonliving things
2.1
Ecological system
2.2
Food chain and food web
2.3
Flow of matter and energy in an ecosystem
3.
Interrelationships among organisms and between organisms and their environment
3.1
Effect of population size/density on food, space and relationship among organisms
4.
Maintenance/Restoration of the integrity/balance of an ecosystem
4.1
Importance of natural resources
4.2
Conservation of soil, forest, wildlife
Unit V
Changes in the Environment
Second Grading Period
1.
Understand the resources of the earth (land, air, water)
1.1
Enumerate raw materials obtained from land, air and water
1.2
Discuss processes on how raw materials become finished products
2.
Hydrosphere
2.1
Differentiate density currents and upward movements of nutrients
2.2
Discuss the stages in river formation and its effects on the environment
2.3
Cite evidences of natural pollution in bodies of water

PSSLC R-BEC Science and Technology II


Unit II
Ecosystem
First Grading Period
1.
Be aware of the similarities and differences of ecosystems
1.1
Differentiate natural from man-made ecosystems
1.2
Identify plant and animal life in controlled (managed) and uncontrolled (unmanaged)
ecosystems
2.
Understand mans role in maintaining balance in nature
2.1
Analyze the different environmental issue relevant to the community
2.2
Suggest ways of minimizing or preventing ecological problems
Unit IV
Biodiversity Second Grading Period
1.
Appreciate the existence of diverse forms of living things
1.1
Describe the distinguishing characteristics of the different groups of organisms
1.2
Describe some common viruses and their effects on host cells
2.
Be aware of the potential value of organisms
2.1
Evaluate the economic importance of organisms
2.2
Propose ways to conserve economically important organisms
Unit VII
Organ Systems Third Grading Period
1.
Understand the interaction of cells, tissues, organs and systems in maintaining the life
of an organism
1.1
Illustrate the coordinated functions of cells, tissues, organs and systems in maintaining
the life of plants, animals and human beings
1.2
Recognize the necessity of an organized system for proper growth development and
survival of the organism
1.3
Assess the importance of each of the body systems in the overall functioning of the
organism
2.
Understand the anatomy and physiology of plants and animals
2.1
Describe the parts and functions of the different organ systems in plants
2.2
State requirements of plants for growth
2.3
Illustrate how materials and water are absorbed and transported in plants

Duration
Four sessions at sixty (60) minutes each

Objectives
Activity Card No. 1

Describe the immiscibility between oil and water (fresh or seawater)


Measure the area covered by a teaspoonful of gasoline or used motor oil simulating an oil
spill
Calculate and infer the area which can be covered by one gallon of oil if 1 gallon = 768
teaspoons
Calculate and infer the possible areas covered by different oil - carrying vessels which might
accidentally spill oil over a large body of water
2

Activity Card No. 2

Identify and describe the effects of an oil spill on birds eggs nesting near the seashore

Activity Card No. 3

Sketch the features of chicken feathers before and after exposing them to gasoline or used
motor oil and a detergent
Compare and discuss the changes in a chickens feathers after exposing them to gasoline and
to a detergent
Identify and infer some effects these changes could have upon a chicken or a normal bird

Activity Card No. 4

Make a poster about the hazardous effects of oil spill among living things and the environment
Express ones attitude or value towards environmental concern

Procedure
Preparation

Divide the class into small groups with a maximum of five members or less.
Let each group members choose their leader, performer, recorder, observer and reporter.
Membership to each group should be of mixed learning abilities.
Reproduce the Activity Cards for maximum participation.
Materials should be pre-assigned to the group prior to the activity.

Pre-Activity

Make a 5 to 10 - minute Pre-Activity discussion regarding the activity.


Check availability of materials and give clear instructions before the activity starts.

Activity Proper

Remind each group to follow strictly the time limit set.


Check the paticipation of every member in a group. Be ready to extend assistance to a group
whenever needed.
Encourage each member to share and discuss their answers with their groupmates.

PostActivity

Require each group to publish their answers so that other groups can react to each others
responses.
Process and clarify students responses so that they may be properly guided.
3

Teaching Hints

Discuss first with the students the topic on oil spill before undertaking the activity.
The objectives in the Activity Cards may be changed so as to fit a particular lesson based
upon the suggested objectives.
Observe closely the time allotment in every activity.
The Handouts and Reading Materials contained in the INSET Package Adverse Effects of
Oil Spill - The Workshop may be reproduced for students use.

The teacher has the option to:

give additional objectives in a particular activity or to change some of them to jibe with the
subject matter
allow the group of students to perform the three (3) different activities at the same time then
interchange after each performance or if they finish early; or
let the group perform all the three (3) different activities consecutively
emphasize the scientific aspect and human values of the activities by providing the appropriate
objective/s
require each group to submit a list of negative effects of oil spill in the country
let the students use live fish known as bakasi or live seashells instead of fresh eggs in the
activity if available in the locality
allow students to use sea water instead of fresh water in the activity if available
let the class do the Poster-Making Activity at home and finalize it the following day
let each group do the enrichment activities.

Evaluation
To measure the learning skills and knowledge acquired by the students, the teacher will:

observe the students degree of participation in every activity


check completion of assigned tasks within time frame given
check accuracy of responses to activity questions.

Enrichment Activities

The teacher may hold a contest for the best drawing made by the group regarding the chicken
feathers to add enjoyment to the activity.
Encourage students to participate in a debate regarding the role of legislators or lawmakers to
pass laws and regulate the hazardous effects of oil spill in the country.
Do some newscasting contest based on the newsclippings gathered.

Resource List
1 copy of the Teachers Guide Booklet
1 set of Master Copy of the Activity Cards
1 set of Sample Copies of the Activity Cards

ANSWER KEY
Activity Card No. 1 - Far and Wide
Procedure A.
1.

Diameter of a circular, shallow pan in mm = Answers may vary.

2.

Converted to cm = Answers may vary. (10 mm = 1 cm)

5.

There is no reaction between water and oil for they are immiscible. It is because oil has
properties which make it immiscible with water.

6.

Temperature (0C)

Condition

Answers may range from 320 C-380 C.

Tap water or seawater

Tap water or seawater with gasoline Answers may range from 340 C-390 C.

9.

Distance travelled by the teaspoonful of gasoline = Answers may vary.

10.

A = p D 2 = 3.14 (diameter of pan) 2 = Answers may vary.


4
4

11.

a.)

tanker with 8,000 gallons of crude oil


=
=

(8,000 gallons) (768 teaspoons / gal)


6,144,000 teaspoons

Solving for the distance travelled


distance travelled = (amount of teaspoons ) (distance travelled by oil in the pan)
= answers may vary
b.)

For ship transporting 300,000 gallons of gasoline


Convert 300, 000 gallons of gasoline to teaspoon

=
=

(300,000 gallons) (768 teaspoons / gal)


230,400,000 teaspoons

Solving for the distance travelled


distance travelled = (amount of teaspoons ) (distance travelled by oil in the pan)
= answers may vary

c.)

For supertanker carrying 83,000,000 gallons of diesel oil


Convert 83,000,000 gallons of diesel oil to teaspoons
=
=

(83,000,000 gallons) (768 teaspoons / gal)


63,744,000,000 teaspoons

Solving for the distance travelled


distance travelled = (amount of teaspoons ) (distance travelled by oil in the pan)
= answers may vary
Activity Card No. 2 - Poor Eggs
4.

Description / Inference
Egg Number

5.

Shell

Egg Yolk

white, dirty white, thicker,


stronger

bright or light yellow in color,


fresh-looking

white, dirty white, thicker,


stronger

bright or light yellow in color,


fresh-looking

white, dirty white, thicker,


stronger

bright or light yellow in color,


fresh-looking

white, dirty white, thicker,


stronger

bright or light yellow in color,


fresh-looking

Liquid / Material

Temperature ( 0C)

Water

Answer may range from 32oC - 38 oC

Gasoline /used motor oil

Answer may range from 34 C - 39oC

11.

Egg No./
Beaker No.

Time Limit

Shell

Egg Yolk

After 10 - minutes

After 10 - minutes

After 20- minutes

Weakens its structure

After 30 - minutes

Becomes brittle / easily


Totally disintegrates
breaks, traces of absorbed
motor oil observed

No changes observed

No changes observed

With brown spots, slightly Begins to look pale /


thinner
cloudy, shows traces of
motor oil
Disintegrates, scatters

Activity Card No. 3 - The Pretty - Ugly Feathers


5.

12.

Liquid / Material

Temperature (0C)

Water

Answer may range from 32oC - 38oC

Gasoline/ used motor oil

Answer may range from 34oC - 39oC

Feather No.

Type of Feather

Appearance

Unsoaked feather

Texture of featherettes (strands) are far apart

Soaked in Water

Strands of the feather stick together

Soaked in Oil

Strands are glued together, color change noticeable from dominantly black to brownish

Washed Feather

Strands of the feather stick together, absorbs oil

Activity Card No. 4 - POSTER IT!


Final posters produced may vary.

References:
Developing Cooperative Skills Through Carousel Brainstorming (INSET - PROBE1999)
Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia - 1998
Magazine Clippings about oil spill and other environmental concerns
Newspaper Articles about oil spill and other environmental concerns
The Adverse Effects of Oil Spill - The Workshop ( INSET - PROBE 2000 )

Activity Card
Card No.1
Activity
No. 1

Activity
Card60
No.1
Time
Limit:
min

FAR AND WIDE

Objectives

Describe the immiscibility between oil and water (fresh or seawater)


Measure the area covered by a teaspoonful of gasoline or used motor oil simulating an oil
spill
Calculate and infer the area which can be covered by one gallon of oil if 1 gallon = 768
teaspoons
Calculate and infer the possible areas covered by different oil - carrying vessels which might
accidentally spill oil over a large body of water

Materials
circular, shallow pan; 1 teaspoon gasoline or used motor oil, thermometer, water (tap or
seawater), mm-ruler, calculator

Procedure - A.
1.

2.
3.
4.

Measure the diameter of the circular,


pan
shallow pan using a mm - ruler and
record it. Diameter =___________ mm
Convert this measurement to centimeters.
Answer: _____________ cm
Partially fill the pan with either fresh water or sea water.
Using the thermometer, get the temperature of the water and record it on the table provided.
gasoline

5.

pan
.

Add one teaspoon of gasoline or used motor


oil at the center of the pan with water and
observe any reaction between oil and water.
Was there any reaction between oil and
water? Answer: _______________________
Why? _______________________________
___________________________________
__________________________________.

Activity Card No. 1- FAR AND WIDE


(Contd.)
6.

Get the temperature of the mixture and record it on the table.


Temperature (0C)

Condition
Tap water or seawater
Tap water or seawater with gasoline

gasoline
7.

8.
9.

Blow air slowly on the surface of the water or


dip one finger at any part of the pan except the
part with the gasoline.
Measure the distance travelled by the teaspoonful
of gasoline or used motor oil in the pan using the ruler.
Record this measurement. Distance travelled = ________________cm__

10.

Using the formula A = p D 2 , compute for the area


4
covered by the teaspoonful of gasoline or used motor
oil in the pan.

11.

Using a calculator, infer on the following through computation:

pan

Answer: A = p D 2
4

If 1 gallon = 768 teaspoons and 1 teaspoon of gasoline can travel a distance using the value for the
distance covered by a teaspoonful of gasoline or used motor oil in Step No. 8, calculate the area that
might be covered by an oil spill caused by:
Area Covered
-

A tanker truck holding 8,000 gallons of crude oil


A ship transporting 300,000 gallons of gasoline
A supertanker carrying 83,000,000 gallons of diesel oil

________________________
________________________
________________________

Procedure - B.
1.
2.
3.

Prepare your table of results and observations and choose your reporter.
Compare your results with the other group through your reporter.
Take your news articles or magazine clippings about oil spill and discuss among your members the
possible adverse effects of oil spill among marine lives, the people and the environment.

Activity Card
Card No.1
Activity
No. 2

Time Limit:
Time
Limit:4060min.
min

POOR EGGS!
Objectives

Identify and describe the effects of an oil spill on birdseggs nesting near the seashore

Materials
4 pieces fresh eggs, 4 pieces 250-ml beaker, 4 pieces petri dish, stopwatch, used motor oil or gasoline,
fresh water or sea water, magazine or newspaper clippings about oil spill
Procedure - A

2.
3.
4.

egg

egg

egg

egg

1.

Prepare also 4 pieces of 250 - ml beakers.


Label each beaker as 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Place the fresh eggs separately in each beaker
following or matching their labels.
Observe the shells of the fresh eggs and infer
on the condition of the eggs yolks before any
liquid is placed on them. Record your
observations and inferences on the table.

Prepare 4 pieces of fresh eggs and label them 1, 2,


3,and 4 using a pentel pen or any material which
could not be erased when the eggs will be placed
in water, gasoline or used motor oil.

Beaker
1

Beaker
2

Beaker
3

Description / Inference
Egg Number

Shell

Egg yolk

4
Beaker
4

Activity Card No. 2- POOR EGGS!


(Contd.)
5.

Record the temperature of the water and


used motor oil before they are to be placed
in their respective container.
6.

Beaker
1
water

Beaker
Beaker Beaker
2
3
4
gasoline or used motor oil

7.

Liquid / Material
Temperature (0C)
Water
Gasoline/ used motor
oil
Place simultaneously about 200 ml of fresh
water or sea water in Beaker 1 and about
200 ml of gasoline or used motor oil in
beakers 2, 3, and 4.
Follow these time limits for the eggs to stay
in the set up.

Beaker No.

Egg No.

Fresh / sea water

10 minutes

Gasoline / used motor oil

10 minutes

Gasoline / used motor oil

20 minutes

Gasoline / used motor oil

30 minutes

8.
9.
10.
11.

Liquid Used

Length of Time / Duration

When each time limit is reached, remove the eggs from their respective beakers and examine
their shells using the hand lens. Record your observations on the table.
After examining the shells, carefully crack the eggs and place them individually on separate
petri dish.
Take note of the color and condition of the egg yolk.
Compare the 4 eggs based upon the results indicated on the table.
Egg No./
Beaker No.

Time Limit

After 10 - minutes

After 10 - minutes

After 20 - minutes

After 30 - minutes

Shell

Egg Yolk

Procedure - B
1.
2.
3.

Prepare your table of results and observations and choose your reporter.
Compare your results with the other group through your reporter.
Take your news articles or magazine clippings about oil spill and discuss among your members
the possible adverse effects of oil spill among marine lives, the people and the environment.

Activity Card
Activity
CardNo.1
No. 3

Activity
Card60
No.1
Time
Limit:
min

THE PRETTY - UGLY FEATHERS


Objectives

Sketch the features of chicken feathers before and after exposing them to gasoline or used
motor oil and a detergent
Compare and discuss the changes in a chickens feathers after exposing them to gasoline and
to a detergent
Identify and infer some effects these changes could have upon a chicken or a normal bird

Materials
chicken feathers, 4 pieces 250-ml beakers, tap water or sea water, gasoline or used motor oil, handlens,
1 tablespoon liquid detergent solution, stopwatch, pencil, colored pens, and pieces of bond paper
Procedure - A
1.
2.

4.
5.

Prepare 4 pieces of 250 - ml beakers


and label them from 1 - 4.
Get one sample of an unsoaked chicken feather,
examine it with a hand lens and sketch it on a
Beaker Beaker Beaker Beaker
piece of bondpaper. Describe and write your
1
2
3
4
observations about the feather below your drawing. water gasoline or used motor oil
Place simultaneously about 200 ml of fresh water or sea water in Beaker 1 and about 200 ml of
gasoline or used motor oil in Beakers 2, 3, and 4. Record the time this is done.
Place 4 pieces of chicken feathers.

Liquid / Material
Water
Gasoline/ used motor oil

Temperature (0C)

Activity Card No. 3- The Pretty-Ugly Feathers


(Contd.)
6.

Follow these time limits for the feathers to stay in the set up:
Beaker No.

Feather No.

1
2
3
4
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.

1
2
3
4

Length of Time / Duration


5 minutes
5 minutes
10 minutes
15 minutes

When each time limit is reached, remove the feathers from their respective beakers and examine each
of them using the handlens.
Make a table of observation for the drawings of the unsoaked, soaked, and washed chickens
feathers.
Sketch your observations on the feathers and compare them with each other.
Clean the feathers with gasoline or used motor oil using the liquid detergent, rinse in water and dry.
Examine the feather with the handlens and sketch them.
Compare the sketches of unsoaked, soaked and washed feathers using the table below.
Feather No.

Type of Feather

Unsoaked Feather

Soaked in Water

Soaked in Oil

Washed Feather

Appearance

Procedure - B
1.
2.
3.

Prepare your table of results and observations and choose your reporter.
Compare your results with the other group through your reporter.
Discuss among your members the adverse effects of oil spill among birds and marine lives, the people
and the environment.

Activity Card
Card No.1
Activity
No. 4

Activity
Card60
No.1
Time
Limit:
min

POSTER IT!
Objectives

Make a poster about the hazardous effects of oil spill among living things and the environment
Express ones attitude or value towards environmental concern

Materials
pencil, pentel pens, coloring materials, bond paper, manila paper or cartolina

Procedure - A
1.

Prepare your materials for the poster.

2.

Make a sketch or layout of a poster which would depict or show ones concern about the
effects of an oil spill to the environment.

3.

Work collaboratively with your group mates to come up with a unique design or idea making
your poster presentable.

4.

Choose your colors well and make an appropriate slogan to your poster.

5.

Finalize your poster within the time limit.

6.

Exhibit your finished output to your teacher and your classmates.

COPYRIGHT PAGE

SALVACION O. ROILES
ISF - Secondary Science
Mandaue City Division

CONTENTS
Description
Target Audience
Subject Matter / Learning Competencies
Duration
Objectives
Instructions / Procedures for Use
Teaching Hints
Evaluation
Enrichment Activities
Resource List
References

1
1
1
1
1
2
3
3
3
3
3

ANSWER KEY
Activity No. 1
Activity No. 2
Activity No. 3
Activity No. 4

Far and Wide


Poor Eggs!
The Pretty - Ugly Feathers
Poster It!

4
5
6
7

Description
This material is in the form of Student Activity Cards. The activities included here simulate the hazards
brought about by oil spill upon the environment . This environmental issue stimulated deep concern by highly
advanced countries in the global community. Our country however, is still lukewarm and have not made
tangible efforts to minimize or control this problem either through proper legislation or strict implementation
of existing laws.
The accompanying activities in this material can help students develop their mathematical skills such as
converting one unit of measurement to another and improve their problem- solving skills. Their values and
attitude with regard to the preservation of our environment will also be heightened.
Teaching strategies such as Carousel Brainstorming , Laboratory Method and the 5 Es Approach are
utilized in the activities.
Teachers may refer to the INSET The Adverse Effects of Oil Spill - The Workshop on the mechanics
of the suggested strategies.

Target Audience
First and Second Year Science and Technology Students

Subject Matter / Learning Competency


PSSLC Science and Technology I Unit V.
3.
3.3.3 -

Naturally Occurring Changes


Second Grading Period
Demonstrate understanding of the hydrosphere
Cite evidences of natural pollution in bodies of water

Unit VII.
2.
3.
3.3.1 3.3.2 -

Man Affects the Changes in the Environment


Fourth Grading Period
Manifest scientific thinking by which man disturbs the relationship between organizations
Manifest scientific thinking to restore / maintain a balanced ecosystem
Discuss how natural resources can be used wisely
Explain conservation of soil,forest, wild life, water and air

PSSLC Science and Technology II Unit I.


3.
3.3.1 3.3.2

Introduction First Grading Period


Appreciate scientific values inherent to the study of nature and the proper use of its resources
Make correct ethical judgment or decision in relation to the value of respect for living things,
self-reliance and productivity in the environment
Apply appropriate management of environmental resources

Unit II.
2.
2.2.2 3.
3.3.1 -

3.3.2

Ecosystem First Grading Period


Understand the dynamic characteristics of an ecosystem
Explain how nature maintains its own balance
Understand mans role in maintaining balance in nature
Analyze the effects of:

marine destruction

thermal inversion

biomagnification
Recognize mans role in maintaining balance in nature

Unit II.
1.
1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 2.
-

Ecosystem - Enrichment
Fourth Grading Period
Demonstrate concern for ecological problems
Appreciate the implications of human activities in relation to solving ecological problems
Suggest ways of minimizing or preventing ecological problems
Support and participate in environmental programs
Understand mans role in maintaining balance in nature

Unit III.
2.
2.2.1 2.2.2 -

Biological Diversity Second Grading Period


Understand the structural and adaptive characteristics of organisms
Describe the different adaptive structures developed by organisms in the course of time
Explain the significance of structural and adaptive characteristics of organisms

Unit IV.
1.
1.1.6 -

Life Energy Second Grading Period


Understand the food manufacture process of photosynthesis
Evaluate the importance of the interdependency of living things for important gases through
oxygen-carbon dioxide cycles

Duration
Three sessions at eighty (80) minutes each

Objectives
Activity Card No.1

To describe the immiscibility between oil and water


To measure the area covered by a teaspoonful of gasoline or used motor oil simulating an
oil spill
To calculate and infer the area which can be covered by one gallon of oil if 1 gallon = 768
teaspoons
To calculate and infer the possible areas covered by different oil - carrying vessels which
might accidentally spill over a large body of water

Activity Card No.2

To identify and describe the effects of an oil spill on birds eggs nesting near the seashore

Activity Card No. 3

To sketch the features of chicken feathers before and after exposing them to gasoline or
used motor oil and a detergent
To compare and discuss the changes in a chickens feathers after exposing them to gasoline
and to a detergent
To identify and infer some effects these changes upon a chicken or a normal bird

Activity Card No. 4

To make a poster about the hazardous effects of oil spill among living things and the
environment

Instructions / Procedures for Use


Preparations

Divide the class into small groups with a maximum of five members or less.
Let each group members choose their leader, performer, recorder, observer and reporter.
Membership to each group should be of mixed learning abilities.
Observe closely the time allotment in every activity.
Reproduce the Activity Cards for maximum participation.
Materials should be pre-assigned to the group prior to the activity.

Pre-Activity

Make a 5 to 10 - minute Pre-Activity discussion regarding the activity.


Check availability of materials and give clear instructions before the activity starts.

Activity Proper

Remind each group to follow strictly the time limit set.


Check the paticipation of every member in a group. Be ready to extend assistance to a
group whenever needed.
Encourage each member to share and discuss their answers with their groupmates.

Post Activity

Require each group to publish their answers so that other groups can react to each others
responses.
Process and clarify students responses so that they may be properly guided.

Teaching Hints

Discuss first with the students the topic on oil spill before undertaking the activity.
The objectives in the Activity cards may be changed so as to fit a particular lesson based
upon the suggested objectives.
The Handouts and Reading Materials contained in the INSET Package may be reproduced
for students use.

The teacher has the option to:

give additional objectives in a particular activity or to change some of them to jibe with the
subject matter
allow the group of students to perform the three (3) different activities at the same time then
interchange after each performance or if they finish early
let the group perform all the three (3) different activities consecutively
emphasize the scientific aspect and human values of the activities by providing the appro priate objective/s
require each group to submit a list of negative effects of oil spill in the country
let the students use live fish known as bakasi or live seashells instead of fresh eggs in
the activity if available in the locality
allow students to use sea water instead of fresh water in the activity if available
let the class do the Poster-Making Activity at home and submit it the following day.

Evaluation
To measurethe learning skills and knowledge acquired by the students, the teacher will:

observe the students degree of participation in every activity


check completion of assigned tasks within time frame given
check accuracy of responses to activity questions.

Enrichment Activities

The teacher may hold a contest for the best drawing made by the group regarding the
chicken feathers to add enjoyment.
Encourage students to participate in a debate regarding the role of legislators or lawmakers
in the country to pass laws and regulate the hazardous effects of oil spill in the country.

Resource List
1 copy of the Teachers Guide Booklet
1 set of Master Copy of the Activity Cards
1 set of Sample Copies of the Activity Cards

ANSWER KEY:
Activity 1 - Far and Wide
Procedure A.
1.

Diameter of a circular, shallow pan in mm = Answers may vary.

2.

Converted to cm = Answers may vary (10 mm = 1 cm)

5.

There is no reaction between water and oil for they are immiscible. It is because oil has
properties which make it immiscible with water.

6.

Condition

Temperature (0C)

Plain water or seawater

Answers may vary.

Plain water or seawater with gasoline

Answers may vary.

9.

Distance travelled by the teaspoonful of gasoline = Answers may vary.

10.

A = p D 2 = 3.14 (diameter of pan) 2 = Answers may vary.


4
4

11.

a.)

tanker with 8,000 gallons of crude oil


=
=

(8,000 gallons) (768 teaspoons / gal)


6,144,000 teaspoons

Solving for the distance travelled


distance travelled = (amount of teaspoons ) (distance travelled by oil in the pan)
b.)

Converting 300, 000 gallons of gasoline to teaspoon


(for ship transporting 300,000 gallons of gasoline)
=
=

(300,000 gallons) (768 teaspoons / gal)


230,400,000 teaspoons

Solving for the distance travelled


distance travelled = (amount of teaspoons ) (distance travelled by oil in the pan)

c.)

Converting 83,000,000 gallons of diesel oil to teaspoons


(for supertanker carrying 83,000,000 gallons of diesel oil)
=
=

(83,000,000 gallons) (768 teaspoons / gal)


63,744,000,000 teaspoons

Solving for the distance travelled


distance travelled = (amount of teaspoons ) (distance travelled by oil in the pan)
Activity 2 - Poor Eggs
4.

Description / Inference
Egg Number

Egg yolk

white, dirty white, thicker,


stronger

bright or light yellow in color,


fresh-looking

white, dirty white, thicker,


stronger

bright or light yellow in color,


fresh-looking

white, dirty white, thicker,


stronger

bright or light yellow in color,


fresh-looking

5.

Shell

white, dirty white, thicker,


stronger

bright or light yellow in color,


fresh-looking

Liquid / Material

Temperature ( 0C)

Water

Answer may vary.

Gasoline /used motor oil

Answer may vary.

11.

Egg No./
Beaker No.

Time Limit

Shell

Egg Yolk

After 10 - minutes No changes observed

No changes observed

After 10 - minutes

With brown spots, slightly


thinner

Begins to look pale /


cloudy, shows traces of
motor oil

After 20- minutes

Weakens its structure

Disintegrates, scatters

After 30 - minutes

Became brittle / easily


breaks, traces of absorbed
motor oil observed

Totally disintegrates

Activity 3 - The Pretty - Ugly Feathers


5.

12.

Liquid / Material

Temperature (0C)

Water

Answer may vary.

Gasoline/ used motor oil

Answer may vary.

Feather No.

Type of Feather

Appearance

Unsoaked feather

Texture of featherettes (strans) are far apart

Soaked in Water

Strands of the feather stick together

Soaked in Oil

Strands are glued together, color change noticeable from dominantly black to brownish

Washed Feather

Strands of the feather stick together, absorbs oil

References:
The Adverse Effects of Oil Spill - The Workshop ( INSET - PROBE )
Developing Cooperative Skills Through Carousel Brainstorming (INSET - PROBE)
Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia - 1998
Magazine Clippings
Newspaper Articles

Activity Card No.1

Time Limit: 40 min.

FAR AND WIDE

Objectives

To describe the immiscibility between oil and water (fresh or seawater)


To measure the area covered by a teaspoonful of gasoline or used motor oil simulating an
oil spill
To calculate and infer the area which can be covered by one gallon of oil if 1 gallon = 768
teaspoons
To calculate and infer the possible areas covered by different oil - carrying vessels which
might accidentally spill oil over a large body of water

Materials
circular, shallow pan; 1 teaspoon gasoline or used motor oil, thermometer, water (tap or seawater),
mm-ruler, calculator
Procedure - A.
1.

2.
3.
4.

Measure the diameter of the circular,


shallow pan using a mm - ruler and
record it. Diameter =___________ mm
Convert this measurement to centimeters.
Answer: _____________ cm
Partially fill the pan with either fresh water or sea water.
Using the thermometer, get the temperature of the water and record it on the table provided.
5.

Add one teaspoon of gasoline or used motor


oil at the center of the pan with water and
observe any reaction between oil and water.
Was there any reaction between oil and
water? Answer: ___________________
Why? __________________________________
_______________________________________
______________________________________.

Activity No. 1- FAR AND WIDE


(Contd.)

6.

Get the temperature of the mixture and record it onthetable.


Condition

Temperature (0C)

Plain water or seawater


Plain water or seawater with gasoline

7.

8.
9.

Blow air slowly onthe surface of the water or


dip one finger at any part of the pan except the
part with the gasoline.
Measure the distance traveled by the teaspoonful
of gasoline or used motor oil in the pan using the ruler.
Record this measurement. Distance traveled = __________________

10.

Using the formula A = p D 2 , compute for the area


4
covered by the teaspoonful of gasoline or used motor
oil in the pan.

11.

Using a calculator, infer on the following through computation:

Answer: A = p D 2
4

If 1 gallon = 768 teaspoons and 1 teaspoon of gasoline can travel a distance using the value for the
distance covered by a teaspoonful of gasoline or used motor oil in Step No. 8, calculate the area that
might be covered by an oil spillc aused by:
Area Covered
-

A tanker truck holding 8,000 gallons of crude oil


___________________________
A ship transporting 300,000 gallons of gasoline
___________________________
A supertanker carrying 83,000,000 gallonsof diesel oil ___________________________

Procedure - B.
1.
2.
3.

Prepare your table of results and observations and choose your reporter.
Compare your results with the other group through your reporter.
Take your news articles or magazine clippings about oil spill and discuss among your members the
possible adverse effects of oil spill among marine lives, the people and the environment.

Time Limit: 40 min.

Activity Card No. 2

POOR EGGS!
Objectives

To identify and describe the effects of an oil spilll on birdseggs nesting near the seashore

Materials
4 pieces fresh eggs, 4 pieces 250-ml beaker, 4 pieces petri dish, stopwatch, used motor oil or gasoline,
fresh water or sea water
Procedure - A
1

2.
3.
4.

1.

Prepare also 4 pieces of 250 - ml beakers.


Label each beaker as 1, 2, 3, and 4.
Place the fresh eggs separately in each beaker
following or matching their labels.
Observe the shells of the fresh eggs and infer
on the condition of the eggs yolks before any
liquid is placed on them. Record your
observations and inferences on the table.

Prepare 4 pieces of fresh eggs and label them 1, 2,


3,and 4 using a pentel pen or any material which
could not be erased when the eggs will be placed
in water, gasoline or used motor oil.

Beaker
1

Beaker
2

Beaker
3

Description / Inference
Egg Number
1

Shell

Egg yolk

Beaker
4

Activity No. 2- POOR EGGS!


(Contd.)

5.

Record the temperature of the water and


used motor oil before they are to be placed
in their respective container.
6.

Beaker
1
water

9.
10.
11.

Beaker
Beaker Beaker
2
3
4
gasoline or used motor oil

Beaker No.

8.

Egg No.

7.

Liquid / Material
Temperature (0C)
Water
Gasoline/ used motor
oil
Place simultaneously about 200 ml of fresh
water or sea water in Beaker 1 and about
200 ml of gasoline or used motor oil in
beakers 2, 3, and 4.
Follow these time limits for the eggs to stay
in the set up.

Liquid Used

Length of Time / Duration

Fresh / sea water

10 minutes

Gasoline / used motor oil

10 minutes

Gasoline / used motor oil

20 minutes

Gasoline / used motor oil

30 minutes

When each time limit is reached, remove the eggs from their respective beakers and examine
their shells using the handlens. Record your observations on the table.
After examining the shells, carefully crack the eggs and place them individually on separate
petri dish.
Observe the condition of the eggs yolks and record them on the table.
Compare the 4 eggs based upon the results indicated on the table.
Egg No./
Time Limit
Shell
Egg Yolk
Beaker No.
1

After 10 - minutes

After 10 - minutes

After 20 - minutes

After 30 - minutes

Procedure - B.
1.
2.
3.

Prepare your table of results and observations and choose your reporter.
Compare your results with the other group through your reporter.
Take your news articles or magazine clippings about oil spill and discuss among your members
the possible adverse effects of oil spill among marine lives, the people and the environment.

Time Limit: 40 min

Activity Card No. 3

THE PRETTY - UGLY FEATHERS


Objectives
To sketch the features of chicken feathers before and after exposing them to gasoline or used
motor oil and a detergent
To compare and discuss the changes in the chickens feathers after exposing them to gasoline
and to the detergent
To identify and infer some effects these changes could have upon a chicken or a normal bird.
Materials
chicken feathers, 4 pieces 250-ml beakers, fresh water or sea water, gasoline or used motor oil, hand lens,
1 tablespoon liquid detergent solution, stopwatch, pencil, colored pens, and pieces of bond paper
Procedure - A
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

Prepare 4 pieces of 250 - ml beakers


and label them from 1 - 4.
Place 4 pieces of chicken feathers
separately in each corresponding beaker.
Beaker Beaker Beaker Beaker
Get one sample of an unsoaked chicken feather,
1
2
3
4
examine it with a hand lens and sketch it on
water
gasoline or used motor oil
a piece of bondpaper. Describe and write your observations about the feather below your drawing.
Place simultaneously about 200 ml of fresh water or sea water in Beaker 1 and about 200 ml of
gasoline or used motor oil in Beakers 2, 3, and 4. Record the time this is done.
Record the temperature of the water and used motor oil before they are to be placed in their
respective container.
Liquid / Material
Water
Gasoline/ used motor oil

Temperature (0C)

6.

8.
4.
9.
10.
11.
12.

Follow these time limits for the feathers to stay in the set up:
Beaker No.

Feather No.

1
2
3
4

1
2
3
4

Length of Time / Duration


5 minutes
5 minutes
10 minutes
15 minutes

When each time limit is reached, remove the feathers from their respective beakers and examine each
of them using the hand lens.
Make a table of observation for the drawings of the unsoaked, soaked, and washed chickens
feathers.
Sketch your observations on the feathers and compare them with each other.
Clean the feathers with gasoline or used motor oil using the liquid detergent, rinse in water and dry.
Examine the feather with the handlens and sketch them.
Compare the sketches of unsoaked, soaked and washed feathers using the table below.
Feather No.

Type of Feather

Unsoaked feather

Soaked in Water

Soaked in Oil

Washed Feather

Appearance

Procedure - B.
1.
2.
3.

Prepare your table of results and observations and choose your reporter.
Compare your results with the other group through your reporter.
Take your news articles or magazine clippings about oil spill and discuss among your members
the possible adverse effects of oil spill among marine lives, the people and the environment.

Activity Card No. 4

Time Limit: 40 min

POSTER IT!
Objectives
To make a poster about the hazardous effects of oil spill among living things and the environment.
To express ones attitude or value towards environmental concern.
Materials
pencil, pentel pens, coloring materials, bond paper, Manila paper or Cartolina
Procedure - A
1.

Prepare your materials for the poster.

2.

Make a sketch or layout of a poster which would depict or show ones concern aboutthe effects
of an oil spill to the environment.

3.

Work collaboratively with your group mates to come up with a unique design or idea making your
poster presentable.

4.

Choose your colors well and make an appropriate slogan to your poster.

5.

Finalize your poster within the time limit.

6.

Exhibit your finished output to your teacher and your classmates.

A resource produced through the support of AusAID


on behalf of the Australian Government