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GuruHargobindThermalPowerPlant,LehraMahobbat
StudentTeam/Author:AjaypalBansal
GuideBy:Er.D.S.Bhullar
Degree:MechanicalEngg
College:GuruGobindSinghCollegeofEngineering&Technology,TalwandiSaboo
MySelfAjaypalBansal
1PROJECTREPORTONSIXMONTHSINDUSTRIALTRAININGATG.H.T.P.LEHRAMOHABBATBATHINDA
SubmittedtoPUNJABTECHNICALUNIVERSITY,JALANDHARInpartialfulfillmentoftherequirementsfortheawardof
theDegreeofBachelorofTechnologyinMechanicalEngineeringByAJAYPALBANSALUniv.RollNo.100361130198
Semester:7thUndertheguidanceofAcademicTutorIndustrialTutorEr.YadwinderpalSharmaEr.D.S.Bhullar
(TRAININGCOORDINATOR)(A.S.E./TRAINING)DepartmentofMechanicalEngineeringGURUGOBINDSINGH
COLLEGEOFENGINEERING&TECHNOLOGYTALWANDISABO,BATHINDA(PUNJAB)2GURUGOBINDSINGH
COLLEGEOFENGINEERING&TECHNOLOGY,TALWANDISABO(BATHINDA)CERTIFICATEOFORIGINALITYOF
WORKIamAjaypalBansalUniv.RollNo.100361130198studentofBachelorinTechnologyBranchMechanical4th
Year,haveundergonethesixmonthindustrialtrainingatG.H.T.P.LEHRAMOHABBATBATHINDA.Ihavedonethe
followingprojectduringmytrainingperiod:1.MethodstoremovefailureinBoilerTubes.Iherebydeclarethatthework
isanoriginaloneandhasnotbeensubmittedearliertothisuniversityoranyotherinstitutionforfulfillmentofthe
requirementofacourseofstudy.AjaypalBansalUniv.RollNo.:100361130198Branch:MechanicalEngg.Semester:
7thG.G.S.C.E.T.TalwandiSabo(Bathinda)Er.YadwinderpalSharma(AcademicTutor)3Thesixmonthindustrial
trainingatGURUHARGOBINDTHERMALPOWERPLANT,LEHRAMOHABBAT(BATHINDA)commencedfrom
04June,2013to30Nov,2013.Itwasaveryknowledgeableexperienceformeundertheableguidanceofthe
employeesofvariousdepartmentsatGHTP,LehraMohabbat.IamthankfultotheinchargeofthetrainingcellEr.D.S.
BHULLAR(A.S.E./TRAINING)Whomadegreateffortstomakemytraininginformative.Iamalsothankfulforthevery
kindcooperationoftheemployeesofthevariouscellswhoforwardedtheirbesthandtomakemytraininginteresting
andknowledgeable.MyheartiestthanksgotoEr.BEANTSINGHEr.PARAMJITSINGHEr.BALJEETSINGHBEDI
Er.INDERJITSINGHEr.JASKARANSINGHAjaypalBansalACKNOWLEDGEMENT4ABOUTTHETRAININGPunjab
TechnicalUniversity,Jalandhar,PTUscurriculumforB.Tech.specifiesthecompletionofthesixmonthsprojectworkin
someindustry,inpartialfulfillmentoftherequirementsfortheawardofthedegreeofBachelorinTechnologyin
MechanicalEngineering.Towardsthefulfillmentoftherequirementofthesixmonthindustrialtraining,afirstinanyof
theIndianUniversities,mourinstitutionGuruGobindSinghCollegeofEngg.&Tech.,TalwandiSabo,(Bathinda)Pb.
deputedmeformyindustrialtrainingduringtheseventhsemestertoGURUHARGOBINDTHERMALPOWERPLANT,
LEHRAMOHABBAT,BATHINDA.IjoinedG.H.T.P.Asatraineeon04062013andIamworkinghereformyindustrial
projectsundertheguidanceofEr.JaskaranSingh(AE/BMC).Mymajorprojecthereis,Methodstoremovefailurein
BoilerTubes.WiththeactivehelpofTrainingDepartmentandeventhepeopleattheseniormostleveloftheplant.I
couldachievethesetasksquitesatisfactorilyandfinishedwithalltheseprojectsby(30112013).5
TECHNICAL
DETAILSANDFEATURESOFSYSTEM
PLANTOVERVIEW
INTRODUCTIONTOTHERMALPOWERPLANT
BY
PASSSYSTEM
TURBINELUBOILSUPPLYSYSTEM
GOVERNINGSYSTEM
GENERALASPECTSOFBOILER

COALPULVERISINGSYSTEM
PLANTOVERVIEWDESCRIPTION
VARIOUSCYCLESINVOLVEDINPOWER
GENERATION
WORKINGOFTHERMALPOWERPLANTATG.H.T.P.
DEMINERALISEDWATERPLANT

COOLINGTOWERS
INSTRUMENT/SERVICEAIRCOMPRESSORS
COALHANDLINGPLANT
ASHHANDLING
SYSTEM
ELECTROSTATICPRECIPITATOR(ESP)
HYDROGENGASPLANT
DETAILOFPROJECTCONTENTS
6TECHNICALDETAILSANDFEATURESOFSYSTEMPart1:SiteDetails1.0SiteFeatures
NameofVillageV.P.O.
LehraMohabbat
NameofDistrictBathinda
NearestTownandDistanceRampuraPhul8Kms
NearestRailway
StationandDistanceLehraMohabbat1.5Kms
NearestAirportandDistanceAmritsar190Kms
UltimatePotentialof
TheSite(MW)920MW2.0LandTotalareaoflandavailableatsitefor
PowerPlant774Acres
AshPond160Acres

Township91Acres3.0Fuel
TypeBituminouscoalandoil
SourceCoalIndiaLtd.AndIndianOilCorporation

DistanceAppx.1500Kmsforcoaland350Kmsforoil
FuelAvailabilityThroughRail74.0AshDisposalProposed

MethodofDisposalDryandWet
ProposalforUtilisation(1)Useincementplant(2)Useinbrickplant5.0Power
EvacuationProposalTomaingridofPSEBthrough8nos.220KVLines.8PLANTOVERVIEWConveyerbeltFDFan
HeatreleasedContinueOnNextPageCOALPLANTBOILERBUNKERSPULVERISINGMILLSBOILERBURNER
COMBUSTIONCLEAREDFUELGASPASSTOCHIMNEYVIAINDUCEDDRAUGHTFANCOALBURNBOILSWATER
WHICHGIVESSTEAMSTEAMISSUPERHEATEDPASSESTOH.PTURBINEDustAsh9CONTINUEDFROMTHE
LASTPAGE:SteamPowerLinesTURBINEBLADESCAUSESTURBINETOROTATESTEAMISRETURNEDTO
BOILERFORREHEATINGTIRBINESHAFTISCOMPLEDTOROTOROFGENERATORGENERATORROTORIS
ENCLOSEDINSTATORELECTRICITYISPRODUCEDATSTATORWINDINGFROMWHICHITGOESTO
TRANSFORMEREXHAUSTEDSTEAMENERGYCONDENSERUSEDAGAININBOILERWATERISPUMPED
HEATEDINLPHEATERSDEAERATEDINDEAERATORPRESSUREINCREASESBYBOILERFEEDPUMPS
HEATEDINHPHEATERSECONOMIZERSTEAMDRUMSTEAMISHEATEDINSUPERHEATERHPTURBINE
POWERISSTEPEDUPBYTRANSFORMERGRIDSYSTEMS10INTRODUCTIONTOTHERMALPOWERPLANTFig
1.1showsbasicblockdiagramofthethermalpowerplant.Itbasicallyconsistsofthreepartsviz.,Turbine,Generatorand
Boiler,whicharefurtherdividedasshowninthefigure.Fig1.1BlockDiagramofThermalPowerPlantSteamTurbine
SpecificationsMW:250MWSpeed:3000rpmSteaminletPressure:147atmSteamoutletpressure:0.1033atmSteam

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21May,2015:
SummerSchool2015
24Apr,2015:
ThreeinnovatorsfromGYTIAwards2014were
selectedforthePresident'sscholarsin
residenceprogram
21Apr,2015:
35thShodhYatrainTripura13thto18thMay,
2015

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GuruHargobindThermalPowerPlant,LehraMahobbat

Temperature:535CCoolingwatertemperature:33CThermalPowerPlantTurbineGeneratorBoilerSteamTurbine
StatorRotorDVARHPTLPTIPT11DescriptionItisasingleshaftmachinewithseparateHP(HighPressure),IP
(IntermediatePressure)andLP(LowPressure)module.HPandIPsectionsaresingleflowcylinderswithHP&LPflows
inoppositedirectionsandLPsectionisadoubleflowcylinder.Therotorsofturbineandgeneratorarecoupledwithrigid
coupling.HPandIPcylindersarecontrolledbythrottlecontrolgoverning.Theturbineissupportedby3bearingsone
eachforLP,HPandIPsections.Allvalvesareactuatedbyindividualhighpressureelectrohydraulicactuatorsatanoil
pressureof160bar.Turbinehasahighpressureelectrohydraulicgoverningsystem,whichcontrolsspeedandoutputby
anelectricsystem.Aclosedcircuitoilsystemisprovidedforlubricatingandcoolingthebearings.Forcontroloil
purpose,separatehighpressureoilsystemisprovided.Thehighpressuresuppliedbyliftingoilpumppreventsmetalto
metalcontactofbearingsduringstartupandshutdown.GeneratorSpecificationsKVA:147060StatorCurrent:8086A
KW:250000RotorVolts:364VPowerfactor:0.98lagRotorCurrent:819.5ASpeed:3000rpmInsulation:FclassNo.of
phases:3Cooling:CACWConnection:YOverspeed:10%maxFrequency:50HzStatorVolts:10500VDescription
Thetwopolegeneratorusesdirectaircoolingfortherotorwindingandindirectcoolingforthestatorwinding.The
lossesintheremaininggeneratorcomponents,suchasironlosses,windagelossesandstraylossesarealsodissipated
throughair.ThemaincomponentsofGeneratorareasfollows:1.Stator:Statorframe,Statorcore,Statorwinding,Stator
endcovers2.Rotor:Rotorshaft,Rotorwindings,Rotorretainingrings,Fieldconnections3.Bearings124.AirfiltersThe
followingadditionalauxiliariesarerequiredforgeneratoroperation:1.Oilsupplysystem2.ExcitationsystemExcitation
SystemThebrushlessDCexcitationsystemusedinthisplantconsistsofthefollowingmaincomponents:1.Rectifier
wheel2.Threephasemainexciter3.Threephasepilotexcitercooler4.MeteringandsupervisoryequipmentSteam
CycleTheoryThepowerstationoperatesusingaclosedsteampowercycle,wherewaterundergoesvarious
thermodynamicprocessesinacycle.Fig.1.2showsthesimplifieddiagramofthesteamplant,showingtheessential
elementsoftheplant.Onehalfofthecycleconsistsoftheboileri.e.steamgeneratoranditsauxiliaries.Theotherhalf
i.e.theturbinecycleconsistsofturbine,generator,condenser,feedpumpandfeedwaterheaters.13Fig1.2Simplified
PowerplantcycleFirstweconsidertheboilerplantinvolvedinthecycle.Feedwaterissuppliedtotheboilerdrum
througheconomizer,wherewaterisboiledandconvertedintodrysaturatedsteam.Thisdrysteamisfurther
superheatedinthesuperheaterandthenfedtotheHPcylinderthroughmainsteamlinesviaEmergencyStopValves
andControlValves.Thesteamexpandsintheturbinegivingupheatenergy,ahighproportionofwhichisconverted
intoworkenergyontheturbineshaft.Theshaftturnsanelectricalgeneratorwhichproduceselectricpower.Steam
leavingtheHPcylindersreturnstotheboiler,whereitisreheated.ThereheatedsteamisDCONDENSERHOTWELL
LPHDeaeratorBFPHPHHPTLPTIPTGBoilerSuperheaterReheaterEconomiser14suppliedtotheIPcylinder
throughhotreheatlinesviainterceptorvalvesandcontrolvalves.AfterdoingworkonIProtor,thesteamexhaustedfrom
IPcylinderisdirectlyfedthroughcrossaroundandcrossoverpipestoLPcylinder.FinallythesteamexhaustedbyLP
cylindergoestocondenser.TheshaftsofHPIPLPandgeneratorareconnectedinseries,sogeneratorreceivesthe
mechanicalpoweraddedbyallthethreecylinders.Inthecondenser,whichisalargesurfacetypeheatexchanger,the
steamiscondensedbytransferringitslatentheatofevaporationtothecoolingwater(KW).Thesteamhavingbeen
condensedinthecondenserisnowintheformofcondensateatverylowpressureandsaturationtemperature.This
condensateispumpedbycondenserextractionpumpfromcondenserhotwellandpassedthroughthelowpressure
regenerativefeedheatingsystemanddeaerator(directcontactheatexchanger)toincreasethetemperatureofwater
andremovedissolvedgasessuchasO2andCO2toformfeedwatersuitableforboiler.Boilerfeedpumpsucksfeed
waterfromdeaeratorandpumpstoboilerdrumviahighpressureregenerativefeedheatingsystem(HPheater).In
modernregenerativecycle,usedinthisplant,someofthesteampassingthroughtheturbinecylinderisbledfroma
seriesofextractionbeltslocatedafterselectedmovingbladestagesandfedtothecondensateheater(LP)andfeed
waterheaters(HP),whichareofsurfacetypeheatexchangers.TheBFPincreasesthefeedwaterpressuretoalevelin
excessofthedrumpressure,toprovideforthepressurelossintheboilercircuitandHPheatingtrain.Thecycleisnow
completed.TurbineEfficiencyTheefficiencyofturbineisgivenbythefollowingformula:or,Acomparisonofactualand
isentropicexpansionsisillustratedinFig.1.3(Mollierdiagram).Thedeviationofactualexpansionlinefromisentropic
expansionisduetolossesor15irreversibilitycorrespondingtoanincreaseinentropy.FromFig.1.3wecanseethatfor
anexpansionbetweentwopressures,thegreatertheentropyrise(morelosses),thelessenergythereisavailablefor
work.Toreducethelossesandtoincreasetheavailableenergy,turbinesareconstructedwithspecialdesignfeatures.
P1AHAActualP2IsentropicExpansionExpansionHBHCEntropySFig.1.3ComparisonofActualExpansionwith
IsentropicExpansioninTurbineMainComponentsofTurbineTheturbineisatandemcompoundmachinewithHP,IP
andLPparts.TheHPandIPpartsaresingleflowcylindersandtheLPpartisadoubleflowcylinder.Theindividual
turbinerotorsandthegeneratorrotorareconnectedbyrigidcouplings.TheHPcylinderhasathrottlecontrol.Theinitial
steamisadmittedbeforethebladingbytwocombinedmainsteamstopandcontrolvalves.Thelinesleadingfromthe
HPexhaustbranchestothereheaterareprovidedwithswingcheckvalveswhichpreventhotsteamfromthereheater
flowingbackintotheHPturbine.EnthalpyH16ThesteamcomingfromthereheaterispassedtotheIPpartviatwo
combinedreheatstopandcontrolvalves.CrossaroundpipesconnecttheIPandLPcylinders.Bladesarearrangedat
severalpointsoftheturbine.Themaincomponentsoftheturbineare:1)Innerandoutercasing2)Fixedbladesor
diaphragms3)Rotorwithmovingblades,shaftandcoupling4)ShaftGlandsandBladeSealingStrips5)Bearings6)
Valves7)Mainoilpumpetc.HPCasingsTheoutercasingoftheHPturbineisofthebarreltypeandhasneitheranaxial
noraradialflange.Thispreventsmassaccumulationswithhighthermalstresses.Thealmostperfectrotational
symmetrypermitsmoderatewallthicknessesofnearlyequalstrengthatallsections.Theinnercasingisaxiallysplitand
kinematicallysupported.Asthepressuredifferenceacrossthewallofinnercasingislow,thehorizontalflangeand
connectionboltscanbekeptsmall.Thebarreltypecasingpermitsflexibilityofoperationintheformofshortstartup
timesandahighrateofchangeofloadevenathighinitialsteamconditions.IPCasingsTheIPpartisalsoofsingleflow
construction.Attachedintheaxiallysplitoutercasingisaninnercasingsupportedkinematicallyandtakingtheguide
blades.Thereheatedsteamisadmittedtotheinnercasingthroughthetopandbottomcenterofthecasing.The
arrangementofaninnercasingconfinesthehighsteaminletconditionstotheadmissionbranchofthecasing,whilethe
jointoftheoutercasingisonlysubjectedtothelowerpressureandlowertemperatureattheexhaustoftheinnercasing.
17LPCasingsThecasingofthedoubleflowLPcylinderisofthreeshelldesign.Theshellsareaxiallysplitandofrigid
weldedconstruction.Theinnershelltakingthefirstrowsofguidebladesisattachedkinematicallyinthemiddleshell.
Independentoftheoutershell,themiddleshellissupportedatfourpointsonlongitudinalbeams.Tworingscarryingthe
lastguidebladerowsarealsoattachedtothemiddleshell.BladingTheentireturbineisprovidedwithreactionblading.
ThemovingbladesoftheHPandIPpartsandthefrontrowsoftheLPpartwithinvertedTrootsandshroudingare
milledfromthesolid.ThelaststagesoftheLPpartconsistoftwisted,dropforgedmovingbladeswithfirtreeroots
insertedincorrespondinggroovesoftherotor.HighlystressedguidebladesoftheHPandIPpartswithinvertedTroots
andshroudingaremachinedfromonepiecelikethemovingblades.TheotherguidebladeshaveinvertedLrootswith
rivetedshrouding.ThelastthreestagesoftheLPturbineareguidebladerowsoffabricatedconstruction.BearingsThe
HProtorissupportedbytwobearings,adoublewedgejournalbearingatthefrontendoftheturbineandacombined
journalandthrustbearingdirectlyadjacenttothecouplingwiththeIProtor.TheIPandLProtorshaveajournalbearing

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eachattheendoftheshaft.Thecombinedjournalandthrustbearingincorporatesaselfadjustingdoublewedge
journalbearingandathrustbearingwhichtakesupresidualthrustfrombothdirections.Thebearingtemperaturesare
measuredbythermocouplesinthelowershelldirectlyunderthewhitemetallining.ShaftGlandsandBladeSealing
StripsAllshaftglands,sealingthesteaminthecylindersagainstatmosphereareaxialflowlabyrinths.Theyconsistofa
largenumberofthinsealingstripswhichintheHPandIPpartsarealternatelycaulkedintogroovesintheshaftsand
surroundingsealingrings.ThesealingstripsintheLPpartareonlycaulkedintothesealingrings.Theseringsaresplit
intosegmentswhichare18forcedradiallyagainstprojectionbyhelicalspringsandareabletoyieldintheeventof
rubbing.Sealingstripsofsimilardesignarealsousedtosealtheradialbladetipclearances.ValvesTheHPturbineis
fittedwithtwoinitialsteamstopandcontrolvalves.Astopandacontrolvalvewithstemsarrangedatrightanglesto
eachotherarecombinedinacommonbody.TheIPturbinehastwocombinedreheatstopandcontrolvalves.The
reheatstopvalvesarespringloadedsingleseatvalves.Thecontrolvalves,alsospringloaded,havediffusers.The
controlvalvesoperateinparallelandarefullyopenintheupperloadrange.Inthelowerloadrange,theycontrolthe
steamflowtotheIPturbineandensurestableoperationevenwhentheturbosetissupplyingonlythestationload.All
valvesareactuatedbyindividualoilhydraulicservomotors.TurbineMaterialsDesignRequirementsThesteamturbine
ischaracterizedasahighspeedrotatingmachine.Therotatingpartsaresubjectedtohighstressescausedby
centrifugalforcesaswellashightemperaturecyclicload.Thestaticpartsarealsohighlystressedduetosteampressure
dropaswellashightemperature.cyclicload.Hencetocounteractthesestressesunderchangingoperatingconditions,
theselectionofsuitablematerialisvitalinturbinedesign,particularlycomponentsintemperaturerange4500Cand
above.ThemajorcomponentsworkingincreeprangeareHPandIPsteamchests,valves,casings,rotors,diaphragms,
bladenozzles,boltsandsteamadmissionpiping.Also,thecomponentsworkingunderlowtemperaturezone(LP
turbine)arehighlystressedduetoitslargesizeandfacedwithproblemslikecorrosionanderosionduetowetsteam.
Metallurgicalconsiderationsarealsoofutmostimportanceintheselectionofmaterialsinordertohavegreaterreliability
andgoodserviceduringoperation19CriteriaforSelectionofMaterialsTurbinematerialsareselectedonthebasisof
followingconsiderations:Physicalpropertiesa.Thermalcoefficientofexpansionb.Thermalconductivityc.Modulusof
elasticityd.Poisonsratioe.DensityMechanicalpropertiesa.Hotyieldb.Creepandrupturec.Relaxationpropertiesd.
Cyclicloadingbehaviore.Fatiguebehaviorf.Fracturetoughnessg.Rateofcrackgrowthh.ResistancetoscalingThe
physicalpropertiesareimportantforselectionofmaterialforthecomponentsworkingatelevatedtemperature.The
thermalconductivityismoreimportantforquickdissipationofheatincomponentsinordertominimizethermalstresses.
Thermalcoefficientofexpansionandthemodulusofelasticityplayanimportantroleininducingthermalstressesand
ensuringthedesignclearanceandtheminimumvaluesarefavourable.Themechanicalpropertiesarenowdiscussed
withsomedetail.HotyieldThehotyieldistakenintoconsiderationfordesignforthosecomponentsthatworkat
elevatedtemperaturebutnotinthecreeprange.Thehotyieldisdeterminedfromthestressstrainsrelationshipat6500
C.Thecomponentsaredesignedforstressoccurringat0.2%strain.Thehotyieldofsteeldecreaseswithanincreaseof
temperature.20CreepandRupturePropertiesThegradualdeformationundertheactionofconstantloadtestiscalled
creepandsoaconstantloadtestiscalledCreepTest.Theconventionalstressi.e.,loaddividedbyinitialcross
sectioniscalledasCreepStresswhereasthegradualstrainiscalledasCreepStrain.Therupturetestisbasically
similartocreeptestwiththeexceptionthatitisalwayscarriedoutuptothefailureofthematerial.Thestressrupturetest
measurestheeffectoftemperatureonthelongtimeloadsustainingcharacteristics,i.e.thetimetocausefailureata
givennominalstressforaconstanttemperature.Thestressrequiredforcausing1%creepis100,000hoursand
correspondingrupturestressareconsideredtoevaluatematerialbehaviorofthesteamturbinecomponents.Stress
RelaxationInsomehightemperaturecomponentsthestressdoesnotremainconstantbutdecreaseswithtimeat
elevatedtemperatureduetocreep.Therelaxationofstressinboltedjointsmayleadtoloosejointsandsubsequent
leakagewhichrequiresretighteningofbolts.Similarly,duetostressrelaxation,theshrunkfittedassemblies(e.g.disc
rotoronshaft)willbecomeloose.So,thematerialselectedfortheseapplicationsmusthavehighstressrelaxation
resistance.Itisthedatarequiredfordesigningofboltsandflanges,whichisgeneratedupto30,000hoursatdifferent
temperatures.ResistancetoScalingThecomponentsworkingatelevatedtemperaturemaybesubjecttoscale
formation.Excessivescalingofcomponentscarryinghighpressuresteamcansignificantlyreducetheeffective
thickness,sothattheremainingmetalisoverstressedandmayburst.Whenoxidestightlyadheretothesurfacethey
sometimesactasinsulatingfilm,therebyreducingheatturbinerates.ResistancetoCorrosionandErosionThechances
ofcorrosionanderosionofcomponentinlowtemperaturezonearemuchmorepredominantthanthecomponentsin
elevatedtemperaturezone.Thisisbecausethewetconditionofsteamformswaterdropletsandstrikethecomponents
atveryhighspeed.Thiscauseserosion,mostly,oftheLPturbinelaststagebladeswhicharefurthersubjectedto
corrosionduetowetatmosphere.21MaterialsusedforTurbineComponentsAlargevarietyofheatresistantsteelsare
usedformeetingdiversetechnicalrequirementsofvariouscomponents.Thecompositionofalloysteelscontaining
carbon,chromium,molybdenumandvanadiumareusedaccordingtoweldabilityorhardenabilityofthecomponents
describedasfollows:BladingMaterial12%Cr.StainlesssteelsareusedforLPturbinebladingbecauseofsuperior
materialdamping.SomeconsiderationsforLPTbladingare:
Corrosionandscalingresistance
Adequatetensile
strengthtowithstandcentrifugalandbendingstresses
Impactstrengthtoresisterosionandimpactloading
Material
dampingtocopeupwithvibratorystressdevelopedinturbineblades.The12%Cr.Stainlesssteelsretainallthese
propertiesaslongastemperaturedoesnotexceedabout4800C.ForshorterbladesworkingathightemperatureforHP
turbine,12%CrMoVisusedwithsuitableheattreatmentstogiveadequatecreepresistance.Additionofniobiumto12%
CrMoVsteelsfurtherincreasesthestressrupturestrengthandcreepstrengthintheshortterm.Theintermediateblades,
whichareneitherhighlystressednorveryhot,aremadefrom12%Crsteelswithlinearalloyingcontentandheattreated
toappropriatehardness.Thetypicalsteelhasacompositionof11%Cr,0.6%Mo,0.25%V,0.3%Nb.Thisalloysteel
hasgoodcreepresistanceupto5500C.HPandIPRotorMaterialsAstheserotorsworkinhightemperaturezone,so
theyrequireacombinationofcreepstrength,rupturestrengthandductility.Thisisconferredbyrotorsmanufacturedfrom
forgedchromiummolybdenumvanadiumalloysteel.Thisisaferritematerial,whichprovidesthebestpossiblecreep
properties.22ThereducedtemperaturesencounteredatthelasttwostagesoftheIPturbineareoffsetbyincreased
borestressduetolongerbladelength,whichdemandsanadequatelyhighproofstrength.Thisisachievedbytheuseof
1Cr1Mo0.25Valloysteel.LPRotorMaterialLProtorsworkinlowtemperaturezoneandhavelongerbladesand
diameterduetowhichtheyencountertheimpactofmoistureinthelaststages.Hencethemainrequirementsofthese
rotorsarehightensilestrengthcombinedwithhightoughness.The3.5NiCrMoVmonoblocrotorforgingiscurrently
usedasitavoidsthecomplicationofshrinkfitsinthecaseofbuiltuprotors.Vacuumdegassinghaseradicatedthe
formerproblemsofhydrogenembrittlementcrackingandgivesgoodfracturetoughness.TurbineCasingMaterialsHP
andIPcasingswheretemperatureover3500Cisencounteredaremadefromcreepresistantsteels.Twodifferentalloy
steelsareusedforthemviz.2.25Cr1Mofortemperatureupto5380Cand0.5Cr0.5Mo0.25Vfortemperaturesupto
5650C.Casingsinthesematerialsiscastratherthanfabricatedbecauseofthedifficultyofqualitycontrolandlikelihood
ofthermaldistortioninthethicksectionsinvolved.LPcylindercasingsaregenerallyfabricatedfromcarbonsteel,
althoughinnercasingmaybecastfromspheroidalgraphiteiron.Hightemperatureboltsaremadefromlowalloysteels
designedespeciallyforcreepresistantbolting.Thenickelalloysareusedmainlyoninnercylinderswherethecompact

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flangeismostadvantageous.LowtemperatureboltsonLPcasingsaremadefromnormalhightensileboltingsteels.
TurbineAnchoringandExpansionFixedPointsofTurbineIndesigningthesupportsfortheturbineonthefoundation,
attentionisgiventotheexpansionandcontractionofthemachineduringthermalcycling.Themethodofattachmentof
themachinecomponentandtheircouplingtogether,arealsodecisivefactorsindeterminingthemagnitudeofthe
relativeaxialexpansion(differentialexpansion)betweentherotorandturbinecasing.Thefixedpointsoftheturbineare
asfollows:23ThebearingpedestalbetweentheIPandLPturbines.FromthispointtheIPandHPcasingsexpand
towardsthefrontbearingpedestaloftheHPturbine.TherearbearinghousingoftheLPturbine(LP/Generatorbearing
pedestal).ThemiddleportionofeachlongitudinalgirderofLPturbine.Fromthesepointsthelongitudinalgirders
expandinbothdirections(TurbinesideandGeneratorside).ThethrustbearinginrearbearingcasingofHPturbine.
CasingExpansionThefrontbearingpedestalsoftheHPandIPturbinecanslideontheirbaseplatesinanaxial
direction.Anylateralmovementperpendiculartothemachineaxisispreventedbyfittedkeys.TheHPandIPcasings
aresupportedbylugsonbearingpedestals.Theguidesareprovidedinturbinestomaintaintheircentralpositionas
wellasaxialmovement.Thustheoriginofthecumulativeexpansionofthecasingsisatthefrontbearinghousingofthe
I.Pturbine.TheoutercasingoftheIPturbineislocatedaxiallyinthecenterareaofthelongitudinalbeambyfittedkeys
castinthefoundation.Freelateralexpansionisallowed.Thecenterguidesforthiscasingarerecessedinthe
foundationcrossbeams.Thereisnorestrictiononaxialmovementofthecasings.Hence,whenthereisatemperature
rise,theoutercasingoftheLPturbineexpandsfromitsfixedpoint.Differencesinexpansionbetweentheoutercasing
andthefixedbearinghousingstowhichthehousingsfortheshaftglandsareattachedaretakenupbybellows
expansionjoints.RotorExpansionThethrustbearingisincorporatedintherearbearinghousingoftheH.P.turbine.
Sincethisbearinghousingisfreetoslideonthebaseplate,theshaftingsystemmoveswithit.Seenfromthispoint,both
therotorandcasingoftheH.P.turbineexpandtowardsthefrontbearinghousingoftheH.P.turbine.Therotorand
casingoftheI.P.turbineexpandtowardsthegeneratorinasimilarmanner.TheL.P.turbinerotorisdisplacedtowards
thegeneratorbytheexpansionoftheshaftingsystemfromthethrustbearing.Themagnitudeofthisdisplacement,
however,isreducedbythe24amountbywhichthethrustbearingismovedintheoppositedirectionbythecasing
expansionoftheI.P.turbine.DifferentialExpansionDifferentialexpansionbetweentherotorsandcasingsresultsfrom
thedifferencebetweenthecasingexpansionoriginatingfromthebearinghousingbehindtheI.P.turbineandthatof
rotorfromthethrustbearing.ThismeansthatthemaximumdifferentialexpansionoftheHPandIPturbinesoccursatthe
endfurthestfromthethrustbearing.DifferentialexpansionbetweentherotorandcasingoftheL.P.turbineresultsfrom
thedifferencebetweentheexpansionoftheshaftingsystem,originatingfromthethrustbearing,andthecasing
expansionoriginatingfromthefixedpointoftheL.P.casingonthelongitudinalgirder.25BYPASSSYSTEMDuringtrip
outoftheunitthesteamfromboilertotheturbineiscutoffandaftertrippingisovertheturbineisrequiredtoberolled
againstforsynchronizing,thisrequirepropersteamathighertemperature.HPBypassisusedforattainingthesteam
parametersatafasterrate.AlsoHPbypasssystemprovidesanalternatepathfrommainsteamlinetocoldreheatline
bypassingtheHPturbine.Similarly,LPbypasssystemenablesanalternativepathfordumpingthesteamfromreheater
outlet(HRHline)directlyintocondenseratsuitableparametersbypassingtheIPandLPturbines.TheHP/LPstationis
inoperatedduringfollowingconditions:
Coldstartup,warmstartup&hotstartup.
Loadrejection.
Trippingof
theturbine.ThemainadvantagesofHP/LPbypasssystemareasbelow:
Toestablishrequiredsteamparametersat
superheaterandreheateroutletsinshorttimeforbestmatchingofsteamandturbinemetaltemperatures.
Toachieve
quickstartupsfasterloadingandreducelossesduringstartupandshutdown.
TosaveconsiderableamountofDM
water,whichotherwisewouldhavebeenwastedduringstartup.
Toenablequickerwarmingupofsteamlines.
To
minimizeoperationofsafetyvalves.HPBypassStationTheHPbypassvalveisacombinedtypeofpressurereducing
anddesuperheatingstationwithspraywaterbeingtappedofffromBFPdischargeandissuppliedtoHPbypass
downstreamchamberviaspraycontrolvalve.WhileoperatingwithaLPbypassstation,theHPbypassstationenables
boileroperationbyestablishingsteamflowfrommainsteamlinetoCRHlineandfromHRHlinetocondenser26
withoutcoordinationwithturbine.Thisallowsquickraisingofsteamparameterstoalevelacceptabletoturbineforroll
offduringstartup.MainPartsofHPBypassHPbypassstationconsistsofthefollowingmainequipments:
HPBP
Valves:Itconsistsof2nos.mainvalvewithhydraulicactuators.Inboththetwounitsthesteamsidevalvesaresameand
oftypeARS100offollowingtechnicaldata:Maxvalvestroke43mmPressure170/50KgcmTemp540485CFlow
216T/HrSincethevalvehastothrottlethesteamfromaveryhightolowPr.Level,thisisassociatedwithsonic
velocities,noiseandvibration.Tokeepdownthenoiselevelslottedstemconstructionhasbeenused.
SprayValves:
TheHPBPsteamvalvesareprovidedwith2sprayvalvetypeBPEandanisolatingvalvetypeBD.Thevalvebodyisof
cylindricalshape&madeofcarbonsteel.Astheflowmediumiserosiveinnaturethetotalpr.Dropinthevalvehasbeen
dividedinthreestages.Thevalvestemismadeof11%Cr&1%Mo.
Oilsupplyunit:Oilsupplyunitconsistsofatank
inwhichthehydraulicmediumiskept.Auxiliarypistonpumpsuppliesenergyintheformofoilunderpressurefor
movingthehydraulicactuator.Theabnormalpressureriseislimitedbyasafetyreliefvalve.Oilunderpressureflows
throughtheoilfilterintotheaccumulatorwhichstoresenergytocoverpeakdemands.Pressureswitcheslocatedonthe
oilsupplyunit,controlthepumpmotoroperationaccordingtothepressureintheaccumulator.Thepressurereducing
valvelocatedintheconnectionblockkeepsthesystempressuretotheservovalvewithinnarrowlimits.27
Servo
valves:Itismadeupofelectricalandhydraulicparts.Ittransformstheelectricalsignalsintocorrectquantityofoilat
correctlocation.Theblockingunitallowstheoiltoflowfreelytothehydraulicactuator.Ifthesupplyfailsoroilpressure
fallsbelowacertainlimit,theblockingunitblockstheoilflowtoandfromtheactuator.
Blockingunit:Theelectro
hydraulicallypilotoperatedblockingunitismountedbetweentheservovalveandtheactuator.Itclosesoffbothportsto
theactuator.Ifelectricallydeenergizedorwithinsufficientoilpressure,andholesthepistonoftheactuator
(disregardingsomeleakagedrift)initslastposition.Amechanicaloverrideontheblockingunitpermitsalsolocal
manualdeblocking.OperationofHPBPValvesTheoilfromtheoilunitispassedthroughindividualservovalvesand
blockingunitsbeforeentryintothecylinderofactuatorsandtheyactascontrollersoftheactuators.Theservovalves
andtheblockingelementsareoperateddependingupontheimpulsefromthecontrolsystem.Theoilunithasan
accumulatorwhichensuresregularavailabilityofPr.Oil.Normallywiththeuseofservovalveandblockingwiththemain
HPBPValvecanbeopenedfullyin1015s.However,aquickopeningdeviceconsistingofseparatesolenoidvalveand
accumulatorhasbeenprovidedtoopenthevalvesquickly(3s)wheneverrequired.Theaccumulatorhasapressureof
Nitrogenat55Kg/cm.ProtectionsinHPBPSystemTheHPBPsystemhasthefollowinginterlocks/protection:

Condenserpressureverylow:BPvalveswillcloseonpriorityat0.7Kg/cm.28
DownStreamtemperatureveryhigh:
BPvalveswillcloseonprioritywiththedownsteamtemperature>380C.
BD/BPEvalveopensifHPBPvalve
opening>2%.
BD/BPEvalvecloseswhenBPvalvesopening<2%.EmergenciesinHPBPSystemSometimesdue
tochokingofthecontrolorificeofspoolofservovalves,filteretc.thevalvesdonotgetopeningcommandordonot
acceptthedesiredcommand.Inthatcasefollowingactionisrequiredatsite(10.5Mts.):Deblocktheblockingunitusing
leverinuploadposition.Ifthevalveistobeopened,operatetheleverupwardontheoppositesidewhereC&Isocketis
provided.Forexampleifvalveistobeopened25%thenafterthevalvehasopened25%immediatelyblocktheblocking
unitbydepressingtheleverliftedasoneabove.Ifthevalveisnowrequiredtobeopened50%thenfirstblockthe
blockingunitandopenthevalvethroughservovalveasexplained.Incasethevalveistobekept50%positionthen

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ensurethatblockingunitleverisinlowerpositioni.e.normalposition.Inordertoclosethevalve,theleverattheother
endwhereC&Isocketisprovidedistobeoperated.Inthiscasealsofirstofallblocktheblockingunitandthenliftthe
leverofservovalveupwardtillthedesiredclosingisachieved.Afterthevalvehasclosedtodesiredpositionlowerthe
blockingunitlever.ConditionsforautoopeningofByPassvalve:
WhenGTBreakeropenstheByPasswillshiftfrom
manualtoautomode&opensfullthereafter.
Whenthemainsteampressureexceeds12Kg/cm2thanthepressure
setpointatHPBPconsole.LPBypassStationLPbypassvalvesmaintaintherequiredpressureinthereheatsystemby
bypassingthesurplussteamthroughsteamdumpingdevice.Thedesuperheatingandpressurereductiontakesplacein
thedumpingdeviceforwhichspraywateristakenfromCEPdischarge.Thisensuresthatonlytherequisiteflowis
maintainedthroughtheIPandLPturbines.ThecontrolofLP29bypasssystemishookedupbysamecontroloilwhich
isenvisagedfortheturbinegoverningsystem.ThecontrolsofLPbypasssystemareessentiallyacombinationof
electricalandwellprovenhydraulicsystem.Electrohydraulicconverterprovidesthenecessarylinkbetweenelectrical
systemandhydraulicactuationsystem.Theelectroniccontrolleractsasapressurecontrollerandregulatesthereheater
pressuretodesiredsetvalue.Ifreheaterpressureexceedsthissetvalue,thecontrollercausestheelectrohydraulic
convertertooperateandinitiatebypassoperations.EmergencystopandcontrolvalvesoftheLPbypassarecombined
inacommonbody.Thereisadoubleshutoffarrangementwhichseparatesthecondenserfromthereheaterduring
normaloperations.ThesafetydevicesincludedintheelectrohydraulicLPbypasscontrolsystempreventthedumping
ofsteamintocondenserifthewaterinjectionpressureistooloworifpressureinsidecondenseristoohigh.Asa
measureofadditionalprotections,LPbypassstationclosesinfollowingcases:
Condenservacuumlow
Spray
waterpressurelow
Temperatureofcondenserwallhigh.30TURBINELUBOILSUPPLYSYSTEMTheturbineoil
systemfulfillsfollowingfunctions:
Lubricationandcoolingofbearings
Jackinguptheshaftanprovidehydrostatic
lubricationduringlowspeedoperation
Supplyofcontroloiltogoverningandprotectionsystem
Supplyofcontrol
oiltoLPbypassgoverningThemainoiltankisdesignedtobeairtight.Theextractorsproduceaslightvacuum(25100
mimic)inthemainoiltankandthebearingpedestalstodrawoffanyoilvapour.MainOilTankThemainoiltank
containstheoilrequiredforlubricatingandcontrolsystemsoftheturbine.Itnotonlyservesasastoragetankbutalsofor
deaeratingtheoil.Thecapacityofthetankissuchthatthefullquantityofoiliscirculatednotmorethan8timesperhour.
Thisresultsinaretentiontimeofapprox.7to8minutesfromentryintothetanktosuctionbythepumps.Thistimeallows
sedimentationanddeaerationoftheoil.OilFlowinTankOilreturningtothetankfromtheoilsupplysystemfirstflows
throughasubmergedinletintotherisersectionofthetankwherethefirststageofdeaerationtakesplaceastheoilrises
tothetopofthetank.Oiloverflowsfromtherisersectionthroughtheoilstrainerintotheadjacentsectionofthetank
whereitisthendrawnoffontheoppositesidebythesuctionpipeoftheoilpumps.OilStrainerThebaskettypeoil
strainerismountedinthetank.Itisofstainlesssteelwiremeshof0.25mmfiltrationparticlesizeandcanbechangedby
openingthetankcover.31OilVapourExhausterThewholetankismadeasairtightaspossible.Oilvapourexhauster
producesaslightnegativepressure(25100mmwc)inthetank,inthereturndrainlinesandinthespacesinthebearing
pedestalssothatoilvapoursaredrawnout.OilLevelIndicatorThemainoiltankhasamagneticfluidlevelindicator.
Extratankvolumeisprovidedbetweenthenormaloperatinglevelandthetankcovertoacceptoilfromtheentireoil
supplysystemwhentheturbineisshutdown.Thetankisconstructedwithastoppingbottomwithdrainconnectionsof
thelowestpoint.Capacitancetypelevelswitchesareinstalledforindicatingnormal,lowandverylowlevel.Duplexoil
filterTheduplexfilterconsistsoffourfilterbodiesandisfittedwithachangeoverdevice,whichenablesthefilterstobe
isolatedasdesired.Thefilterbodiesaredesignedaccordingtothepressurestageandtherelevantcodesandthefilter
itselfisdesignedtoprovidesafety,takingintoaccountthedifferentialpressure.DifferentialpressureGaugeThefunction
ofthedeviceistomeasureandgiveavisualindicationofthedifferentialpressure,whichoccursforexamplewhenfilter
contaminationincreases.OilPumpsandtheirFunctionsThemainoilpumpdrawstheoilthroughasuctionpipesituated
attheflowendofthetank.Thissuctionpipeactsasaninjectiontoaidthesuctionofthemainoilpump,whichhasto
overcomeacertainsuctionheadpressureoilisconductedtotheinjectorviaaninjectionpipe.Thisinjectionpipealso
fillsthesuctionpipeofthemainoilpumpwithoilwhentheplantisbeingstartedup.Theauxiliaryoilpumpsand
emergencyoilpumparrangedonthetankareelectricallydrivenrotaryoilpumps.Thejackingoilpumpsalsosituatedon
thetankareelectricallydriven32jackscrewimmersionpumps.Allpumpsimmersedintheoilcontainedinthetank,
drawoilfromthedeepestpointinordertoobtainoilasfreeofairaspossibletodrivingelements.Thepumpsarefixedto
thebaseplatesofthetankcover.MainOilPumpThemainoilpumpissituatedinthefrontbearingpedestaland
suppliestheentireturbinewithoilthatisusedforbearinglubrication,coolingtheshaftjournalsandascontroloilforthe
hydraulicgoverningsystem.Themainoilpumpisdrivendirectfromtheturbineshaftviathecoupling.Iftheturbosetis
outofoperationorthemainoilpumpfails,theauxiliaryoilpumpstakeoverthenecessaryoilsupply.Thesepumpsalso
supplyoilinthesuctionbranchesofthemainoilpumpuntilthemainoilpumptakesover.AuxiliaryoilpumpsThe
auxiliaryoilpumpisaverticalonestagerotarypumpwitharadialimpellerandspiralcasing.Itisfixedtothecoverofthe
oiltankandsubmergesintotheoilwiththebody.Itisdrivenbyanelectricmotorthatisboltedtothecoverplate.Theoil
entersthesuctionconnectionfromtheunderneathandissuppliedtotheoilsystemviathepressurepipe.Thepump
shafthassleeveboringinthepumpcasingandgroovedballbearinginthebearingyoke.Thebearingsarelubricated
fromthepressurechamberofthepump,thesleevebearingviaaboreinthecasing,thegroovedballbearingviaalube
line.D.CEmergencyoilpumpTheemergencyoilpumpisofthevertical,centrifugalsubmergedtypeandservicefor
lubricationandcoolingofthebearingsduringemergencyconditions.Theunitislocatedontopofthemainoiltankand
drivenbyaD.Cmotor.Thecompletepumpmotorassemblyisattachedtomountingplate,whichisboltedtothetopof
themainoiltank.JackingoilpumpThejackingoilpumpisaselfprimingscrewspindlepumpwiththreespindlesand
internalbearings.Thepumpsuppliesthejackingoilthatisneededforliftingtheshaftingatlowspeed.33TurbineOil
CoolerTwooilcooler(2x100%)havebeenprovidedinthelubeoilsystemforcoolingtheoilusedforlubricationand
coolingofturbinebearings.Essentiallytheoilcoolerconsistsofatubenest,innerandoutershellslowerwaterboxand
upperwaterbox.Thetubenest,throughwhichCoolingwaterflows,issurroundedbytheoilspaceformedbytheouter
shell.Theoiltobecooledenterstheoutershellatinletnozzleandflowsintotheinnershell.Theshellsupportsthelarge
baffleswhichareprovidedwithanopeninginthecenter.Betweeneverytwolargebaffles,thereisasmallbaffleplate
heldandsupportedbyshorttubesplacedinsteelrods.Theintermediateplatesaresmallerindiameterthantheinner
shellandthusleaveanannulargap.Thisarrangementservestoachieveacrossflowpatternforcingtheoilflowing
towardsoutlettoflowthroughthemiddleoflargebafflesandovertheedgeofthesmallerbafflesandincreasestheheat
transferrate.Theinnershellandthelargebafflesaresupportedonthelowertubeplate,intowhichadmiralbrasstubes
areexpanded.Thecoolingwaterentersandleavesthroughthelowerwaterboxwhichisdividedbyapartitionplateso
astoforcewaterthroughonehalfofthetubesystemtotheupperwaterboxIandfromtherethroughotherhalfbackto
lowerwaterbox.Closedendtubesarearrangedintubesysteminlinewiththepartitionplatetoavoidoilbypassing.
Inletandoutletbranchesofwaterboxareprovidedwiththermometers.Whenfillinginoil,opentheventvalve2.For
drainingtheshell,drainvalve19isprovided.Thecoolingwaterflowisadjustedthroughouttogetthedesiredoiloutlet
temperature,iftheoiloutlettemperatureishighevenwithmaximumCWflow,theoilcoolershouldbecleared.Oil
CoolerChangeoverDevice(SegmentPlateValve)Theoilofaturbosetiscooledinoilcoolers.Asegmentplatevalveis
usedfordirectingtheoiltothecoolerinquestion,whileatthesametimeshuttingoffthereserveoilcooler.The

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arrangementofthevalveissuchthatthehandleautomaticallyoperatesthesegmentplatesinboththeinflowoutflow
linesofonecooler.34ThreewayControlValveThethreewaycontrolvalveiselectricallydrivenandhasthefunctionof
regulatingthelubricatingoiltemperature45oC.Possibleoilflowpathsforregulatingtheoiltemperature:
All
lubricatingoilflowsthroughoilcooler.
Lubricatingoilflowsthroughoilcoolerandbypasspiping.
Alllubricatingoil
flowsthroughthebypasspiping.35GOVERNINGSYSTEMGoverningschemecompriseofmainElectrohydraulic
governingsystemandbackuphydraulicgoverningsystem.Thereferenceelectricalsignalsforturbinespeed,generator
load(MW)andM.SpressurearepickedupbyfieldmountedsensorsandprovidedtoElectricalgoverningcabinetfor
processing.AfterprocessingbyElectronicControllersandselectioncircuit,thesignalintheelectricalformistransmitted
toelectrohydraulicconverterforamplificationandconversionintohydraulicsignalforpositioningofcontrolvalves.
Electrohydraulicconverteralongwithhydraulicgovernorandotherhydraulicprotectionequipmentarelocatedinthe
governingsystemracksituatedbesidesturbineandthelayoutofhydraulicequipmentrackisillustratedinFig5.1.All
hydrauliccomponentsareopenandcanbeoperatedlocally.Thespeedsignalintheformofhydraulicpressureis
providedtohydraulicgovernorfromhydraulictransmitter.Thehydraulicandelectricalspeedsensorsaremountedon
MainOilpumpshaft,whichisenclosedinthefrontpedestalofturbine.Theoilpipelines,namelyControloil,tripoiland
secondaryoil,areextendedtoHP&IPstopandcontrolvalveservomotorsforoperation.Theprotectionscheme
comprisesofelectricalprotectionandhydraulicprotectiondevicessuchasRemotetripsolenoidvalve,maintripvalve
andlowvacuumtripforshuttingdowntheturbineduringemergencycondition.Thisgoverningandprotectionscheme
facilitatesthetotaloperationofturbinefromremote,i.e.fromplantcontrolroom.36Fig5.1HydraulicEquipmentRackof
Governingsystem37Stop&ControlValveSchemeValveArrangementAsshowninFig5.2,mainsteamfromsuper
heaterisadmittedtoHPTurbinethroughtwosetsofcombinedHPstopvalveandcontrolvalve(ESV&HPCV).Similarly
hotreheatsteamisadmittedtoIPTurbinethroughtwosetsofcombinedIPstopvalvecontrolvalve(IV&IPCV).The
exhaustofIPturbineisdirectlyadmittedtoLPTurbinethroughtwocrossaroundpipes.TheturbineloadIscontrolledby
throttlegoverningmethod.TheturbinestartupisperformedbyadmittingsteamintoHPturbinefirst.Duringloadingof
themachine,IPcontrolvalvesarethrottledupto20%loadandthenkeptfullopenforminimizingthethrottlinglossesat
normaloperationofturbine.Soafter20%loadtheturbineiscontrolledthroughHPcontrolvalves.Fig5.2Steam
AdmissionSystemforTurbine38HPStop&Controlvalve(ESV&HPCV)Themainstopandcontrolvalvearecombined
inacommonbody.Thestopvalve(ESV)isarrangedverticallywhilstcontrolvalvehorizontally.Themainstopvalve
providedbetweenmainsteamcircuitandHPturbinecaninterruptthesteamsupplytoturbineextremelyquicklyduring
tripping.ThefunctionofthecontrolvalveistocontrolthemasssteamflowratebyvaryingthefirststagepressureofHP
turbineinaccordancewiththeloadrequirementoftheunit.
H.PStopvalve(ESV)Thearrangementofstopand
controlvalveisexplainedinFig5.3steamentersthevalvecasing(14)viatheinletconnectionsabovethemainstop
valvedisc(2).Apilotvalveintegralwiththevalvesteam(10),operatesinsidethemainstopvalvedisc.Packingrings(6)
sealthevalvestemwhereitpassesthroughthevalvebody.Thevalvedischasabackseatingarrangement,whichis
forcedagainstthebasebushing(3)andwhenthevalveisfullyopenedformtheseatatthispoint.Thisalsoprovides
additionalsealingforthepassageofthesteam.Thevalvebody(4)issecuredinthevalvecasing(14)bymeansofthe
threadedring(8).ThesealinggasketisUsectionring(5)thelegsofwhichareflexiblyexpandedbythesteampressure
andforcedagainsttheassociatedsealingfacesoftheeasing.Themainstopvalveisopenedhydraulically(TripOil)by
servomotor(13)andclosedbyspringforcewhentripoilisdrained.
H.PControlvalve(HPCV)Thecontrolvalvedisc
isintegralwiththestem(17).Theeffortrequiredtoopenthevalveisreducedbyreliefpoleinthevalvedisc.Valvedisc
andstem(17)areguidedbybushingsinthevalvebody(18)thestembeingsealedbypackingrings.(21).Additional
sealingisprovidedbythebackseatingarrangementofthevalvediscwhichliesagainstthebasebushing(20)whenthe
valveiswideopen.Aswiththestopvalve,thevalvebody(18)issecuredinthevalvecasing(14)byathreadedring(23)
andsealedbytheUshapedsealring(2)Thecontrolvalveisoperatedbythepistonoftheactuator(29)whichis
openedhydraulically(secondaryoilsignalandcontroloil)andclosedbyspringforceservomotor.39Fig5.3HPStop
andControlValve(ESVandHPCV)1.Drainconnections2.Valvediscofstopvalve3.Basebushingwithscrewjoint4.
ValveBody5.Sealring6.Packingring7.Glandbushing8.Threadedring9.Bushing10.Valvediscwithpilotvalve11.
Pistonrod12.Column13.Servomotorforstopvalve14.Valvecasing15.Valveseat16.Valveseat17.Valvediscwith
valvestem1.18.Valvebody2.19.Drainconnection20.Basebushingwithscrewjoint21.Packingring22.Sealring
23.Threadedring24.Glandbushing25.Sealring26.Flangewithbushing27.Column28.Pistonrod29.Actuatorfor
controlvalveL1,L2Leakagesteam40CombinedIPStop&Controlvalve(IV&IPCV)functionsStopvalveandcontrol
valvearecombinedinacommonbodywiththeirstemsarrangedatrightanglestoeachother.Thestopvalvecan
interruptthesupplyofsteamfromthereheatedtotheIPandLPturbinesextremelyquickly.Thecontrolvalvecontrolsthe
steamflowratetotheIPandLPturbinesduringstartup(upto20%load)orduringbulkloadrejection.Thecontrol
valvesremainsfullopenabove20%to100%loadrangetoeliminateanythrottlinglosses.
IPStopvalveThe
assemblyofvalveisshowninFig.5.4.Thestopvalveisasingleseatvalvewithintegratedpilotvalve.Steamentersvia
theinletofthevalvebody(1)andremainsabovethevalvedisc(4)whenthestopvalveisclosed.Apilotvalve,integral
withthevalvestem(6)isprovidedforrelieving,therebyreducingtheforcenecessaryforopening.Thevalvedisc(4)
slidesinthebushingofthevalvecover(5)andhasbeadonthebackwhichliesagainstthebasebushing(7)and
providesadditionalsealingatthispoint.Metalpackingrings(8)sealthevalvestem.Bothstemandvalvediscare
preventedfromrotating.Thestopvalveisopenedhydraulically(TripOilPressure)andclosedbyspringforce.
IP
ControlvalveThecontrolvalveassemblyisshownisFig.5.4.Thecontrolvalvehasapipeshapedvalvedisc(14)thatis
boltedtothevalvestem(16)andslidesinthebushinginthevalvecover(18).Thevalvediscisprovidedwithrelieving
holestoreducethenecessaryactuatingforces.Aringfixedinthebushingofthevalvecoverpreventsthevalvedisc
fromrotating.ThisvalvediscalsohasabacksealingthatoperateswhenthevalveisfullyopenPackingrings(17)seal
theValvestem(16)inthevalvecover(18)Thecontrolvalveisoperatedbythepistonoftheservomotor(20)i.e.itis
openedhydraulically(withsecondaryoilpressuresignalandcontroloilpressureforce.Valveisclosedbyspringforce.
Intheeventofdisturbanceinthesystemorontripout,bothstopandcontrolvalvecloserapidly.41Fig5.4IPStopand
ControlValve(IVandIPCV)1.Valvecasing2.Valveseat3.Drainconnection4.Valvedisc5.Valvecover6.Valvestem
withpilotvalve7.Basebushing8.Packingring9.Glandbushing10.Pistonrod11.Column12.Stopvalveoperator13.
Valveseat14.Valvedisc15.Drainconnection16.Valvestem17.Packingring18.Valvecover19.Pistonrod20.
ControlvalveoperatorL1Leakagesteam42GenerationandFunctionofGoverningOilsThevariousgoverningoils
withtheirsourceofgenerationarediscussedinthefollowingsubsections:ControlOil:Controloilissuppliedbymainoil
pumporauxiliaryoilpump.Twocontroloilsareinitiatedinthegoverningrack.Oilisfilteredandthensuppliedtovarious
governingequipmentsatnormalpressureof6.58.5Kg/cm2.Controloilservesfollowingfunctions:
Sourceoilfor
generationofallotheroilssuchastripoil,AuxTripoil,secondaryoil,Auxiliarysecondaryoil,StartupandTestoil.

SuppliedtoHP&IPcontrolvalve(HPCV&IPCV)servomotorpistonsforactuatingcontrolvalves.StartupOilThisoilis
generatedbystartingandloadlimitingdevicewhenitspositionisbroughttozero.Thesourceoilbeingcontroloiland
normalpressurewouldbe4.5kg/cm2.Thefunctionofoilistolatch(readyforopening)theservomotorsplitpistonsof
HP&IPstopvalves(ESV&IV).ThisissuppliedtothetestvalveofESV&IV.Whenstartingdevicepositionisraised,theoil
pressureapproachedtozero.TripOilThisoilisgeneratedatremotetripsolenoidvalvewhenitisheldopen.Thesource

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oilisfilteredcontroloilsuppliedfromcontroloilfiltersofnormalstream.Thenormaltripoilpressureisintherangeof5
7.5kg/cm2itservesfollowingfunctions:
ToopenHP&IPstopvalves(ESV&IV)
Sourceoilforgenerationof
Auxiliarysecondaryoilandsecondaryoilforoperationofcontrolvalves.43Whenturbinetripisinitiatedremotetrip
solenoidoperatesandconnectsthetripoiltodrainwhichreducesthetripoilpressureinstantly.Thisinturnoperate
maintripvalvestodrainthetripoilcircuitresultinginclosureofHP&IPstop&controlvalves.PrimaryoilThisoilis
generatedathydraulicTransmitterfittedonshaft.Thesamesourceoil,i.e.filteredcontroloilisfedtohydraulic
transmitter.Inturnprimaryoilpressure,whichisproportionaltoturbinespeed,issuppliedtohydraulicspeedgovernor
asaspeedsignal.Thenormalvalueofprimaryoilpressureis1.32.4kg/cm2forgovernorcontrol.SecondaryOilThisoil
isgeneratedathydraulicconverterandelectrohydraulicconverterfollowuppistonswhichareconnectedinparallel.
Thesourceoilforgenerationofsecondaryoilistripoilfedtohydraulicandelectrohydraulicconverterfromtripoil
circuit.Secondaryoilpressureprovidestheproportionalcontrolvalveopeningsignaltothecontrolvalveservomotors.In
facttheservomotorpilotvalveisoperatedbysecondaryoilpressurewhichinturnfeedscontroloiltoservomotorpistons
forproportionateopeningofcontrolvalve.Thesecondaryoilpressureremainsintherange2.55kg/cm2.TestOilTest
oilisdrawnfromcontroloilfiltersforATTscheme.Thisoilisusedtofeedtripoilcircuitduringprotectivedevicetesting.
Testoilisalsousedtoactuateoverspeedtripstrikersandthrustbearingdevice,duringtestwhenturbineisrunning
normal.44GENERALASPECTSOFBOILERThesteamgeneratorisofradiant,reheat,naturalcirculation,singledrum
drybottomsemioutdoortypeunit,designingforfiringcoalastheprincipalfuelandtheHFOoilfiringcapacityis
equivalentto22.5%boilerMCR.4LDOburnersarecapablefor7.5%boilerMCRheatinput.Asperlayoutarrangement
themillsarelocatedbetweenboilerandESPs.Thecompletefurnacesectionisoffusionweldedwalltype.45LOW
TEMPERATURESUPERHEATERTheLTSHsectionisofthecontinuousloops,plain,tubular,nondrainable,verticalin
thelinetangenttubetype,arrangementandlocatedabovetheeconomizersection,inthebacksection,passofthe
boiler.Theconsecutivespacedheatingsurfacehas120assemblies,4elementperassembly.Theoutletsectionof
LTSHaloneisarrangedvertically.RADIALPLATENSUPERHEATERTheradialplatensuperheatersectionisofthe
continuousloops,plain,tubular,nondrainable,verticalinthelinetangenttubetype,arrangedforparallelflow.The
platensuperheatersectionassembliesarewidelyspacedandlocatedintheradiantzoneatthefurnaceoutletsection.
Theradialplatenheatingsurfacehas29assemblies,7elementperassembly.FINAL(FINISHPENDANT)
SUPERHEATER(FSH)Finishpendantsuperheater(FSH)sectionisofspacedtypecontinuousloops,plain,tubular,
nondrainable,andverticalinthespacedtypearrangedforparallelflow.ThisFSHislocatedinthehorizontalpassafter
thereheatersection.Theconvectivefinalsuperheaterhas119assemblies,2elementsperassembly.REHEATER
SYSTEMThereheatersystemisasinglestage,spacedtype,continuousloops,plain,tubular,nondrainable,and
verticalinthelinespacedtype,arrangedforparallelflow.Thereheaterfrontpendantandrearpendantsectionis
locatedinthehorizontalpassinbetweentheradiantplatensuperheaterandfinalsuperheatersection.Theconvective
superheatersectionhas59assemblies,6elementperassembly.Theapprox.totalconvectiveheatingsurfaceis2910
msq.Theentirereheatersectionissuspendedfromtheroofstructuralsteelsections.SUPERHEATERDESUPER
HEATERForcontrollingthefinalsuperheatsteamtemperatureattheratedvalue,twonumberofspraytypedesuper
heatersarelocatedinthestemconnectinglinksbetweentheLTSHoutletheaderandplatenSHinletheader.These
interstagedesuperheatersareofweldedtype.Spraytubeandlinersareprovided.Foremergencycontrolofthere
heateroutlettemperaturetwonumbersspraytypesuperheatersareprovided.Thesearelocatedinthecoldreheat
pipingandusedduringanyemergencyconditionsforthesteamtemperaturecontrol.Thedesuperheatersareof
weldedtype,spraynozzlesandlinesareprovided.46ECONOMIZERSYSTEMTheeconomizer,intwobanks,isofthe
continuousloop,plaintubular,drainableandhorizontal,inlinearrangementwithwaterflowupwardandgasflow
downwards.Theeconomizertubesaresuspendedfromeconomizerintermediateheaders,usingladdertypesupports.
Theheatingsurfaceis5450msq.Aneconomizerrecirculationsystemisprovided,connectingthedowncomer(near
waterwalllowerringheader)andeconomizerinletpipetoensurerequiredflowthrougheconomizertubesduring
startingconditionsoftheboiler.STEAMDRUMThesteamdrumisofthefusionweldedconstruction,fabricatedfrom
carbonsteelplates.Ateachendofthedrum,amanholeof406mmdiameterisprovided,arrangedtoopeninwards.The
drumislocatedintheupperfrontoftheunit.Thedrumisequippedwithprimaryturboseparators,secondarycorrugated
scrubbersandscreendryer,tolimitthesolidcarryoverinthesteamleavingthedrum.Alldruminternalareofcarbon
steelconstruction.Theturboseparatorsandthescreendryersareoftheremovabletype.Thedrumissuspendedfrom
theboilerroofstructures.BOILERPARAMETERS1.Steampressureatsuperheateroutlet155kg/cm22.Steamtemp.at
superheateroutlet540DegreeC3.Steampressureatreheaterinlet37.6kg/cm24.Steampressureatreheateroutlet
36.1kg/cm25.Steamtemp.atreheaterinlet342DegreeC6.Steamtemp.atreheateroutlet540DegreeC7.Feed
watertemp.enteringeconomizer243DegreeC8.Ambientairtemp.40DegreeCFILLINGOFBOILERThefollowing
portionoftheboilerhastobefilledwithwaterbeforethefurnaceislightedup:1.Waterwallportionofboiler2.
Economizer3.Boilerdrumupto60mmlevelTheinitialfillingoftheboilerisdonebyboilerfillpump.Normalfillingis
donebyboilerfeedpump.47FEEDREGULATINGSTATIONThelocationofthisstationisatfiringfloorandfeedwater
supplytotheboilerisregulatedthroughthisstation.Duringtheinitialperiodofstartingtheunit,feedisregulatedthrough
30%linebecausetherequirementofwaterissmallduringthisperiod.Lateronduringnormaloperation,eitherofthe
100%lineontheleftorrightischarged,otherisstandby.AllthevalvesareoperatablefromUCB.Beforetakingthe
abovelinesintoservicethewholepipinghastobethoroughlyventedtoavoidpossibilityofairlockinthesystemSOOT
BLOWERSootblowershavebeenprovidedforcleaningandsootblowingthewaterwalls,superheaterandreheater
tubesforefficientheattransfer.FILLINGCAPACITYOFBOILER1.Boilerdrum35Ton2.Economizer25Ton3.Water
wall130Ton4.Superheaters95Ton5.Reheaters50Ton6.Waterrequiredfornormallightup190Ton48COAL
PULVERISINGSYSTEMAtGHTP,bowlmillshavebeeninstalledforpulverizingtherawcoal.Coalofmaximumsizeof
25mmisreceivedinRawCoalBunkersfr
TeamEmail:

ajaypalbansal4003@gmail.com

TeamContactNumber:

9814745928

GuideContactNumber:

9646819199

GuideEmail:

dsbhullar@gmail.com

http://techpedia.sristi.org/projects/guruhargobindthermalpowerplantlehramahobbat/181449

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GuruHargobindThermalPowerPlant,LehraMahobbat

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