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TRANSACTIONAL

ANALYSIS

Dr. Sunil R. Misra

misra@lycos.com

Transactional Analysis
Transactional Analysis is a theory developed by
Dr. Eric Berne in the 1950s, and popularized
by Thomas Harris in the 1960s.
Originally trained in psychoanalysis, Berne
wanted a theory which could be understood
and available to everyone.
Transactional Analysis is a social psychology
and a method to improve communication.
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Transactional Analysis

The theory outlines how we have developed


and treat ourselves, how we relate and
communicate with others, and offers
suggestions and interventions which will
enable us to change and grow.

TA includes 3 major areas that are

Ego States, Transaction, and Strokes & Games.


Dr. Sunil Misra

Transactional Analysis

When two people interact with each other


they engage in social transactions in which
one person responds to the another.

Study of such social transactions is


known as Transactional Analysis.

It is used to study and


interpersonal communication.

analyze

REASONS FOR POPULARITY OF TA IN


MANAGEMENT

SIMPLE
LANGUAGE

BUILT-IN HUMOR

APPROPRIATE
FOR NORMAL
PEOPLE

NON-THREATENING
SELF-ANALYSIS

DEMONSTRATED
SUCCESS IN BUSS.
ORGANIZATIONS

USEFUL AT WORK &


AT HOME
Dr. Sunil Misra

The Johari Window model

A simple and useful tool for understanding and


training self-awareness, personal development,
improving
communications,
interpersonal
relationships, group dynamics, team development
and inter-group relationships.
Developed by American psychologists Joseph Luft
and Harry Ingham in the 1950's, calling it 'Johari'
after combining their first names, Joe and Harry.
Especially relevant due to emphasis on, and
influence of, 'soft' skills, behaviour, empathy,
cooperation,
inter-group
development
and
interpersonal development.

The Level of Self Awareness

Johari Window

self

Known

unknown

Open

Hidden

Blind

Dark

Known

unknown

Others
Dr. Sunil Misra

TA Ego States or
Personality Aspects
Parent

Ego

State

Ego States

characterized by
domineering, over protective & loving, stern and
critical. It is illustrated by those who establish
standard and rule for other.

Adult Ego State In this people attack problems


in a cool minded rational manner. In adult state
information is gathered, carefully analyze it,
generate alternative, and make logical choices.

Child Ego State

submissive & conforming,


insubordinate, emotional, joyful, or rebellious.
Characterize by very immature behaviors.
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Dr. Sunil Misra

Life Positions Life is worthy living


Attitude toward Oneself

(ADULT EGO)

Get rid of others


(blame others for
their miseries)
PARENT EGO

Positive

Im OK
Youre not OK

Im OK
Youre OK

Negative

Im not OK
Youre not OK

Im not OK
Youre OK

Life is not worthy


living at all (Extreme
withdrawal, Suicide)

Negative

Positive

Attitude toward Others


Dr. Sunil Misra

Get away
from me
(Depression,
withdrawal
and anxiety)

Transaction Types
Just as people have three basic ego

states, there
transactions.

Complementary
Transaction

are

three

Crossed
Transaction

Dr. Sunil Misra

types

of

Ulterior
Transaction

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Transaction between ego states


Complimentary transaction: Transactions are
complimentary if the message sent or behavior
exhibited by 1 person ego state receive the
appropriate and expected response from the other
person ego state.
P

C
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Dr. Sunil Misra

Crossed Transaction: It occurs when


message sent, the behavior exhibited by the
1 persons ego state is reacted to by an
incompatible and unexpected ego state on
the part of the other person.

Dr. Sunil Misra

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Ulterior Transaction:

They are very


damaging to interpersonal relation because it
always involve at least two ego state on the
part of 1 person. Individual may say one
thing but mean quite another.

Dr. Sunil Misra

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TYPES OF INTERPERSONAL TRANSACTIONS

COMPLEMENTARY

CROSSED

ULTERIOR

EXPECTED RESPONSE,
NO CONFLICT

PRODUCE CONFLICT, STOP


COMMUNICATION, HURT FEELINGS

VERBAL COMMUNICATION
NON-VERBAL HIDDEN MEANING

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Strokes and Games


Strokes: It means simply that beginning in infancy and
continuing throughout their lives, people need
cuddling, affection, recognition, and praise. People
dont get positive strokes when they will seek out
negative strokes. The strokes is divided in to two
categories:
Positive

Negative

Games: Games are set of pattern or transactions that


have surface logic but hidden meaning and attempt to
drawing in an unsuspecting participant. The outcome
of the games is always a win - lose proposition.
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Dr. Sunil Misra

STROKING
THE TYPES OF STROKES YOU SEEK DEPEND ON YOUR OKAYNESS

POSITIVE
STROKES

NEGATIVE
STROKES

PRAISE

PUT-DOWNS

COMPLEMENTS

CRITICISM

RECOGNITION

DEGRADING

AFFECTION

RIDICULE

REWARDS

SCOLDING

SYMPATHY

PUNISHMENT

CONSOLATION

DISCOUNTING

SELF-SATISFACTION
FROM JOB WELL
DONE
Dr. Sunil Misra

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Advantages of TA:
Improves

interpersonal communication
Simple to learn
Applicable in Motivation
Helps in Organizational Development
Can be used at home as well as in office

Disadvantages of TA:
Few

scientific facts to prove


Inhibits cuteness rather than an
insight into human behavior
Ego states are difficult to define.