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Processing and Antioxidant

Retention in Tropical Fruits


and Vegetables

Glaucia M. Pastore
College of Food Engineering State University of Campinas

INTRODUCTION
Definition of Tropical fruits
Are

grown in tropical regions


that are characterized by high
temperatures and sun light
annually;
Possibility of high productivity.

Ranking of World Productions of Fruits


Brazil is one of the three largest producers
of fruits, behind China and India.

http://www.brasilalimentos.com.br

Brazil: fruits production (tons)

http://www.brasilalimentos.com.br

Top Citrus Producing Countries

Of the total fruits produced in Brazil,


18 million tonnes are orange, of
which 80% is processed in industry
and generate more than $ 1.2 billion
of exports.

Top ten Banana Producing Nation

Source: US. Agricultural Attach Reports; Nass for U.S.Production


FAOSTAT: ProdSTAT: Crops. UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (2005).

Major Tropical Fruits Importing Countries, 2006

Source: FAO
http://www.mpc.gov.my/files/APR2008/Chapter5.pdf

Opportunities of the Agribusiness System


of Frozen Pulp and Fruit Juices
World demand for juices and fruit drinks in the international market
Emerging
Markets for
Brazil

Source: IBRAF

ibraf.org.br
www.brazilianfruit.org.br

Production Chain Fruits - Fruit Agrifood System


AGRICULTURAL MARKETING

Processing

Consumption
Fruits

INDUSTRIALIZATION

Orchards

Fruits and derivatives


juices, nectars
and soft drinks

Primary

Juice industries
Distribution and trade

processing

Products

Other industries
Juice,frozen pulps and
concentrate juice

soft drinks, milk, ice


cream, candy
Source: IBRAF

ibraf.org.br
www.brazilianfruit.org.br

Processing Technology of Fruits and Vegetables


Fruit/Vegetables

Delivery/sorting
Preparation
(peeling, stoning, cutting up)
Vegetables

Fruits

Drying

Drying

Dried natural
vegetables

Dried scalded
vegetables

Sweet
syrups
Cooking

Drying

Drying

Dried sweet
fruit

Dried sweet
fruit

Factors that Affect Quality


Fruits
variety;and vegetables in which

bioactive
compounds are
the
orchard
cultural practices;
undergo different
present
selectioncan
of fruit;
of system;
processing, which can
forms
cleaning
concentration
affect
thermalthe
inactivation
of oxidativeand
enzymes;
bioavailability

of

these

in the product.
compounds
enzymatic treatment;

pasteurization;

concentration;

logistics system of collection;

packaging and storage.

van der Sluis, A. A.; Dekker, M.; de Jager, A.; Jongen, W. M. F. - Activity and concentration of polyphenolic antioxidants in apple: effect of
cultivar, harvest year, and storage conditions - J AgricFood Chem: 49: 3606-3613; 2001.

The tropical juice are gaining ever


greater space in the consumer market,
and Brazil is one of the main producers
in this market. There is a great diversity
of products derived from fruits and new
products for consumption are launched
constantly, often without the necessary
into their active properties and beneficial
health activities.

Kuskoski, M.E.; Asuero, A. G.; Morales, M.T.; - Frutos Tropicais silvestres e polpas de frutas congeladas: atividade antioxidante, polifenis e antocianinas
Cien. Rural, Santa Maria, 36 (4): 1283-1287, 2006.

Free Radical and Bioactive


Compounds of
Fruits and Vegetables

Free Radical and Bioactive


Compounds of Fruits and Vegetables

An antioxidant is any
substance that is present in low
concentrations when compared to the
oxidizable substrate, that delay or
inhibit the oxidation of this substrate
effectively .
Antolovich, M; Prenzler, P.D.; Patsalides, E.; McDonald, S.; Robards, K. Methods for testing antioxidant activity - Analyst, 127: 183-198, 2002.
Sies, H.; Stahl, W. Vitamins E and C, -Carotene, and other carotenoids and antioxidants Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 62(6): 1315-1321, 1995.

Antioxidant Molecules
Fruits and vegetables contain large amounts of natural
antioxidant molecules, which can protect against several
chronic diseases.
Among these molecules, we find the lipid soluble
vitamins A and E, -carotene, the water soluble vitamin C, and a
wide range of amphipathic molecules, broadly termed phenolic
compounds.
These compounds are divided into several subclasses
including phenolic acids, flavonoids, glucosides, and Esters.

Ninfali, P. & Bacchiocca, M. Poliphenols and antioxidant capacity of vegetables under fresh and frozen conditions - J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 22222226, 2003.

Common Antioxidants in Fruits and Vegetables

Hesperitina
Kaempferol

Quercitina
Rutina

Common Antioxidants in Fruits and Vegetables

Evaluation of the Antioxidant


Potential of Fruits and
Vegetables Fresh and
Processed

Effect of the Processing on Some Components


of Acerola Juice
Acerola is a fruit which is

Objective

much appreciated due to its high

To determine the effect of

vitamin C content. It also has a

some processing operations

good source of carotenoids and

(formulation / homogenization

anthocyanins in industrialized
frozen pulp and processed to
juice.

and heat treatment) on


physical and physicalchemical characteristics of
acerola juice.

Maia, G.A.; Sousa, P.H.M.; Santos, D.S.S.; Fernandes, A,G.; Prado, G,M. Effect of the processing on some components of acerola juice Cinc. Tecnol.
Aliment., Campinas, 27(1): 130-134, 2007.

Effect of the Processing on Some


Components of Acerola Juice

Results

Maia, G.A.; Sousa, P.H.M.; Santos, D.S.S.; Fernandes, A,G.; Prado, G,M. Effect of the processing on some components of acerola juice Cinc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, 27(1): 130134, 2007.

Effect of the Processing on Some


Components of Acerola Juice
Conclusion
The

research

indicates

small

changes in the physical and physicalchemical characteristics, and a significant


change in the pH, a decrease in the
vitamin C and anthocyanin content and
an increase in the carotenoids in the juice
were observed after processing.

Maia, G.A.; Sousa, P.H.M.; Santos, D.S.S.; Fernandes, A,G.; Prado, G,M. Effect of the processing on some components of acerola juice Cinc. Tecnol. Aliment., Campinas, 27(1): 130134, 2007.

Polyphenols and Antioxidant Capacity of


Vegetables under Fresh and Frozen Conditions
Objective
Evaluate
the
antioxidant
capacity in fresh and frozen
vegetables
(green
beet,
spinach, broccoli, carrot, onion
and celery), through the
methods of total phenols and
ORAC.
Ninfali, P. & Bacchiocca, M. Poliphenols and antioxidant capacity of vegetables under fresh and frozen conditions - J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 2222-2226, 2003.

Scheme for the extraction of phenolics


from fresh and frozen vegetables
Fresh/ frozen
vegetables

Griding and homogegenation

Centrifugation
Wet pulp

Juice

Whole Juice

5% PCA
1/1 V/V
(WJ + PCA)

1:1 (w/v) water


1:7 (w/v) acetone
(Acetone)

1:1 (w/v) 5% PCA


1:7 (w/v) acetone
(Acetone + PCA)

Ninfali, P. & Bacchiocca, M. Poliphenols and antioxidant capacity of vegetables under fresh and frozen conditions - J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 2222-2226, 2003.

Results: Table 1. Phenols in Aqueous Whole Juices of


Fresh and Frozen Vegetablesa

aValues

are expressed as mg/g juice and are the mean SD of four independent determinations. bCv.
Bieta da tagli. cSignificancy different from WJ of fresh hortages by ANOVA with p 0.05. dSignificantly
different from WJ of frozen vegetables. eSignificantly different from WJ of fresh vegetables.

Ninfali, P. & Bacchiocca, M. Poliphenols and antioxidant capacity of vegetables under fresh and frozen conditions - J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 2222-2226, 2003.

Results: Table 2. Phenols in Acetone Extracts from


Pulp of Fresh and Frozen Vegetablesa

aValues
bCv.

are expressed as mg/g wet pulp and are the mean SD of four independent determinations.
Bieta da tagli. cSignificancy different from acetone of fresh vegetables. dSignificantly different from

acetone of frozen vegetables by ANOVA with p 0.05.

Ninfali, P. & Bacchiocca, M. Poliphenols and antioxidant capacity of vegetables under fresh and frozen conditions - J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 2222-2226, 2003.

Results: Table . Phenols and ORAC Units in Selected


Fresh and Frozen Vegetablesa

aValues

are mean SD of four independent determinations. bCv. Bieta da tagli. cSignificancy different
from phenols of fresh vegetables. dSignificantly different from ORAC of fresh vegetables by ANOVA
with p 0.05.

Ninfali, P. & Bacchiocca, M. Poliphenols and antioxidant capacity of vegetables under fresh and frozen conditions - J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 2222-2226, 2003.

In conclusion
The results showed the importance of extracting

phenolic

compounds

from

fresh

or

frozen

vegetables by obtaining the WJ first and then by


extracting phenols from the pulp by acetone + PCA.
The detection of the amount of phenols is related
to

ORAC values, the potential health benefit of

these compounds,

is very often independent of

their absolute quantity.

Ninfali, P. & Bacchiocca, M. Poliphenols and antioxidant capacity of vegetables under fresh and frozen conditions - J. Agric. Food Chem. 51: 2222-2226, 2003.

Wild Fruits and Pulps of Frozen Fruits: Antioxidant


Activity, Polyphenols and Anthocyanins
Objective
Determine the antioxidant properties of
commercialized frozen tropical fruits
pulps(mulberry, grapes, aca, guava,
strawberry, acerola, pineapple, mango,
graviola, cupua and passion fruit),
and in natura wild fruits (jambolan and
baguau).

Methods

Folin-Ciocalteu = total polyphenols


Difference in pH = anthocyanins
Scanvening free radicals = DPPH

Kuskoski, M.E.; Asuero, A. G.; Morales, M.T.; - Frutos Tropicais silvestres e polpas de frutas congeladas: atividade antioxidante, polifenis e antocianinas
Cien. Rural, Santa Maria, 36 (4): 1283-1287, 2006.

Determination of the polyphenols, anthocyanins and


antioxidant activity of fruit pulp

Correlation between total polyphenols (R2 = 0,98) and anthocyanins (R2 = 0,93), the antioxidant activity TEAC (mol/g-1)

Kuskoski, M.E.; Asuero, A. G.; Morales, M.T.; - Frutos Tropicais silvestres e polpas de frutas congeladas: atividade antioxidante, polifenis e antocianinas Cien. Rural, Santa
Maria, 36 (4): 1283-1287, 2006.

Wild Fruits and Pulps of Frozen Fruits: Antioxidant


Activity, Polyphenols and Anthocyanins
Conclusion

The descending order of antioxidant capacity was


acerola> mango> strawberry> grapes> aa> guava>
mulberry> graviola> passion fruit> cupuau> pineapple.

Among the wild fruits, baguau presents a greater


antioxidant activity than jambolan;

There is direct correlation between the values of total


polyphenols, anthocyanins and the values represented
by TEAC antioxidants test.

Kuskoski, M.E.; Asuero, A. G.; Morales, M.T.; - Frutos Tropicais silvestres e polpas de frutas congeladas: atividade antioxidante,
polifenis e antocianinas Cien. Rural, Santa Maria, 36 (4): 1283-1287, 2006.

Blanching

and

long-term

freezing

affect

various

bioactive

compounds

of

vegetables in different ways

Puupponen-Pimi.; Hkkinen, S.; Marjukka, A.; et al. Blanching and long-term freezing affect various bioactive compounds of vegetables in different ways
J.Sci. Agric., 83: 1389-1402, 2003.

Contents of antioxidants, vitamins and sterols in peas and carrots

Puupponen-Pimi.; Hkkinen, S.; Marjukka, A.; et al. Blanching and long-term freezing affect various bioactive compounds of vegetables in different ways
J.Sci. Agric., 83: 1389-1402, 2003.

Contents of antioxidants, vitamins and sterols in brassicas

Puupponen-Pimi.; Hkkinen, S.; Marjukka, A.; et al. Blanching and long-term freezing affect various bioactive compounds of vegetables in different ways
J.Sci. Agric., 83: 1389-1402, 2003.

Conclusion
Phenolic
sensitive

compounds
to

the

blanching/freezing

and

effects
and

vitamins
of

are

industrial

long-term

freezer

storage.
Plant
often

species-dependent
detected

with

decreases

phenolic

were

compounds,

vitamin C and folic acid.


The following assays proved to be very useful to get a general view
of the effects of processing on plant bioactivity: total phenolics and
DPPH

radical-scavenging

activity,

HPLC

profile

of

phenolic

antioxidants, vitamin C and folic acid.


Puupponen-Pimi.; Hkkinen, S.; Marjukka, A.; et al. Blanching and long-term freezing affect various bioactive compounds of vegetables in different ways
J.Sci. Agric., 83: 1389-1402, 2003.

General Conclusion
Effects of industrial blanching/freezing
and long-term freezer storage on different
types of vegetables and fruits affect the
retention of antioxidant capacity;
More strategies are needed to prevent
losses of bioactive compounds during
processing and also more research on the
bioavailability

of

processed foods.

this

compounds

in

In development....
Evaluation of bioactives compounds of fruits
Objective
Research Topics

Study tropical fruits consumed mainly by native


Selection of microorganisms that produce enzymes and
people of the Brazilian Cerrado and Amazon
biochemical characterization of their produced enzymes;
Regions. In these studies, pulp, seed and peel
Aroma production by microrganisms selected from
will be extracted with differents solvents.
various brazilian regions;
Extracts show high content of total phenols (HPLC) will be screened for
Production of biosurfactants by microorganisms;
their potential antioxidants using in vitro (TEAC, DPPH* and ORAC) and in
Biotransformation of aroma compounds by
vivo models (citotoxic, antimitagenic and anticancer activity).

microorganisms and identification of compounds with


functional
activity;
These
studies
can be further extending to exploit their possible application
natural antioxidant
forand
cosmetic,
as
Function
foods: FOS
GOS;supplements ans functional ingredients
food products
as well as could
represent
a sustainable application of the
for
Evaluation
of antioxidant
potential
of fruits;
of the brazilian
and
Amazon
natural
Study sources
of antimutagenic
and Savannah
anticancer
activity
of Region which has
been
destroyed
in last 30from
years.
bioactive
compounds
tropical fruits.

Biochemistry And Biological


Characterization of CerradoFruits
TOTAL PHENOLS (mg gallic acid/ g extract)
FRUITS

AQUEOUS

ETHANOLIC

80.01

184.42

Guapeva peel

18.19

55.88

150 pulp
Guapeva

9.91

25.59

Guapeva seed

3.23

14.58

Murici

9.85

31.61

m g ga llic a c id / g e x tra c t

Gabiroba
200

100

Guapeva

EXTRACTION

TOTAL PHENOLS

Pouteria guardneriana

50
0
Gabiroba

Guapeva peel Guapeva pulp


FRUITS

Guapeva
seed

Murici

Gabiroba

Compomanesia cambessedeana

Murici

Brysonima verbascifolia

Biochemistry And Biological Characterization of


CerradoFruits

Biochemistry And Biological Characterization of Cerrado Fruits

In development...
Study of the antioxidant capacity of Peruvian fruits
Annona cherimolia Mill. var Cumbe
Fruit

Annona cherimolia
(Unripe)

Annona cherimolia
(Overripe)

Total Phenol Content


(g
GAE/kg dry matter)
Part of the
fruit

ORAC H
(mol TE/ g dry matter)

Aqueous
Extracts

Ethanolic
Extracts

Aqueous
Extracts

Ethanolic
Extracts

Peel

26,6

47,0

12,92

36,03

Pulp

6,6

8,5

11,24

12,00

Seeds

5,9

8,1

9,10

1,42

Peel

7,3

42,8

1,40

11,24

Pulp

3,3

17,6

3,40

9,00

Seeds

12,5

5,1

0,24

1,43

Pouteria lucuma
Fruit

Pouteria

Pouteria lucuma
(Overripe)

Total Phenol Content (g


ORAC H
GAE/kg
dry
matter)
mol
TE/
g de extrato
Part of the
fruit
Aqueous
Extracts

Ethanolic
Extracts

Aqueous
Extracts

Ethanolic
Extracts

Peel

5,8

112,7

8,16

86,40

Pulp

3,4

17,6

0,70

0,40

Seeds

13,5

17,1

1,29

14,10

Peel

3,4

3,0

1,38

1,34

Pulp

1,7

0,3

0,70

0,66

Seeds

7,7

7,3

14,48

0,37

State University of Campinas

Thank you very much!

glaupast@fea.unicamp.br