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Allon Bachuth

Almanac

THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

perhaps the same as Amon of Neh. vii. 59, Ami of


Ezra, ii. 57. (While R. V. has "Allon," the Greek
and A. V. have " Allom.")
G. B. L.
ALLON BACHUTH ("Oak of Weeping").
Biblical Data: An oak near Bethel, at the foot of
which Deborah, the nurse of Rebekah, was buried
(Gen. xxxv. 8). In Judges, iv. 5 a tree is referred to as
the " palm-tree of Deborah," which has been identified by some with the " oak of weeping." G. B. L.
In Rabbinical Literature : According to the
Haggadah, the word "allon" is the Greek tiXkov
(another); and it explains the designation of the
burial-place of Deborah as "another weeping," by
stating that before Jacob had completed his mourning for Deborah, ho received the news of the death of
his mother. Scripture does not mention the place of
Rebekah's interment, because her burial took place
privately. Isaac was blind; Jacob was away from
home; and Esau would have been the only one to
mourn; and his public appearance as sole mourner
would not have been to Rebekah's honor (Pesik.
Zakor, pp. 236 et seq.; Gen. R. Ixxxi., end; Tan.
AVayishlah, xxvi.).
L. G.
ALLORQUI, JOSHUA BEN JOSEPH IBN

426

found. From Ptolemy, too, were derived the conceptions of the spheres and the primum mobile, which
had so much influence upon the Cabala. The Almagest was translated into Hebrew from the Arabic,
with both Averroes' and Al-Fergani's compendiums
of it, by Jacob Anatoli about 1230, the latter from
the Latin version of Johannes Hispalensis. Commentaries on parts of it were written by David ibn
Nahmias of Toledo, Elijah Mizrahi, and Samuel ben
Judahof Marseilles (1331); only the latter's commentary is extant. From the Almagest the Jews received their conception of the number of the fixed
stars as 1,022; the comparison of the universe to an
onion with its successive skins, corresponding to the
spheres; and their idea of the size of the earth
24,000 miles in circumferencewhich indirectly led
to the search for the New World, by inducing Columbus to think that the way westward to India was
not so far as to be beyond his reach.
BIBLIOGRAPHY : Steinschneider, Jew. Lit. pp. 184, 186; idem,
Hebr. Uebers. pp. 520-535; Neubauer, Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MS
Nos. 2010-2013.
J.
ALMALIA, JOSEPH: Italian rabbi, of the
beginning of the nineteenth century, whose responsa
" Tokfo shel Yosef " (The Strength of Joseph) were
VTVES. See IBN VIVES ALLORQUI, JOSIIUA BEN
published in two parts at Livorno, in 1823 and 1855.
TOSPPII
His name is wrongly given as Almagia, by Mortara
ALLUF (or RESH KALLAH): In the Baby- ("Indice Alfabetico," *..).
lonian colleges, title of the chief judge, third in
rank below the gaon. As a special distinction it BIBLIOGRAPHY : Benjaeob, Ozar lia-Sefarim, p. 672.
was granted to prominent non-Babylonian scholars,
W. M.
particularly to those of Palestine. There were,
ALMALIH,
JOSEPH
B.
AARON:
One
the
however, others who bore this distinctive title, for patrons mentioned by Abraham Ankawa in the of
prefthere is record of a certain "Eliezer Alluf," or"Resh ace to his responsa, "Kerem Hemed" (Leghorn,
Kallah," of Spain in the ninth century. This title 1869-71). Kaufmann regards him as the grandson of
bears no direct relation to the Hebrew sp?K (duke), Jacob
b. Joseph Almalih, whose date may be fixed
but is closely connected with I^SI^X (our herds) (Ps. by an elegy composed by him on the persecution of
cxliv. 14), which, according to the Talmud (Ber. the Jewish community at Morocco (1790). The per17a), is afigurativeappellation for pious and learned secution in question was, no doubt, due to the dismen in Israel. See ACADEMIES IN BABYLONIA.
turbed state of the country that "ensued upon the
BIBLIOGRAPHY : Zunz, Ritus, p. 190; Harkavy, Studien unddeath of Sultan Mulei Sidi Mohammed.
Mittheilungen, iii. 48, iv. 377; Halevy, Dorot ha-Rishonim,
BIBLIOGRAPHY : Kaufmann, Zu den MarokkaniscUen Piutim,
pp. 317 et seq.
in Z. D. M. G. 1. 235 et seq.; Rev. Et. Juives, xxxvii. 121
Steinschneider, Jew. Quart. Rev. xii. 196.
L. G.
ALLUFE HA-K:EHILLAH: A general name
H. G. E.
for prominent members of any congregation, and
ALMANAC : An annual table, book, or the like,
typically used in regard to the leaders of the com- comprising a calendar of days, weeks, and months.
munity in the old kahals (governing boards) of the Among the Jews it was the holy prerogative of the
Jews of Poland and Lithuania. The number of patriarch or president of the Great Sanhedrin to fix
these leaders varied from five to ten according to the the calendar and according to it proclaim the new
size of the community. Candidates were chosen from moon. Witnesses who reported their having peramong them, to replace absent members of the four ceived the new moon were heard, their statements
elders (LWK"l), or any of the three to five honorary carefully examined, and perhaps compared with
members of the board (D^ltS). They were the so- the result of some esoteric calculation. Hence the
called " reserve " of the kahal.
H. R.
phrase " sod 7ia 'ibbur " (the mystery of the calcuALMAGEST: The Arabic title of the astronom- lation), though it may perhaps apply altogether to
ical work of Claudius Ptolemy (flourished 150), en- the intercalation. These observations and researches
crystallized into a science, the oral tradititled by him jia6iijiaTiK.fi avvra^ic, in order to gradually
distinguish it from another aiivra^ic of Ptolemy's, tions having been reduced to a literature on the
devoted to astrology. The Almagest contains a CALENDAR (see CHRONOLOGY).
Ludh, the Hebrew equivalent for Almanac, means
full account of the Ptolemaic theory of astronomy,
by which the retrograde movement of the inner plan- literally a table or tablet. Most of the works on
ets was explained by a system of cycles and epicy- chronology naturally contained such a calendar. It
cles. It also gives, in the eighth and ninth books, included the proper designation of every day as part
a list of the fixed stars, with their positions, still of of the week as well as part of the month; the desiguse to the astronomer. It continued to be the clas- nation of the parashah (the weekly Sabbath portion of
sical text-book of astronomy up to the time of Coper- the Pentateuch); the dates of feasts and general and
nicus, and even of Newton, and was the foundation local fasts; furthermore, the exact date of the molad
of the astronomical knowledge of the Jews (who (new moon) and the tekufot (the quarter-days of the
became acquainted with it through Arabic transla- year), as well as the beginning and end of the shealah
tions) in the Middle Ages. One of the earliest Arabic (the time when a short prayer for rain is added to the
translations is said to have been by an Oriental Jew, eighteen benedictions).
Sahl Al-Tabari (about 800), but no trace of it can be
Quite another appearance is borne by calendars

427

Allon Baehuth
Almanac

THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

which are calculated for more than one year, for a


hundred years, or when they are meant to be perpetual. These must be classified as chronological
literature. The Hebrew calendar contained originally no literary supplements, its only aim being to
give a list in order of time of the days of the year.
This changed, however, with the composition of the
Jewish calendar in a European language. The nineteenth century introduced the literary annual which
has become an almost indispensable part of the
Almanac.
The Almanac first appeared as a tablet, then as a
booklet, sometimes appended to the prayer-book or
Pentateuch. In the synagogue the tablet was used
exclusively. Written Hebrew calendars were easily
lost; and, therefore, few have come down to us.
But among the discoveries made in the Genizah
of Cairo there are also some calendars, the margins
of which are illuminated with arabesques. Only
through the spread of the art of printing did this kind
of literature grow up.
The first printed Almanac known came from the
printing-office of di Gara at Venice, 1597. It is
printed on a folio sheet. In towns where Hebrew
printing-offices existed there appeared every year
an Almanac on a single sheet or in a booklet. Thus
almanacs have been annually published in the city
of Prague since 1655, at Venice since 1670, and at
Frankfort since about 1670. Owing to the great fire
in the last-named city, 1711, the Almanac was published at Homburg; and from it was evolved the wellknown Rodelheim Almanac, which is still being
published there. Gradually these calendars were
enlarged by the insertion of the memorable days in
Jewish history, the civil dates, the Christian festivals,
and the days of various fairs. Similar in composition and size are the bibliographically well-known
calendars printed at Amsterdam since 1707, at Dyhernfurth since 1712, at Wilmersdorf since 1715, at
Mantua since 1727, at Altona since 1738, at Berlin
since 1739, and at Fiirth sinca 1745. The Sulzbach Almanac contains not only all memorable
days, among which it counts the fires at Prague
(1089), Frankfort-on-the-Main (1715), Posen (1718),
Nikolsburg (1721), but also the birthdays of the
rulers and princes of Europe. Since 1758 a list
of the most important highways has been added.
The calendar printed at Cassel in 1790 gives a list of
the Hesse-Cassel princely family and "information
when all the mails at Cassel leave and arrive." The
calendar of Metz gives also a list of the festivals and
names of the months which were instituted by the
French Revolution. The first Almanac which contained a literary supplement was published by J.
Ileinemann in Berlin, 1818-20, under the title "Almauaeh filr die Israelitische Jugend," as the Oxford
publication, "The Jewish Kalendar in the Year
5452 " (1692), does not belong to this category.
The following bibliography, which includes onl}calendars published in the nineteenth century, lays
no claim to completeness. Only those almanacs are
noted which cover a period of not less than one
year.

Hebrew Almanach. Bloch Publishing and Printing Co., Cincinnati, Ohio, in progress. ,
American Jews' Annual (rrn). Bloch Publishing and Printing
Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. Ed. by George Wise, 1885 and the years
following.
AUSTRIA-HUNGARY.

Kalender u. Jahrbuch fur Israeliten auf das Jahr 5603-08 . . .


herausgegeben von Isidor Busch. 6. Jahrg. Vienna, 1843-47.
Else Magyar Zsid<5 Neptfir es EvkOnvyo 1848. J. K. SzOkB, Pest,
1848.
Strenna Israelitica Contenente 11 Calendario Ebraico . . . ed. un
annuario . . . elaborata da Isacco Reggio. Gorz, 1852.
Illustrirter Israelitischer Volkskalender . . . nebst Gallerie von
Jiidischen Merkwiirdigkeiten
. . . herausg. v. W. Pascheles.
Prague, 1852-94. Jahrbuch fur Israeliten, 5615-24 (1854-64) . . . herausg. v. Jos.
Wcrtheimer. Neue Folge, 10. Jahrg. Zweite Folge, 5626-38
(1865-67) . . . herausg. v. S. Szanto. Jahrg. 1-3. Vienna,
1854-68.
Hlustrirtes Israelitisches Jahrbuch filr Ernst und Scherz auf
die Jahre 5620 und 5621 (1859-61) . . . Herausgabe und Verlag v. S. Winter . . . 2. Jahrg. Pest, 1859-B0.
Jahrbuch f. d. Israelit. Kultusgemeinden in Ungarn. herausg.w.
Leop. Rosenberg. 1. Jahrg. Arad, 1860.
Zeitbote, Der Israelitische Kalender f. d. J. 5625. Zur Unterhaltung und Belehrung. 1. Jahrg. Prague, 1864.
Bikkurim. Jahrbuch fur Freunde der Hebr. Sprache u. Literatur
. . . herausg. v. N. Keller. 2. Jahrg. Vienna, 1864-65.
Brandeis' Illustrirter Israel. Volkskalender . . . herausg. u. redigirt v. Jacob B. Brandeis. Prague, 1880 and they ears following.
Tasehenkalender filr Israeliten. Briinn, 1883 and the years following.
Zsid6 KOzigurgestesi Neptar, ar 5650 Ki Ern; "Budapest, 1889,
1890.
Tasehenkalender. Budapest, 5654 (1893).
Luah (Hebrew and German). Vienna, 5657 (1896-97).
DENMARK.

Jodish Almanak, for Skudaaret 5632. ..Forfallet ag udgivet af ,M.


Mielziner. Copenhagen, 1861.
ENGLAND.

[From "J. Jacobs and L. Wolf's Bibliotheca Anglo-Judaica^"


London, 1888, pp. 153 et sec}.]
Abendana, J.The Jewish Kalendar, containing Account of
their Fasts and Festivals for the Year 5452. 32mo. Oxford,
1692. Also published for 1693, '94, '95, '96, and '99.
A.- Alexander.Almanack for Jewish Commercial Travelers,
with Names of English Towns in Hebrew Letters, Giving Details of Coaches, Market Days, etc. 1782.
A New Calendar for the Years 5551-5600. 12mo. 1791. Printed
by permission of the gentlemen of the Mahamad.
Moses Meldola.A New Almanack for the Year 5568 A.M. 13mo.
1807.
zhvj rmna1? rypn D'C^N n^nn hv nh, Hebrew and English
Almanack for the Year 5596, corresponding with 1835-36. 1835.
Hebrew and English Almanac for the Years 1837-40, with the
Jewish Charitable Institutions. 1836-39.
... """in j"tr>, ,a"n-,N"in ... Tn ,0'sprt ,n-xpn ... Vym?
Hebrew and English Almanack. ,K"nn ,"in ,o--\n ,rr-in ,mn
16mo. London, 1837-51.
ninv? -otr, Hebrew and English Almanack. 16mo. London,
1839-64.
H. Barnett.Almanack. 1841.
Vallentine, Isaac.niS, Hebrew and English Almanack for the
Years A.M. 5604 and 5605. (Continued to the present day.)
De Lara.Illuminated Hebrew Calendar for 5606. Printed in
gold and twelve different colors, from an original design by
Mr. de Lara. Dedicated to Sir Moses Monteflore. " Voice of
Jacob " of October 10,1845, says that Mr. de Lara presented a
copy to the Queen personally on Friday last."
Hebrew and English Almanac for the Year 5608 (1847-48). Carefully revised and corrected by the Chief Rabbi, the Rev. Dr.
Adler, and the Rev. David Meldola. London, 1847.
De Lara.Illuminated Hebrew and English Calendar for 5608.
Dedicated to Sir Anthony de Rothschild. Printed in nine
colors and gold, with a tablet representing " King Solomon's
Judgment," in honor of the recent return of Baron de Rothschild as a Member of Parliament for the city of London.
Ph. Moss.Calendar, English and Hebrew. 1853.
J. Madden.Almanac, 5015-16 (1855).
AMERICA.
Abrahams.Luah. Commenced in 1872-73.
Calendar and Diary. Compiled by Rev.
The Jewish Calendar for Fifty Years (1854-1904), with an Essay M.M.H.H.Myers.Jewish
Myers. London, 1867. (Annually since 1876.)
on the Jewish Calendars, by J. J. Lyons and Abraham de Sola.Jacobs, Joseph.The
Jewish Year-Book. (Annually since 1896.
Montreal, 1854.
The American-Hebrew Manual, a Calendar for Eighteen Years, Continued from 1900 by Rev. Isidore Harris.)
with a Collection of Events, etc., by A. N. Coleman. Troy,
FRANCE.
N. Y., 1883.
Almanach Israelite. Paris, 1821-30.
The Centurial: Calendar for One Hundred Years, by E. M. Annuaire
Israelite
.
.
.
[par
S. Cohen]. Paris, 1831.
Myers. New York, 1890.
Almanach & l'Usage des Israelites. Paris, 1841.
Harkavy's Volks-Kalender. New York, 1895-1900.
Almanach
Religieux
et
Moral
. . . a l'Usage des Israelites . . .
Jewish Year-Book, by Cyrus Adler, 1899 and the years following.
Year-Book of Various Congregations, Keneset Yisrael and Ko- par A. ben Banich Creliange. Paris, 1850-70.
Calendrier
a
l'
U
sage
des
Israelites.
Paris, 1866-84.
def Shalom, in Philadelphia.

Almanac
Almeida

428

THE JEWISH ENCYCLOPEDIA

einem Jahrbuch zur Belehrung u. Unterhaltung . . . herausgAnnuaire des Archives Israelites . . . par H. Prague. Paris,
v. M. Brann. Breslau, 1889 and the years following.
1882 and the years following.
Annuaire Israelite . . . par A. Durlacher. Paris, 1884 and the Frankfurter Israelitischer Volks-Kalender. Nebst Jiid. HotelAdressbuch. Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1892 and the years folyears following.
lowing.
GERMANY.
Israelitischer Amtskalender fiir Rabbiner, Prediger, Lehrer, u.
Cantoren
audere Gemeindebehorden], herausg. v. I.
Jahrbuch des Niitzlichen und Unterhaltenden fur Israeliten . . . Loewy. 2.[und
Jahrg. Berlin, 1889-90.
herausg. von K. Klein. Jahrg. 1.-19. Breslau, 1841-47. K6n- Israelitischer Volks-Kalender
. . . herausg. v. H. Schildberger.
igsberg, 1849. Dresden, 1850. Stuttgart, 1853-54. FrankfortBerlin, 1893 and the years following.
on-the Main, 1856. Mainz, ia59-61.
Luab
(Hebrew
and
German).
Rodelheim, 5653- (1893-).
Volkskalender fur Israeliten auf das Jahr 5607 (1847). Zur Jiidischer Volks-Kalender . . . herausg.
Auftrage der ZionisBelehrung und Unterhaltung; v. M. Troplowitz. Mit Bei- tischen Vereinigung fur Deutschland. imLeipsic,
1896 and the
tragen von Piorkowsky. 1. Jahrg. Kreuzburg, 1846.
years following.
Luah (Hebrew and German). Altona, 5646 (1895-96).
Jiidischer Volks-Kalender. Cologne, 5658 (1897-98).
Israelitischer Kalender fiir die Jiid. Gemeinden Wiirttemberg's.
Herausgeber: 8. Abraham. Stuttgart, 1899.
Luah (Hebrewand German). Onefolio. Mayence, 5649(1898-99).
Rabbiner Dr. Heppner's Jiid. Litt. Abreisskalender. Koscnmin,
1900.
HOLLAND.
Jaarboekle voor het Israelitisch Kerkgenootschap. The Hague,
1843.
Nederlandsch Israelitisch Muzen-Almanack, vor 5604 . . . herausg. v. G. I. Polak. Amsterdam, 1843.
Nederlandsch Israelitisch Almanak. Amsterdam, 1845.
Nederlandsch Israelitisch Jaarboekje. The Hague, 1849.
Israelitisch Almanack. Mekon Zedek voor het Jaar 5619 (185859) . . . zamengesteld door L. Borstel. Rotterdam, 1858.
PALESTINE.

Luah . . . ed. by Joseph Schwarz. Jerusalem, 1843.


Luah. Calendar for the year 5647-48 . . . ed. by M. Adelmann.
3 vols. Jerusalem. 1886-87.
'Edut le-Yisrael: Zeugnlss der Beruhmten Besucher des Alten
Hauses Moshab Zekenim, Jerusalem, sammt Kalender fur das
Jahr 1899-1900.
Luah Yerushalmi . . . ed. by sender (Alexander) Phoebus ben
David Kohen. Jerusalem, 1889.
Luah Erez Yisrael [Literary Almanac of Palestine] . . . ed. by
A. M. Luncz. Jerusalem, 1895 and the years following.
RUSSIA.

Luah ha-Soherim (Calendar for Jewish business men), ed. by 8.


I. Abramovich. 2 vols. Zhitomir, 1877. Wilna, 1879.
Luah Israel (Hebrew and Russian) . . . ed. by I. Gurland. Six
vols.: i., Kiev, 1877; ii., Warsaw, 1878; iii. iv. v. vi., St. Peters
burg, 1879-82.
Luah, 5641 (1880-81) . . . ed. by J. A. Goldenblum. St. Petersburg, 1880.
Luah Yeshurun (Hebrew and Russian), 5644 . . . ed. by I. Gurland. St. Petersburg, 1883.
Der Komerzischer Kalender (Judaeo-German). Odessa, 5647
(1886-87).
Der Jiidischer Kalender (Judaeo-Gerroan), edited by Sbaikevitch
("Shomer"). Wilna, 5648 (1887-88).
Der Warschauer Jiidischer Kalender (Judseo-German). Warsaw, 5650-51 (1889-91).
Ahiassaf (the "Collector"), Hebrew year-book with calendar.
Warsaw, 1893, etc.
Ha-Mazkir oder Taschen-Luab (Judseo-German). Wilna, 5655
(1894-95).
'Ivri-Teutsch Luah (Judseo-German). Wilna, 5658 (1897-98).
Sefer ha-Shanah (Year-Book), ed. by N. Sokolow. Warsaw, 1900
TiHe-Page of a Hebrew Almanac Published by L. Alexander and the years following.
Ha-Asif, ed. by Sokolow. 6 vols.
in London, 1813.
A. F.
Deutsch-Israelitischer Volkskalender und Jahrbuch auf das Jahr ALMANZA, ARON DE (or SELOMOH
DE):
1854 . . . herausg. von A. Ruhemann. 1. Jahrg. Johannisburg, 1853.
A Marano born at Salamanca, Spain, of Jewish parDeutscher Volkskalender und Jahrbuch. Insbesondere zum ents. His first wife was Leonore de los Rios Sotte,
Gebrauch fur Israeliten. Mit Literarischen Beitragen . . . whom he married in 1696 and with whom he obtained
heraus. v. H. Liebermann. 36. Jahrg. Brieg, 1853-88.
Kalender und Jahrbuch . . . fiir die Jiidischen Gemeinden a dowry of "70,000 florins [f21,000, or 4,200] in
Preussens . . . herausg. von Ph. Wertheim. Berlin, 1857-59. money, 19,000 florins [$5,700, or 1,140] worth of
Berliner Volkskalender fiir Israeliten . . . bearbeitet von M. jewels,
and other presents." After her death he
Poppelauer. Berlin, 1862 and the years following.
Allgemeiner Hauskalender fiir Israeliten . . . herausg. v. I. K. married a Christian woman. He migrated to EngBuchner. Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1863.
Jahrbuch fiir Israeliten (Fortsetzung des K. Klein'sehen Jahr- land, and in 170.'! he published, in English and Spanish, an account of his conversion, dedicated to Henry,
buches, 21. und 22. Jahrg.). 2. Jahrg. Leipsic, 1863-64.
Achava. Vereinsbuch . . . herausg. v. Vereine zur Unterstut- Lord Bishop of London, entitled: " A declaration of
zung hilfsbediirftiger Israel. Lehrer, Lehrer-Witwen und Wal- the conversion of Mr. Aron de Almanza, a Spanish
sen in Deutschland. Leipsic, 1864-68.
Illustrirter Jiidischer Familien-Kalender . . . herausg. v. Jul. merchant, with his two children and nephew, from
Meyer. Halberstadt, 1877 and the years following.
Judaism to the Protestant religion, according to the
Max Lamm's Wochen-Kalender. Hebraisch u. Deutsch. Ichen- Doctrines of the Church of England, with his abjuhausen, 1879 and the years following. [52 separate sheets ration of the Jewish Rights (sic) and ceremonies," etc.
bound together.]
Volkskalender des " Israelit." Mainz, 1882-88. Fortgesetzt als In this work the author treats his former coreligionFrankfurter Israelitischer Kalender. Frankfort-on-the-Main, ists very severely and,in a postscript, says that "Jew1889 and the years following.
Monteflore-Kalender. . . herausg. von B. Baer u. Jul. Weinberg. ish rabbis, with the directors of the Jewish Synagogue and some other Jews in London, "had spread a
Berlin, 1885.
Berliner Kalender filr alle Jiidischen Gemeinden . . . von J. report to the effect that in Spain he had been a
Heinemann. Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1885-86.
Jiidischer Volks- und Haus-Kalender (friiner Liebermann). Mit Catholic. He declares that he would be neither a