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Ex.

no:
Date:

INTRODUCTION OF AUTO CAD SOFTWARE FOR DRAFTING


AND MODELING

Aim:
To study the capabilities of AutoCAD software for drafting and modeling.
Introducton:
Auto Cad is the most popular Computer Aided Design software from Autodesk, a leading US
based Company.
Apart from AutoCad, Autodesk has a spectrum of products for various disciplines as follows:
Mechanical AutoCAD Mechanical, Autodesk Inventor Series.
AEC Architectural Desktop, Autodesk Civil Design, Autodesk VIZ, Autodesk Revit.
GIS Autodesk MAP, Autodesk Land Desktop, Autodesk Map Guide.
R to V Autodesk Raster design.
AutoCAD is a generalpurpose computeraided drafting (CAD) program which can be used to create all
kinds of line drawings. It is one of the most widely used CAD packages and is used for all types of
drawing in a variety of different disciplines. A few of the applications for which AutoCAD is being used:

Architectural drawings of all kinds

Interior design and facility

Workflow charts and organisational diagrams

Proposals and presentations

Drawings for electronic, chemical, civil, mechanical, automotive, and aerospace


engineering applications

Plots and other representations of mathematical and scientific functions

Theatre set lighting designs

Musical scores

Technical illustrations and assembly diagrams

Company logos

Greetings cards

Line drawings for the fine arts

Co-ordinate Systems in AutoCAD


All drawings are super imposed on an invisible grid, or co-ordinate system, with a horizontal X
axis and a vertical Y-axis.
You can establish grid and snap settings that match the units of the co-ordinate system or some multiple
or fraction of it.

As you draw, you can enter coordinate to locate a point. For example, you can draw a line by
starting it at the 2,2 location in the coordinate system and end it at the 8,2 location, as shown in the above
figure. This is called absolute coordinate system.
The X value of a Cartesian coordinate specifies the horizontal distance, and the Y value specifies
the vertical distance. The origin point (0,0) indicates where the two axes intersect.
Absolute co-ordinate values are based on the origin (0,0). Relative co-ordinate values are based on the
very last point entered. They are useful for finding a serious of points that are at a known distance.
Absolute Co-ordinate system (x,y)
To enter an absolute coordinate, specify a point by entering its X and Y values in the format x, y.
Command: l
LINE Specify first point: 2,2
Specify next point or [Undo]: 8,2
Specify next point or [Undo]: 8,6
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: 5,6
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: 5, 4
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: 2,4
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]: c

Relative rectangular Co-ordinate system (@ x distance, y distance)


Use relative coordinates when the position of a point with respect to the previous point.
Use relative rectangular coordinate is represented in the following format:
@x-displacement, y- displacement
Command: l
LINE Specify first point: 2,2
Specify next point or [Undo]: @6,0
Specify next point or [Undo]: @0,4
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]:
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]:
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]:
Specify next point or [Close/Undo]:

@-3,0
@0,-2
@-3,0
c

Polar Co-ordinate system (@ distance < angle)


Polar Co-ordinate system uses a distance and an angle with reference to the previous point to
locate a point. Angles are measured in anti-clockwise direction taking 0 towards right. The relative polar
coordinate is represented using the following format.
@distance<angle.
Command: l
LINE Specify first
Specify next point
Specify next point
Specify next point
Specify next point
Specify next point
Specify next point

point: 2,2
or [Undo]: @6<0
or [Undo]: @4<90
or [Close/Undo]:
or [Close/Undo]:
or [Close/Undo]:
or [Close/Undo]:

@3<180
@2<270
@3<180
c

Creation of Geometry
AutoCAD provides facilities for drawing:

Lines (in 2D or 3D, in dotdash types), arcs and circles (in dotdash types), and
points (in 2D or 3D)

3D objects such as solids and 3D polygon meshes and surfaces

Text (in a variety of fonts and sizes)

Traces (2D solid filled lines)

Solidfilled regions (2D triangular or quadrilateral sections)

Blocks (compound entities)

Shapes (small objects defined outside AutoCAD which can be placed on a drawing at
various scales or angles)

2D Geometry in AutoCAD is created using a fixed Cartesian coordinate system with the X axis
horizontal and the Y axis vertical. Points are expressed as coordinate pairs (X,Y).

Modification of Geometry
It is often necessary to modify geometry as it is created, and new drawings can very often be obtained by
modifying old ones. AutoCAD provides several facilities for doing this, for example:

Changing properties of elements such as their colour or linetype

Breaking lines, arcs etc.

Chamfering corners (taking an angular line)

Dividing elements into parts

Erasing elements

Extending lines, arcs, etc.

Filleting corners

Trimming lines, arcs etc.

ReUse of Geometry
Drawings often contain a high degree of duplication. Very often one part of a drawing can be obtained by
performing some sort of transformation on existing geometry. For example, a drawing which has
symmetry about a line can be created by drawing half of it and the rest obtained by mirroring about the
line of symmetry. AutoCAD supports several facilities for this sort of transformation:

Creating rectangular or circular arrays of objects

Copying objects at different positions on the drawing

Mirroring geometry

Moving geometry from one place to another

Offsetting geometry

Rotating, stretching, scaling geometry

Viewing of Geometry
The ability to view drawings in different ways is especially important when using a computeraided
draughting system, since the screen is invariably quite small compared with the actual drawing size.
AutoCAD provides good facilities for viewing drawings, such as the ability to zoom in on a part of a
drawing so that the detail can be seen clearly. Various methods are provided which are convenient in
different situations.

Shortcut key for all the commands


Line

Circle

Move

Copy

co

Hatching

bh

Explode

Trim

tr

Mirror

mi

Offset

Dimension style

Text

Text edit

ed

Rotate

ro

Fillet

Break

br

Arc

Polygon

pol

Ellipse

el

Multiline

mline

Poly line

pline

Function keys
Function keys

Function defined

F1

Help

F2

Command window on/off

F3

Object osnap on/off

F4

Tablet on/off

F5

Isoplane top/right/left

F6

Co-ordinate display on/off

F7

Grid on/off

F8

ortho on/off

F9

snap on/off

F10

Polar tracking on/off

F11

Object snap tracking on/off

Conclusion:

Ex. No.:
Date:

TITLE BLOCK

Aim:
To draw the Title Block with necessary text and projection symbol.
Software used:
Auto CAD.
Procedure:
1. Using rectangle command, draw a rectangle of A2 (Drawing sheet) size.
2. Draw the border line by using offset command. Give the offset distance and select the
direction of offset.
3. Using rectangle command, draw a rectangle of standard title block size in the right bottom
corner.
4. Using the line command, make divisions in the title block to enter name, branch, scale etc
5. Enter the title, name, branch, scale etc. using text command.
6. Using the circle and line command, draw the symbol for first angle projection.

Result:
The title block has been drawn.

Ex. No.:
Date:

PARABOLA, SPIRAL, AND INVOLUTE OF A CIRCLE

Aim:
To draw a parabola, spiral and involute of a circle.
Software used:
Auto CAD.
Procedure:
Parabola
1. Using line command, draw a vertical line CD as the directrix.
2. Using point command, fix the point E on the directrix.
3. Through E, draw a line (axis) EF such that EF = ____mm, where F is the focus.
4. Locate the vertex V at the mid-point of EF.
5. Extend the line EF.
6. Mark points 1, 2, 3 etc on the axis arbitrarily and draw parallels to the directrix through these
points.
7. Using circle command, draw a circle with F as centre and E 1 as radius to cut the parallel
through 1 at points named P1.
8. In the same way, obtain points P2, P3, P4 etc on both sides of the axis line.
9. Using spline command, join these points by a smooth curve to get the required parabola.
Spiral
1. Using point command, mark the fixed point O, called the pole.
2. Using line command, draw a line OA = ____mm.
3. Using circle command, draw a circle with O as centre and OA as radius.
4. Divide the line OA into 12 equal divisions and name the points as 1, 2, 3 etc.
5. Divide the circle also into 12 equal divisions and name them as 11, 21, 31 etc
6. With O as centre and O1 as radius, draw a circle to cut the radial line O11 and get the point P1.
7. Similarly, obtain points P2, P3, P4 etc with O as centre and O21, O31 etc as radii.
8. Using spline command, draw a smooth curve through the points P 1, P2 etc to get the required
spiral.

Involute of a circle
1. Draw a circle of diameter ____ mm, using circle command.
2. Using line command, draw a line AB tangential to the circle such that the length AB is equal
to the circumference of the circle.
3. Divide the circle into 12 equal divisions making use of line and array commands. Name the
divisions as 1, 2, 3 etc.
4. Divide the line AB into 12 equal divisions with the help of divide command and name the
divisions as 11, 21, 31 etc.
5. Draw tangents to the circle through the division points 1, 2, 3 etc using line and array
commands.
6. Mark a point P1 on the tangent at 1 so that the length P 1-11 is equal to A11. Similarly, mark
points P2, P3 etc such that P2-21 = A21, P3-31 = A31 etc.
7. Draw a smooth curve through the points A, P1, P2 B using spline command.

Result:
The Parabola, Spiral and Involute of a square have been drawn.

Ex. No.:
Date:

TOP VIEW AND FRONT VIEW OF SIMPLE SOLIDS

Aim:
1. To draw the front view and top view of the pentagonal prism and hexagonal pyramid of base
side 30mm and axis length 60mm.
2. To draw the front view and top view of the cylinder and cone of base diameter 50mm and axis
length 60mm.
Software used:
Auto CAD.
Procedure:
Pentagonal Prism
1. Draw the reference line XY using the line command.
2. Draw the top view a pentagon of side 30 mm using polygon command.
3. Project all the points of the top view to draw the front view.
4. Using line command, draw the front view of axis length 60mm.
Hexagonal Pyramid
1. Draw the reference line XY using the line command.
2. Draw the top view a hexagon of side 30 mm using polygon command.
3. Project all the points of the top view to draw the front view.
4. Using line command, draw the front view of axis length 60mm.
Cylinder and Cone
1. Draw the reference line XY using the line command.
2. Using circle command, draw the top view a circle of diameter 50mm.
3. Project the top view and draw the front view using line command.

Result:
The orthographic views of simple solids have been drawn.

Ex. No.:
Date:

SECTIONAL VIEWS OF SIMPLE SOLIDS

Aim:
To draw the sectional views of prism, pyramid, cylinder and cone.
Software used:
Auto CAD.
Procedure:
1. Draw the reference line using the line command.
2. Draw the top view and front view for the given solid using line and polygon commands.
3. Draw the section plane in the required view using the line command.
4. Project the points from the section plane to the other view and draw the sectional view.
5. Using hatch command to shade the sectional view.
6. Using the dimension option (dimlinear, dimradius, dimdiameter etc) mark the dimensions in
the views drawn.

Result:
The sectional views of the prism, pyramid, cylinder and cone have been drawn.

Ex. No.:
Date:

ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEWS OF SOLID OBJECTS

Aim:
To draw the front view, top view, and the side view as viewed from the side available for the given
pictorial drawings.
Software used:
Auto CAD.
Procedure:
1. Follow the first angle projection method to draw the orthographic views.
2. To Draw the front, top and side views, Using AutoCAD commands line, rectangle, circle, arc
etc and modifying commands copy, move, array, fillet, extend, lengthen etc.
4. Using the dimension option (dimlinear, dimradius, dimdiameter etc,) mark the dimensions in
the views drawn.
5. Name the views drawn using the text command.

Result:
The front, top and the side views for the given isometric drawings have been drawn.

Fig.1

Ex.No.:
Date:

STUDY OF BUILDING DRAWING

Aim:
To study about the components of a simple residential or office building and conventional
representation of building materials in section.
Introduction:
A place to live, to keep materials and machines and to give shelter to animals is one of the
essentials for the society. Basic understanding of the method of preparing the top, front and sectional
views of buildings is almost a must for any engineer. The methods of drawing top, front and sectional
views of buildings are given below.
Components of a simple residential or office building:
Fig.1 shows the different components of a simple single storeyed masonry building with
reinforced cement concrete (R.C.C) roof slab.
Foundation: The portion of the building that lies below. The foundation consists of
i) Cement concrete or lime concrete course of about 300 mm thick and
ii) Two or three masonry footings.
Basement: That part of the structure lying between the ground level and floor level is known as
basement. There will be one or two masonry footings in the basement portion. The space between the
floor and the ground will be generally filled with sand.
Flooring which forms part of basement will be of cement concrete or lime concrete with stone
jelly or brick ballast. It is plastered smooth at the top with cement mortar.
Super structure:Literally speaking, the portion of the structure above the foundation level is said to be
super structure. But for making clear distinction, super structure is considered to represent the portion of
the building from the basement to the roof. Thus, super structure includes the masonry wall from
basement to roof, lintel, sunshade and other projections, doors, windows and ventilators.
Roof: The horizontal reinforced cement concrete (R.C.C) slab spanning between the supporting walls or
beams is known as the roof.

Parapet: The short masonry wall built over the roof all round the buildings is called parapet. It serves as
an enclosure and prevents anybody from falling from the roof of the building.
Weathering course: The layer meant for protecting the roof from the effects of wind, sunshine, rain and
snow is termed weathering course.
RESIDENTIAL BUILDING
Guide lines for locating different rooms in a residential building:
Orientation of building and planning factors govern the location of different rooms in a residential
building. Taking in to account both orientation and planning aspects, the different rooms are located as
indicated below:
Drawing room: Drawing room is an area for receiving and entertaining friends. Family members sit,
relax and sometimes entertain here. Drawing room is located in the front with access from other rooms
like bed, dining and living. Drawing room should be properly ventilated and lighted.
Living room: This room is used by family members and their relatives. They relax and entertain here. In
small houses drawing room itself is used as living room. Living room located near drawing and kitchen.
Dining room: dining room is an area where the family members dine. It is located near kitchen just
behind or by the side of drawing room.
Bedroom: Bedroom is an area meant for spending nights. Clothes and valuables are stored in the
cupboards kept in the bed room. Bed room is the most important room in a residential building . it should
face in the direction of the prevailing wind during hot and humid periods. At least one of the walls of the
bed room should be an external wall. Bed room is located so that sunlight enters the room during morning
hours and there is good freeze during nights. Bed rooms should be properly ventilated and lighted with
adequate number of windows. They should be protected from hot shine, glare and rain by having
sunshades. Now-a-days, bedrooms are provided with attached bath and W.C.
Office room: Office room is located by the side of front verandah and is isolated. This may be used as
study room or guest room.
Kitchen: This is the place where food is cooked / prepared. Kitchen is located on the east in one corner of
the building at the rear so that sunlight enters the kitchen in the morning. It is situated in the direction
opposite to that of the prevailing wind direction. Kitchen should be properly ventilated. There should be
shelves, cooking platform and sink in the kitchen. Provision of chimney now a days are outdated.
Store room: This room is meant for storing groceries, utensils, etc store room is located near the
kitchen.
Bath and W.C: Bath and W.C may be attached to the bed room or located near bed room. They may be
provided in one room or kept separately. Bath and W.C are usually at the rear and away from the kitchen
and dining.

Verandah and sit-out: Verandah is provided in the front and at the rear wherever possible. Verandah will
be found very useful in the long run. Front verandah is used for sitting and enjoying the freeze and
sceneries. Rear verandah is used for kitchen related works, drying of clothes, etc. verandah safeguard
other rooms from direct entry of rain and sunlight and from other adverse effects of weather. Sit-out is
generally provided in direction of wind.
Staircase: Staircase is located centrally or on one side of the front verandah, staircase meant for the
family members only is located at the rear.
Guidelines for drawing three views of a building
1. If the plan is given. It should be drawn as full plan.
2. The dimensions of rooms in the line plan represent only the internal measurements.
3. Indicate the positions of doors and windows in the plan correctly.
4. Show the doors and windows in the front and sectional views appropriately.
5. Indicate the sizes of doors and windows separately under reference.
6. The sunshade (also called chajja) is shown by dotted lines.
7. The materials in section should be represented as per IS conventions.
8. Represent the ground level (GL) clearly.
9. Show the sand filling and flooring in the basement.
10. Show the roof slab and weathering course.
11. Write the specification by the side of each item.
12. Assuming the specifications, thickness and height suitably if found missing.
(The information given under general specifications may be advantageously used)
13. The portion of the building below GL is not shown in the elevation.
14. Provide steps to reach the floor from ground level.
Rise (height) steps: 150mm; Tread (width) of steps: 250 mm.
15. Adopt suitable scale if not specified.

Conclusion:

Ex. No.:
Date:

BUILDING DRAWING

Aim:
To draw the plan (top view) of a building at the window sill level.
Software used:
Auto CAD.
Procedure:
1. Using line command, draw the outline of the building for the required dimensions. (Including
the wall thickness).
2. Draw the reading room, stack room, office room using the drawing and modifying commands.
3. Draw the doors, windows, ventilators, steps using the above mentioned commands.
4. Using text command, mention the name of the rooms and the dimensions.
5. Specifications of the building are listed along with the line plan.

Result:
The building drawing has been drawn for the given specification.

Ex. No.:
Date:

SIMPLE TRUSS MODEL

Aim
To draw the given truss model.
Software used:
Auto CAD.
Procedure:
1. Using drawing command, draw the outline of the truss with required dimensions.
2. Draw the inclined lines of the drawing.
3. Using trim command, remove the excess portion of the drawing.
4. Using dimension command, mark the dimensions of the truss.
5. Using text command name the parts of the truss model.

Result:
The truss model has been drawn for the given dimension.

Ex.no:
Date:

ISOMETRIC PROJECTION OF SIMPLE OBJECTS

Aim:
To draw the isometric view of given objects.
Software used:
AutoCAD
Procedure:
1. In the drafting settings, select the isometric snap option.
2. Press Ctrl+ E to select the isoplane top, right and left.
3. With the help of isoplane top, draw the top portion of the isometric projection.
4. Similarly, draw the right portion and left portion of the isometric projection after selecting the
isoplane right and isoplane left respectively.
5. Select the Dimension option, to mark the dimensions.

Result:
The isometric projection of simple objects has been drawn.

Ex. No.:
Date:

CREATION OF 3D MODEL OF SIMPLE SOLID OBJECTS &


OBTAINING 2D VIEWS

Aim:
To draw the 3D Models and obtaining 2D views of given objects.
Software used:
Auto CAD.
Procedure:
1. Draw the base of given object using Drafting commands.
2. Extrude the object using extrude command to given dimension.
3. Create the remaining objects using extrude command.
4. Using modify command like (union, subtraction) edit the object for the given shape.
5. Using dimension command, mark the dimensions.
6. Using viewport options to see the different views available in the pull down menu.

Result:
The 3D view of simple objects has been drawn and obtained two dimensional views.

VIVA QUESTIONS
1. What is meant by AutoCAD?
AutoCAD is one of the cad system software introduced in dec1982 by Autodesk ltd in
Sausallia, California of USA. It has hit the technical world like shock wave revolutionizing the
manner of drawing preparation.
2. What is the diff between CAD & CADD?
CAD-computer aided design
CADD-computer aided design and drafting
3. What are the applications of CAD?
Design of machine elements, CNC machine tools, robotics etc
Panel design and circuit layout
Mapping, building plans, contour plotting and structural drawing
Interior design and modeling.
4. Define absolute co-ordinates?
Values locating a point in space that describe its displacement from origin (0, 0, 0) point
of the drawing.
5. Define polar co ordinates.
Values are locating a point in space that describes its location relative to the last point
picked as defined by an angle and distance.
6. Define angular dimension?
A dimension that measures the angle between two lines or the angle inscribed by
an arc segment.
7. Define aligned dimension?
A linear dimension measuring the distance between two points. The dimension line
for an aligned dimension is parallel to a line between points.
8. What is By layer?
A value that can be assigned to colours and line types so that objects receive their
colour and line type properties according to the layer they are on.
9. What is command line?
A text window at the bottom of the screen thats displays command: prompt. This is
where you see what you are entering through the keyboard. Also called the command window.
10. What is command:prompt:
A prompt at the command line, when no commands are currently running.
11. What is cross hair cursor?
A form of the cursor that consists of a horizontal line and a vertical line intersecting
at their midpoints, resembling the crosshair in a sighting device.
12. Define dimension variables?
A group of settings and values that control the appearance of dimensions.

13. Define current UCS?


The user co-ordinate system that is active in a drawing. It determines the positive X,Y and
Z direction.
14. What is .dwg?
The file extension and format for the standard Auto CAD drawing.
15. Define graphics window?
The appearance of your screen when Auto CAD is running. It consists of the drawing
area and surrounding toolbars, menu bars the command window and the status bar.
16. Define line type?
The style of appearance of a line. Auto CAD styles include continues, dashed, dash dot.
and so on.
17. What is a hatch patterns?
A pattern of lines dots and other shapes that fills in a closed area.
18. Define MIRROR?
A command that makes a copy of selected objects and flips the copy around a specified
line to produce a reciprocal image of those objects.
19. What is an ortho mode?
An on/off setting that, when on forces lines to be drawn and objects to be moved in a
horizontal or vertical direction only.
20. What are the advantages of CAD?
Greater productivity of the designer, improvement of design quality,
Easier design, calculation and analysis, quicker rate producing drawings, more
accuracy of drawings, colour graphics is possible
21. What is an object snap mode?
Any of a set of tools precisely picking strategic points on an object, including end
point, midpoint, center, and so on. It is casually called osnap.
22. Define block?
The description of an association of AutoCAD objects that is stored with the drawing
file and include a name, an insertion point, and a listening of objects in the association.
23. Define relative co-ordinates?
Values are locating a point in space that describes its displacement from last point
picked in the drawing rather than from the origin.

Shortcut key for all the commands


Line

Circle

Move

Copy

co

Hatching

bh

Explode

Trim

tr

Mirror

mi

Offset

Dimension style

Text

Text edit

ed

Rotate

ro

Fillet

Break

br

Arc

Polygon

pol

Ellipse

el

Multiline

mline

Poly line

pline

Function keys
Function keys

Function defined

F1

Help

F2

Command window on/off

F3

Object osnap on/off

F4

Tablet on/off

F5

Isoplane top/right/left

F6

Co-ordinate display on/off

F7

Grid on/off

F8

ortho on/off

F9

snap on/off

F10

Polar tracking on/off

F11

Object snap tracking on/off

26

SSM

INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING
AND TECHNOLOGY, DINDIGUL 624 002

ME2155 COMPUTER AIDED DRAFTING AND MODELING LABORATORY

Name

___________________________________________________________________

Roll No.

_________________________

Reg. No.

____________________

Year/Semester

_________________________

Department

____________________

27

CONTENTS

S.

Name of The Experiment

No.
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

Introduction of Auto Cad


Title Block
Top View and Front View of Simple Solids
Sectional Views of Simple Solids
Orthographic Views of Solid Objects
Study of Building Drawing
Building Drawing
Simple Truss Model
Parabola, Spiral, and Involute of a Circle
Isometric Projection of Simple Objects
Creation of 3D Model of Simple Solid Objects &
Obtaining 2D Views

28

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