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STAMBENA ZGRADA

HOUSING BLOCK
zagreb, hrvatska croatia
1961.

tekst written by TOMISLAV ODAK


fotografija photo by DAMIR FABIJANI

branko raos slavko jelinek

KRSTARICA
THE CRUISER

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U desetak godina su, po narudbi istog investitora

Pursuant to the order of the same investor the

Vojno graevinske direkcije, nastale u Zagrebu

Military Construction Department three buildings

tri graevine znaajnih dimenzija, tipoloki sline

of significant size were made in the same decade,

i sve tri visoke arhitektonske razine.

typologically similar and at a high architectural level.

Galerijska zgrada Ive Geria (1950.) na raskriju

The deck access building made by Geri (1950),

Drieve i Vukovarske ulice kao da je izvaena iz

standing on the corner of the streets of Drieva

funkcionalistiko-konstruktivistikog kataloga

and Vukovarska, seems to be taken from a func-

30-ih (Bar, Vladimirov, Ginsburg). Svojom jedno

tionalist/constructivist catalogue of the 30s (Bar,

stavnou i elegancijom plijeni panju, dodue

Vladimirov, Ginsburg). Its simplicity and elegance

vie prolaznika i promatraa, a manje korisnika

attract attention, but more from the passers-by and

skromnih galerijskih stanova.

sightseers than from the inhabitants of the humble

Kompleksna galerijska zgrada Drage Galia u Vuko

deck-access flats.

varskoj, alias Proleterskih brigada, alias Moskov

The complex deck-access building made by Gali in

skoj, alias Varadinskoj br. 35A iz 1953. (Ne daj

Vukovarska Street (formerly Proleterskih Brigada,

se, Ines... ) je sa Catalanovom modulacijom stana,

Moskovska and Varadinska), No. 35A, from 1953

Le Corbusierovim oblikovnim principom i Galievom

(the year of the song Ne daj se Ines...), using Cata-

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strogou i dosljednou u interpretaciji totala

lanos flat modulation, Le Corbusiers design principle

i detalja postala paradigmom stambene zgrade

and Galis strict and consistent interpretation of

kolektivnog stanovanja.

the whole and its details, has become a paradigm of

Raosova galerija u Zorkovekoj ulici, posljednja u

collective housing building.

trolistu, projektirana je 1961. godine. Urbanistiki

The last and the most recent member of the trio is

gledano, radi se o krstarici koja se usidrila izmeu

the building in Zorkoveka, made by Raos in 1961.

brodica trenjevake periferije, izmeu vrtova

From the aspect of urbanism, it is a cruiser anchored

mal ih kua... na kraju perspektive, a scena i

between boats in the outskirts of Trenjevka, among

mizanscena u dugih etrdeset i neto godina nije

the gardens of small houses... at the end of the

se promijenila i Bogu hvala da je tako.

perspective. The scenery and background have not

Park, zelena ploha sa june strane odvojila je

changed in these forty-something years, thank God.

prigradsku usitnjenu gradnju od respektabilnog

A park, which is the green surface in the south,

volumena kao element pomirenja dvaju razliitih

separated suburban small-scale constructions from

principa organizacije i koritenja prostora. Razliiti

this considerable volume, forming an element of

volumeni i intenziteti u kreativnom meuodnosu

reconciliation between two different principles of the

samo dobivaju: sitna izgradnja, urbano disci-

organization and use of space. The different volumes

plinirana ali amorfna u svojoj tepih interpretaciji,

and intensities profit from their creative interaction:

Raosovom kuom dobiva zavrni identifikacijski

the small-scale houses, with their urban discipline but

i oblikovni akord, a nova zgrada dobivaju pitomi

amorphous in their carpet interpretation, get their

okoli kojim superiorno vlada, no s druge strane

final identification and form in the Raos house, while

u drugom mjerilu i drugim izraajnim i organizaci-

the new building gets a cultivated environment where

jskim sredstvima, vertikalnim adiranjem stambenih

it can reign supremely. On the other hand, it uses

jedinica nastavlja zateenu funkcionalnu matricu.

a different size and expressive and organizational

Umjesto crkve, kole, socijalne ustanove dogodio

methods vertical stacking of residential units to

se stambenjak koji u sebi sadrava potencijale

continue the old functional matrix.

razvoja zajednikih i javnih prostora, to se naknad

Instead of a church, school or social care institution,

no i dogodilo.

there came a housing block with the potentials to

Koliko je Raos sudjelovao u oblikovanju mizanscene

develop common and public spaces, which subse-

nije poznato, ali je vidljivo da se radi o smiljenom i

quently did happen. It is not clear how much Raos

briljivo pripremljenom zahvatu u prostoru.

participated in designing the background, but it was

Odnosom prema tlu i nebu, znai osnovnim orisima,

obviously a planned and carefully prepared interven-

definiran je arhitektonski volumen. Igra izmeu ta

tion in space.

dva horizonta moe biti suzdrana ili bogata, puna

The relation with the ground and sky, in other words,

detalja ili jednostavna, ovisno o sadraju, impera

the basic outlines, define the architectural volume.

tivima koji iz njega proizlaze, temperamentu i svje

The interplay between those two horizons can be

tonazoru autora, itd. Sve to moe biti arhitektonski

restrained or rich, full of details or simple, as it de-

Drago Gali,
stambena zgrada /
residential building,
Vukovarska 35a,
1953.
Ivo Geri, stambena
zgrada / residential
building, VukovarskaDrieva, 1950.

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vie ili manje uspjeno, ali pogreka u osnovnim

pends on the content, its resulting imperatives and

odnosima je nepopravljiva.

the authors temperament and world view, which can

Raosova krstarica je upravo u tom smislu sjajna.

all be more or less successful from the architectural

Prizemlje je transparentno i primjerenom visinom

aspect; however, a mistake in basic relations would

usp os tavlja prirodan, leeran odnos prema tlu.

be irremediable.

Transformacije koje su tijekom eksploatacije nasta

It is precisely in that sense that the Raos cruiser is

le nisu naudile cjelini. Sadraji koji su bili iskljuivo

great. A transparent ground floor level has an ap-

u funkciji stambene zgrade (ne stanovanja, nego

propriate height that establishes a natural, relaxed

zgrade) zamijenjeni su javnim i trgovakim prosto

relationship with the ground. Transformations made

rima, ali se nita bitno nije dogodilo u osnovnoj

during exploitation have not harmed the whole. Con-

proporciji.

tents that were meant exclusively for the residential

Glede urastanja u funkcionalnu i socijalnu strukturu

building (not for residents, but for the building) have

ireg okolia pozitivan pomak je nesumnjiv. Osobina

been replaced by public and commercial premises,

dobrog projekta je da daje ivotu ansu... Ona e biti

but there were no important modifications to the

iskoritena na nama nepredvidiv ali ivotan nain.

basic proportions.

Nasuprot mekom i transparentnom prizemlju atika

Undoubtedly, a step forward has been made with

dimenzijom, geometrijom i likovnom interpretaci-

regard to growing into the functional and social

jom neopozivo, vrsto definira gornji rub okvira u

structure of the wider surroundings. A good project

koji je smjeten ostatak od osam katova zgrade.

always gives life a chance... It will be used in an un-

Malobrojni otvori atike naznauju da se iza iste,

foreseeable but living way.

ravne plohe nalaze svrsishodni prostori koji mjes-

Opposite the soft and transparent ground floor, the at-

timino diskretno proviruju u svijet horizonta, a ne

tic uses its dimension, geometry and visual interpreta-

iskljuivo neba.

tion irrevocably and strongly to define the upper edge

Izmeu prizemlja i atike postoje samo dinamine

of the frame that houses the rest of eight floors.

horizontale - galerija na sjeveru i loa sa ostakljenim

The few openings in the attic indicate that the pure,

tlocrt 9. kata / 9th


floor plan
tlocrt karakteristinog kata /
typical floor plan
tlocrt prizemlja /
ground floor plan
presjek / section

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ogradama na jugu. Na prvi po

flat surface hides purposeful

gled ini se da je zgrada bez sit

spaces that occasionally take a

ne strukture proelja prozo

discreet look at the world of the

ra, vrata i svih onih neizbjenih,

horizon, not only the sky.

uglavnom remetilakih ele

Between the ground floor and

menata. ak su se i pregrade

the attic, there are only dynamic

loa izmeu stanova zagubile

horizontals, a deck in the north

u materijalu (staklu) i obliku.

and a loggia with glass-covered

Detalj, tamo gdje se pojavljuje,

railings in the south. At the first

diskretan je, u funkciji cjeline.

glance, it seems that the build-

Ostakljenje i zatita stubita

ing does not have the intricate

na galeriji doimlju se pomi

front structure windows,

nim; minimalistikim jezikom

doors and all those unavoidable

proporcije, oblika i materijala.

elements that usually interfere.

Jo je jednom pokazano da ma

Even the partitions of loggias

nje moe biti vie.

between flats disappeared in

Unutarnja struktura je jedno

the material (glass) and form.

stavna, konstrukcija skeletna,

When there are details, they are

stambena struktura ujedna

discreet, serving the whole. The

ena, na razini standarda voj-

glazing and protection of the

no-graevinske direkcije.

deck staircase seem (re)mova

Dimenzioniranje i i dispozicija

ble; the minimalist language of

prostora su solidni.

proportions, forms and materi-

Zadatak je postavljen i savla

als showed yet again that less

dan na razini Geria, Galia,

can be more.

Vitia, Raice, dakle onih koji

The internal structure is simple,

su imali privilegiju projektirati

the structural framework, the

za tada najvanijeg investitora

residential structure is bal-

vojsku.

anced, following the standards

Stanovi u okviru poznatih she

of the Military Construction

ma za odabranu tipologiju

Department.

sjever komunikacija i servis,

The dimensions and arrange-

jug boravljenje, spavanje i vanj

ments of the space are good.

ski prostori. Solidan standard.

The task was set and resolved

Da je standard solidan, blizu

at the level of Geri, Gali,

potreba i zahtjeva korisnika,

Viti, Raica, those who were

pokazuje injenica da je una

privileged to work for the most

to vremenosti graevine vrlo

important investor of the time

malo intervencija koje su inae

the military.

dio folklora i koje s jedne stra

The flats follow the well-known

ne pokazuju manjak na kontu

schemes for the chosen typolo-

kulture prostora i njegove kon

gy the north for communica-

trole, a sa druge na nedostatak

tions and ancillary rooms, the

prostornog i inog standarda ko

south for living room, bedroom

ji se nekontroliranim interven

and outside spaces. A good

cijama krpa i popravlja.

standard.

Pri kraju prie: boja. Boja je sa

The quality of the standard,

stavni dio arhitektonske inter

close to the needs and require-

pret acije. Po definiciji crna i

ments of the users, is confirmed

bijela nisu boje, nego ekstremi

by the fact that the building in

na granicama spektra, gdje je

its advanced age has given very

dan sve apsorbira, a drugi sve

little cause for interventions,

reflektira.

which are a part of folklore any-

Ipak u ovom sluaju bijeli

way, revealing on one hand the

segment spektra, primijenjen

deficit in the culture and control

na sve vidljive plohe proelja, ini da zgrada sa

of space, and on the other the lack of spatial and other

mljenim staklom ograde postaje transparentni

standards that are patched and repaired through

odsjaj umoen u bjelinu. Istina, kroz sve ove godine

unregulated activities.

i manjkavo odravanje malo je posivjela i pohabala

Finally, the colour. Architectural interpretation always

se, ali ni to nije loe.

includes colour. By definition, black and white are not

Elementi oblikovanja i organizacije prostora koje

colours, they are the extremes of the spectrum, one

Raos koristi nisu originalni; sve je to ve vieno i dio je

absorbing everything, the other reflecting everything.

usvojenog arhitektonskog vokabulara svog vremena,

Still, in this case, the white segment of the spectrum,

ali u datom kontekstu okolia i graevine primijenjeno

applied to all the visible surfaces of the front, makes

je senzibilno i promiljeno tako da moemo govoriti

it seem as if the building, with its railings of stained

o rijetko postignutom suglasju namjere i rezultata

glass, is a transparent reflection dipped in whiteness.

ostvarenih jezikom i sredstvima svog vremena.

True, all those years and faulty maintenance have

Uostalom, umjesto beskrajnih analiza postavimo

made it a little grey and worn out, but this is not such

pitanje: to bi bilo da Raosova krstarica otplovi?

a bad thing.

Odgovor e rei sve ono to o

The elements for forming and

ovoj sjajnoj kui u ovom tekstu

organizing space used by Raos

nije reeno.

are not original. It was done be-

Konano, vano je naglasiti

fore, it belongs to the accepted

da je realizaciju Raosov og

architectural vocabulary of that

idejnog projekta preuzeo biro

age, but it was applied in the

arhitekta Slavka Jelineka koji

given context of surroundings

je iskustvom, organizacijskom

and of the building itself with

razinom i profesionalnou u

sensibility and consideration,

razradi svim sigurno pridonio

achieving a rare harmony of

arhit ekt onskom i graditeljs-

intention and result by means

kom rezultatu.

of the language and means of


its time.
Anyway, instead of endless
analyses, we could ask: what if
Raos cruiser sailed away?
The reply to that question will
say everything that has not
been said here about this great
building.
At the end, it must be noted that
Raos design was realized by the
office of the architect Slavko Jelinek, whose experience, organizational level and professional
approach to the task certainly
contributed to the architectural
and constructional result.

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