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# Design Gear Box

Follow this procedure to have idea about how to design a complete Gear Box with
each component's individual design.
Determine the maximum and minimum speeds of the output shaft. Calculate the
number of steps or speed reduction stages for this range. This depends on the ap
plication as well as space optimization. Higher reduction stages require more sp
ace because of more number of gears and shafts requirements.
Select the type of speed reducer or gear box based on the power transmission
requirements, gear ratio, positions of axis, space available for speed reducer.
Also make sure that for low gear ratio requires single speed reduction. Select
worm gears for silent operation and bevel gears for intersecting axis.
Determine the progression ratio which is ratio maximum speed and minimum spe
ed of output shaft of Gear Box. The nearest progression ratio should be a standa
rd one and is taken either from R 20 or R 40 series.
Draw the structural diagram and kinematic arrangement indicating various arr
angement possibilities during speed reduction or increment.
Select materials for gears so that gear should sustain the operating conditi
ons and operating load. Normally cast iron is chosen for housing and cast steel
or other alloy can be selected as per the load requirements.
Note down the maximum power out put in Horse Power (H.P) or transmission pow
er and revolution per minute of shart i.e. rpm of each shaft.
Determine the centre distance between the driven and driver shaft based on t
he surface compressive stress.
Determine the module of gear by beam strength as well as fix the number of t
eeth required.
Calculate the diameter of the shafts by torque requirements and bending mome
nt considerations.
Calculate the key size, shape or type of transmission keys for each gears.
Select appropriate fit and tolerance for mating parts like shaft and gear.
Select bearings types based on the loading and operating conditions. Also ma
ke sure to include consideration of maximum speed and expected life of gears and
gear box. Normally ball bearings and roller bearings are used for small size of
gearbox because they have lower thrust requirement due to low speed reduction.
Make the shaft stepped or provide collar to prevent axial displacement of be
aring and gear.
Provide suitable clearance between gears and walls of the housing of gear bo
x and based on this considerations design the casing/housing of gearbox.
Complete the design of casing. One should Provides fins if necessary to have
increased heat transfer by convection and conduction. Put inspection hole/man h
ole as well as drain hole to drain lubricating oil. Also provide oil level indic

ator to have proper amount of oil during operation, if not put, this will lead t
o failure of gear and shaft due to over heating or due to frictional failure. Pr
ovide transportation hooks for transporting the gearbox from one place to anothe
r or during installation and maintenance. Also design gear changing lever accord
ingly.
Draw neat and clean working drawings in suitable software like AutoCAD, Pro
Engineer etc., indicating required details during manufacturing or assembly.
One can also perform finite element analysis of the complete Gear Box after
it completely designed.