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OTC 2355
56
U
Using Sim
mulation to Addre
ess Challe
enges of Subsalt Imaging in Tertiarry
B
Basins with
w Emph
hasis on Deepwate
D
er Gulf off Mexico
M
Michael Fehle
er, SEG Advanced Modelin
ng Project

C
Copyright 2012, Offshore Technology Confere
ence
T
This paper was prepare
ed for presentation at the Offshore Technolog
gy Conference held in Houston, Texas, USA , 30 April3 May 2012 .
T
This paper was selected for presentation by an
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ght.

A
Abstract
G
Geophysical im
maging and sub
bsurface characcterization for offshore petrooleum explorattion and reservvoir characterizzation face
inncreasingly deemanding requ
uirements for reliability
r
and for providing increased info
formation abouut the earths ssubsurface.
N
New methods for
f data acquissition, data pro
ocessing and siimultaneous annalysis of multtiple types of ggeophysical daatasets (e.g.
sseismic, EM, gravity)
g
are heelping to meett these challen
nges but there is need to tesst these methoods and to quaantify their
rrobustness. Tessting and evalu
uation of new methods
m
can bee done using sim
mulated benchhmark datasets provided the ssimulations
aare calculated using
u
realistic models
m
and thaat the simulatio
on methodologgy is well validdated. The bencchmark datasetts must not
oonly be reliably
y calculated bu
ut they must be sufficiently laarge to mimic sstate-of-the-art field acquisitioons.
The SEG Advanced
A
Modeeling Project (S
SEAM), using funding providded by the Ressearch Partnersship to Secure Energy for
A
America (RPSE
EA), has deveeloped a model for a deepwaater region thaat contains a m
major salt boddy and several petroleum
rreservoirs locaated around an
nd beneath thee salt. Constru
ucting and connducting geophhysical simulaations on the m
model is a
cchallenge for current high-performance com
mputing techno
ology. A suite of geophysicall simulations is being conduccted on the
m
model includin
ng acoustic-w
wave, Tilted Transverse Issotropic acousstic, Gravity, Controlled S
Source Electroomagnetic,
M
Magnetotelluricc and Elastic. Geophysicists
G
are actively ussing these datassets to facilitatte their developpment and testting of new
aalgorithms and
d acquisition schemes
s
for beetter subsurfacce characterizaation. The acccess to large m
multidisciplinarry datasets
ccalculated on a single realisttic model deveeloped for a deeepwater regioon like the Guulf of Mexico hhas long been desired to
aallow testing an
nd benchmarkiing of geophyssical techniquees, testing of n ew data acquissition schemess, and assessingg the value
oof multi-discipllinary inversion
n approaches. SEAM is seeking to provide these datasets for the geophyysical communnity.
Introduction
G
Geophysical im
maging continu
ues to undergo transformation
t
n as new data aacquisition andd processing schhemes allow inncreasingly
ccomplex region
ns of the earth
hs crust to bee imaged with
h better and beetter resolutionn. Advances fr
from ray-basedd migration
m
methods to onee-way wave pro
opagation migrration and now
w reverse time m
migration havee been made poossible by the aavailability
oof faster compu
uters that havee sufficient meemory to hold
d large models that the methhods require foor successful aapplication.
A
Advances in daata acquisition have provided
d an enormous increase
i
in thee amount and qquality of data tthat are availabble to input
innto the new im
maging schem
mes. The abilitty to implemen
nt imaging appproaches that are based on more than thhe isotropic
aacoustic velocity of the earth
h have led to siignificant imprrovements in im
mage quality aand the type off information tthat can be
oobtained from images. For ex
xample, Contro
olled-Source Electromagneti
E
ic (CSEM) datta have been fo
found to providde valuable
innformation not only when used
u
independeently of other data
d but also hhave recently bbeen found to add tremendouus value to
innterpretation when
w
used in combination
c
with
w seismic datta. The recent use of anisotrropic earth models that have not only a
vvertical axis off symmetry, so-called verticcal transverse isotropy or V
VTI, but that thhat now have a spatially-vaarying nonvvertical axis off symmetry (T
Tilter Transversse Isotropy, TT
TI) have led to better imagees of complex regions like tthe Gulf of
M
Mexico and pro
ovide the opportunity to prov
vide constraintss on geomechan
anical models oof the region.
While the advanced
a
imagiing methods sh
how great prom
mise, they comee with increaseed cost and impplementation ccomplexity.
A serious questtion is how thee increased cosst of acquisition
n and processiing impacts thee image qualityy and whether alternative
aacquisition and
d analysis appro
oaches can leaad to even betteer images. A reelated issue is how to validatte the methodss. The SEG
A
Advanced Mod
deling (SEAM) initiative waas established by
b the Societyy of Exploratioon Geophysicissts (SEG) to advance the

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science and technology of applied geophysics through a cooperative industry effort focused on subsurface model construction
and generation of synthetic data sets for geophysical problems of importance to the resource extraction industry. While the
project was started by and initially supported by funding from the 24 participating companies, we were successful in
obtaining funding from the Research Partnership to Secure Energy for America (RPSEA) that leveraged support from the
participating companies to dramatically expand the scope of the modeling effort. The Ultra-Deepwater program within
RPSEA supports the project.
A large geological model, representative of a 60-block area of the deepwater Gulf of Mexico has been constructed. A
complex salt body, extracted from a real data set provided by one industry partner, has been modified to include a number of
features known to accentuate subsalt imaging challenges. Formation boundaries have been established with geological input
provided by active industry interpreters. Representative stratigraphy has been established by developing a geostatistical grid
based on high-quality deepwater datasets. This grid has served to assign rock properties derived from a comprehensive
deepwater well log database. Reservoir bodies, representative of Gulf of Mexico geology, have been inserted into this
stratigraphic background. The final earth model has already had great value as it is in a form that easily enables extension to
other complex imaging challenges by addition of the rock properties necessary for elastic, non-seismic and anisotropic
investigations (see e.g. Bulco et al., 2011; Espinoza et al., 2011; Dickens and Winbow, 2011; Song et al., 2011; Wang et al.,
2011; Ayeni et al., 2011). SEAM is currently undertaking an extensive set of simulations on the resulting model, which are
being made available to participating companies as they are generated, that are already finding use in the development and
testing of new imaging algorithms (e.g. Stork et al, 2011; Lu et al, 2011; Mayhan et al., 2011; Anderson et al., 2011).
SEAM Model
The goal at the start of the SEAM project was to capture as much physics and realism as possible in a 3D model that was
relevant to oil and gas exploration. Details of the basic model construction are given in Fehler and Keliher (2011). Certain
facets of the model were designed to go beyond the capabilities of current seismic modeling technology. The philosophy
behind this was that over the 10 or more years of the expected lifetime of the model such capabilities would evolve and
become available. An important design goal for the SEAM earth model is internal consistency across the domains of rock
properties (e.g. fundamental parameters like Vshale, porosity, and pore fluid type), the intermediate level elastic and
electromagnetic parameters, and the output simulations for seismic, electromagnetic and gravity fields. By rooting the
ultimate simulation back to the rock properties, any changes in the latter are guaranteed to change all the elastic and other
parameters automatically, consistently, and with the appropriate correlations.
A model founded on rock properties provides a test bed not just for the inversion of seismic data for reflectivity, but also
for the inversion of one or a combination of seismic, gravity, EM or reflectivity data for reservoir properties. Thus it
challenges not just processors, tomographers and imagers, but also the reservoir characterization and monitoring interests.
For this purpose it was crucial to choose a set of geological property "basis functions" that are largely independent of each
other and in combination span all pertinent elastic properties.
Figure 1 shows a perspective view of the SEAM model. The model is 35 km long in the East-West direction and 40 km
long in the North-South direction. It extends to a depth of 15 km. The outline of the major allochthonous salt body can be
seen in the Figure along with some of the fine-scale stratigraphy that adds realistic complexity to the model. The model is not
only large, but it also is highly complex with realistic faults, overturned beds, overhanging salt, density diffractors to generate
diffracted multiples, turbidite fans, and braided stream channel reservoirs. The model contains details down to scales
approaching 20 m. When building the model, attention was given to the desire to use the model for simulating multiple types
of geophysical acquisitions (electromagnetic, gravity, acoustic, elastic, anisotropic) so structures and reservoir characteristics
were included in the model to not only allow for tests of these methods but to allow for testing of joint geophysical imaging
using multiple methods.

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F
Figure 1. Perspe
ective view of th
he SEAM model showing the major
m
allochthon
nous salt body. The density m
model, which is shown, has
p
point diffractors
s at two depths, one of which appears
a
as a line of horizontal dots near the b
base of the vertiical planes that are shown.
T
The SEG logo is
s stamped at the base of the density
d
model. Diffractors
D
and the logo in the model scatter seismic waves.. The ability
to
o image the sc
cattrered waves
s is a good te
est of an imagiing method (Fi gure courtesy Christof Stork
k, Landmark So
oftware and
S
Services).

S
Simulations
T
Table 1 summaarizes the simullations that aree being conducted on the moddel. Several off the simulationns have been coompleted
aand data made available. The simulations th
hat remain to bee conducted innclude the oness for the elasticc and Magnetottelluric
aacquisitions. Prrior to simulation, a rigorous qualification procedure
p
was rrequired for thhe code to be ussed. The goal oof the
qqualification was to ensure th
hat the simulatio
on represented
d the state-of-thhe-art in simulaation technologgy and that thee physics
aand model weree correctly sim
mulated. During
g simulation, ex
xtensive QC w
was conducted oon the resultingg data to ensurre the
inntegrity of the resulting data..
T
The Tilted Tran
nsverse Isotrop
pic (TTI) simullations are currrently in progreess and will bee completed in the spring of 22012.
A
Acquisition plaans for each sim
mulation have been
b
designed to allow the accquired data too be sufficient tto address multtiple
ssignificant imag
ging and charaacterization issu
ues. For examp
ple, the TTI sim
mulation was ddesigned to alloow the data to bbe used to
innvestigate seveeral data proceessing and imag
ging issues in media
m
that are anisotropic succh as how reliaably an isotropic model
w
will image dataa collected in an
n anisotropic world
w
and whatt data are mostt relevant to chharacterizing thhe anisotropic pproperties
oof the medium so that the best image can bee obtained using an anisotropiic imaging appproach. The acqquisition of 4-ccomponent
V
Vertical Seismiic Profiling (VSP) data for fo
our wells in thee TTI and elastiic simulations and 4-componnent seafloor reeceivers
ffor the elastic simulations
s
willl greatly add to
o the value of the
t acquired daatasets. As an eexample of thee design of the
ssimulations thaat are being acq
quired, Figure 2 shows a plan
n view of the loocations for shoots to be simulated using acouustic TTI
ssimulation. Thee basemap for the
t shot locatio
ons is the cumu
ulative petroleuum reservoir thhickness integrrated over the m
model
ddepth. The salt occurs along a mostly North
h-South trend crrossing the moodel. Several saalt grottos occuur on the Westeern side of
thhe model that provide
p
imagin
ng challenges that
t may be add
dressed using V
VSP data. The locations of thhe four VSP wells are
aalso shown in the Figure.
C
Controlled Sou
urce Electromag
gnetic (CSEM)) imaging is off intense intere st by companiees conducting exploration and reservoir
ddevelopment in
n marine enviro
onments. Figurre 3 shows an example
e
of a veery small portiion of the CSE
EM data that haave
rresulted from th
he simulations on the SEAM model. The fig
gure shows plaan-view plots oof the EW com
mponent of the hhorizontal
eelectric field at various frequeencies for East--West source receiver
r
offset of 5 km. The ffield measured for each sourcce-receiver
ppair is plotted at
a the midpointt location between the source and receiver. IIncluded in thee plot for refereence are maps of
ccumulative reseervoir thicknesss and P-wave velocity
v
at 5 km
m depth. The bblue-colored reegion in the P-w
wave velocity m
model
sshows the horizzontal extent of the salt at 5 km
k depth, whicch roughly corrresponds to thee locations wheere high electriic field
ooccurs. Other th
han the strong field over the salt,
s one can seee a zone of rellatively high fiield east of the salt, particularrly on the
hhigher-frequenccy data. This high
h
field region is associated
d with the preseence of severall overlapping hhydrocarbon-fillled
rreservoirs at deepths less than 5 km in the mo
odel.

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Simulation
Model
Approach Parameters;
grid interval
(EW, NS,
Depth)
meters

Source

Source
Spacing

Receivers

Variable-density
acoustic Free
Surface

P-wave velocity;
Isotropic
density
(explosion);
(10,10,10) 62478 shots; 30
Hz max
frequency

150 m

Acoustic; Up to
436921 traces
per shot

30 m

Complete

Variable-density
acoustic
Absorbing
Upper Surface

P-wave velocity;
density
(10,10,10)

Isotropic
600 m for
(explosion); sparse grid; 150
2793 shots on
m for EW lines
sparse shot grid;
28 EW shot
lines; 30 Hz max
frequency

Acoustic; Up to
436921 traces
per shot

30 m

Complete

Gravity (Free air


and Bouguer)

Density
(40,40,20)

NA

Vertical gravity
and gravity
gradient tensor

40 m

Complete

ControlledSource
Electromagnetic

Vertical and
horizontal
resistivity (40,
40, 20)

Horizontal
100 m along
Electric Dipole; towlines spaced
100 m long; 11
at 1000 m
frequencies:
0.025, 0.05,
0.1, 0.2, 0.4,
0.8, 1.2, 1.6,
2.0, 3.0, 4.0 Hz

3-Component
Electric and
Magnetic field;
494 receivers

1000 m

Complete

P-wave velocity;
Isotropic
600 m for
Tompson
(explosion); sparse grid; 150
anisotropy
35747 shots m for EW lines;
parameters total; 2793 shots 150 m or 600 m
epsilon, delta;
on sparse shot
for classic
anisotropy
grid; 109 EW
datasets
orientations
shot lines;
dipx, dipy (20,
additional for
20, 10)
classic dataset
construction 30
Hz max
frequency
Vertical and
Natural: use
N/A
horizontal periods of 1000,
resistivity (40,
700, 500, 350,
40, 20)
250, 180, 125,
90, 60, 45, 30,
20, 15,
10, 8, 6, 4, 3, 2,
1 sec
P-wave velocity, Isotropic; either
TBD based on
S-wave velocity,
20 or 30 Hz
bids
density (20, 20,
maximum
10)
frequency

Acoustic; Up to
436921 traces
per shot; 4C
receivers in
each of 4 VSP
wells

30 m; 15 m in
wells

In progress

3-Component
Electric and
Magnetic field;
1326 receivers

1000 m

Acquisition
design
complete; going
out for bid

Tilted
transverse
Isotropy (TTI)
Variable-density
acoustic Free
Surface

Magnetotelluric

NA

Receiver
Status on
Spacing January 10,
2012

Near-surface
30 m near
Out for bid
acoustic; 4C on
surface; 100 m
seafloor; 4C on seafloor; 15
receivers in
m in wells
each of 4 VSP
wells
Table 1. Simulations being conducted on the SEAM model along with the status of the simulations in early 2012.

Isotropic Elastic

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F
Figure 2. (Upperr) Locations of shots
s
being sim
mulated on the SEAM
S
deepwate
er model. A tota
al of 35,747 sho
ots will be simulated. Stars
s
show locations of the four VSP
P wells in which data are being acquired. Base
e map is the cumulative reserv
voir thickness in
n the model
a
at each position
n integrated ove
er the model depth. (Lower) Vertical
V
East-We
est cross-sectio
on of the SEAM
M deepwater model is at a
lo
ocation of North 24 km showin
ng the locations
s of the 4 VSP Wells.
W
The salt body is the homogeneous reg
gion near the ce
enter of the
m
model in the cro
oss-section. Bas
semap is the efffective porpsity
y on the model. Areas of high p
porosity are pos
sitions of reserv
voirs.

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F
Figure 3. Top Row: Cumulative
e reservoir thickness and 5 km
m depth P-wave
e velocity maps
s for the portion
n of the model over which
C
CSEM data were
e simulated. Subsequent rows: Log of the East-West compo
onent of horizon
ntal electric field
ceiver offset
d at source-rec
o
of 5000 meters. Note that valu
ues are all negative so region
ns with higher field are show n in red. Sourc
ce is located d
due West of
rreceiver. Field is
s plotted at location of midpoiint between sou
urce and receiv
ver. Results for various frequencies are show
wn. Note the
a
area of higher field to the east of
o the salt body
y, indicative of hydracarbon
h
fille
ed reservoirs.

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U
Uses of Mode
el and Data
T
The SEAM mo
odel and data from
f
completeed simulations have already bbeen providedd to the 24 partticipating com
mpanies and
m
many of them have begun research
r
projeccts using the data.
d
The finaal earth modell consists of 33D grids for ggeophysical
pparameters P an
nd S-wave vellocities, density
y, elastic TTI anisotropy
a
(Thhomsen parameeters , , , annd orientation of the axis
oof symmetry), and two-comp
ponents of resiistivity (horizo
ontal and verticcal). In additioon 3Dgrids aree available for geological
pproperties that were used to derive the geo
ophysical prop
perties. 3D griids are availabble for Vshale,, total porosityy, effective
pporosity, locations of the variious reservoirs that are embeedded within thhe model, and tthe orientationn of the vectorss normal to
thhe bedding plaane, which are different from the anisotropy
y axis of symm
metry. The variious model gridds have alreadyy had great
vvalue as they arre in a form that easily enables modification
n of the modell or uses of a pportion of the m
model to investtigate other
ccomplex imagiing challenges (see e.g. Bulcco et al., 2011; Espinoza ett al., 2011; Dicckens and Winnbow, 2011; S
Song et al.,
22011; Wang et
e al., 2011; Ayeni
A
et al., 2011).
2
The simulation
s
datta that have bbeen deliveredd to SEAM paarticipating
ccompanies are finding use by the compaanies themselv
ves or by com
mpanies and universities thhat collaboratee with the
pparticipating co
ompanies (e.g. Stork et al, 2011; Lu et al, 20
011; Mayhan eet al., 2011; Annderson et al., 22011).
E
Example uses of
o the data incclude one by Kapoor
K
et al. (2
2010) who useed data simulatted on the SEA
AM model to investigate
vvarious wide azimuth
a
acquissition scenario
os and their im
mpact on imagge quality wheen using new imaging algorrithms like
R
Reverse Time Migration. Sto
ork et al. (2011) used the SE
EAM acousticc dataset and R
Reverse Time Migration to investigate
im
mage quality with
w and witho
out multiple eliimination. Lu et
e al. (2011) ussed a subset off the SEAM accoustic simulattion data to
innvestigate the use of surfacee multiples for improving im
mages obtained from primaryy reflection datta. The surfacee multiples,
w
which are inclluded in mostt of the SEAM
M simulationss (a small subbset without m
multiples was collected), caan provide
rreflections from
m subsurface image points at scattering angles
a
that di ffer from thosse in the dataaset collected uusing only
pprimaries. Sincce image qualiity improves when
w
data haviing a wider rannge of scatteriing angles at tthe image poinnt are used
((Fehler et al. 20
005), the use of
o surface multiples may be beneficial.
b
By iinvestigating thhe use of surfaace multiples w
with SEAM
ddata, the investigators are ab
ble to make a determination about what aacquisition geoometries may llead to improvved images
uusing the multip
ples without haaving to condu
uct an expensiv
ve field survey..
T
The use of anissotropic imagin
ng approaches has
h been show
wn to greatly im
mprove image qquality and the estimated position of a
rreservoir targett in areas like th
he U.S. Gulf of Mexico wherre anisotropy iss prevalent (see e.g. Reta-Tanng et al., 2011)). The
ddifferences in data
d collected in regions that are isotropic co
ompared to aniisotropic can bbe clearly seen in VSP data siimulated
uusing the isotro
opic and TTI SE
EAM models. Figure 4 show
ws example shoot gathers colleccted in a well aat an offset of aabout
55500 m from a shot. While th
he general charaacter of the gatthers is similarr, there are signnificant details in the gathers that show
thhe differences between the issotropic and an
nisotropic modeels. Both arrivaal times and reelative amplituddes of events ddiffer
bbetween the tw
wo gathers. Usin
ng an isotropicc earth model to
o image data coollected in an aanisotropic earrth will lead to not only
ppoor image quaality but to inco
orrect positionss for targets.

F
Figure 4. (Left) P-wave
P
velocity
y in isotropic ac
coustic model, which
w
is the sam
me as the P-wa
ave velocity alon
ng the axis of s
symmetry in
the TTI model, at one of the VSP
V
wells, welll 2, (middle) Ve
ertical compone
ent of accelera
ation simulated in the isotropiic model at
w
wellbore 2 posiition due to a shot located at
a an offset of approximately 5.5 km East o
of the well (righ
ht) Vertical com
mponent of
a
acceleration sim
mulated in the TT
TI model.

D
Due to the mulltidisciplinary character
c
of th
he datasets thatt are being colllected using siimulation on thhe SEAM moddel, the use
oof joint inversiion schemes to
o characterize petroleum reg
gions can also be tested usinng the resultinng datasets. Foor example,
w
while seismic is
i generally considered to pro
ovide excellen
nt images of resservoir regionss, the ability too distinguish thhe types of
ffluids present in
n a reservoir may
m not be succcessful when using
u
seismic im
maging alone. By combiningg seismic with Controlled
S
Source EM inv
versions, it may
y be possible to
o distinguish beetween the typ es of fluids wiithin a potentiaal reservoir beccause of the

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differences in resistivity between brine and petroleum. The use of joint inversion has been investigated in the exploration
geophysics community and the hope is that the SEAM model datasets can be used to further explore such inversion. An
initial test of joint inversion using the SEAM model has already been reported (Fliedner et al., 2011).
Conclusions
Exploration and development in deepwater regions is improving rapidly as new data acquisition and processing schemes are
developed and tested. Acquisition improvements have been made not only by changing the geometry of acquisition but also
by the collection of CSEM, gravity, and MT data to complement the seismic acquisition. Data processing improvements
include advances in seismic imaging algorithms, the use of methods that can account for anisotropy, and combined
geophysical analysis such as is currently being explored through the use of joint seismic-EM-gravity processing and
interpretation. The use of elastic processing is probably not too far in the future. SEAM, with the assistance of RPSEA is
helping to facilitate these advances by providing realistic, large datasets that have been simulated on a single geologically
consistent and complex model.
Acknowledgements
This work was conducted using funding provided by the Ultra-deepwater program of the Research Partnership to Secure
Energy for America (RPSEA Subcontract No. 07121-2001) and the SEAM Phase I research consortium. SEAM is grateful to
RPSEA for their continued support of our work. The work reported here involved the efforts of many staff from SEAM
participating companies who donated their time and expertise. We thank them for their input and work that have facilitated
the success of the SEAM project.
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Fliedner, M., Treitel, S., Frenkel, M., and MacGregor, L., Fast stochastic inversion of marine CSEM and seismic data with the
Neighbourhood Algorithm, 81th Ann. Inter-nat. Mtg. Soc. Expl. Geophys., Expanded Abstracts, 30, 2517-2522.
Kapoor, S.J. , Moldoveanu, N., and Vigh, D., 2010, Subsalt imaging using wide azimuth data, expanded abstract, Offshore Technology
Conference, DOI: 10.4043/20935-MS.
Lu, S., Whitmore, D, Valenciano, A. and Chemingui, N. 2011, Imaging of primaries and multiples with 3D SEAM synthetic, 81th Ann.
Inter-nat. Mtg. Soc. Expl. Geophys., Expanded Abstracts, 30, 3217-3221.
Mayhan , J., Terenghi, P., Weglein, A. and Chemingui, N., 2011, Green's theorem derived methods for preprocessing seismic data when the
pressure P and its normal derivative are measured, 81th Ann. Inter-nat. Mtg. Soc. Expl. Geophys., Expanded Abstracts, 30, 3500-3504.
Reta-Tang, C., Simmons, J., Whiteside, W., Cai, J., Camp, R., and Yang, H., 2011,A case study: Improved subsalt imaging through TTI
model building and imaging of a WAZ survey in the Gulf of Mexico, SEG, Expanded Abstracts, 30 , no. 1, 3943-3947.
Song, X., Baumstein, A. and Routh, P., 2011, Resolution analysis for full wavefield inversion and its application to time-lapse, 81th Ann.
Inter-nat. Mtg. Soc. Expl. Geophys., Expanded Abstracts, 30, 2597-2602.
Stork, C. Compton, S. and Heuermann, P., 2011, RTM images from SEAM data show interesting features, 81th Ann. Inter-nat. Mtg. Soc.
Expl. Geophys., Expanded Abstracts, 30, 3196-3200.
Wang, S., Xia, J., Situ, Y., de Hoop, M. and Li, X., 2011, Efficient parallel algorithms for Hierarchically Semi Separable (HSS) matrices:
Kernel of a massively parallel structured direct Helmholtz solver, 81th Ann. Inter-nat. Mtg. Soc. Expl. Geophys., Expanded Abstracts,
30, 2523-2527.